• Title, Summary, Keyword: 항상화 효소

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Microbial Synthesis of Physiologically Active Compounds (미생물반응을 이용한 생리활성 물질의 합성)

  • 이상섭
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 1977
  • 지구상에서 생합성된 천연물은 완급의 차이는 있겠으나 궁극적으로는 CO$_{2}$ H$_{2}$O, NH$_{3}$ 등으로 다시 산화분해된다. 이 분해과정은 미생물의 효소반응으로 이루어지며 생물권의 항상성도 일차적으로는 미생물의 이 산화분해작용으로 유지된다고 볼 수 있다. 미생물이 영위하는 이러한 효소반응을 생리활성물질의 공업적합성에 이용한 초기의 예로는 부현피질호르몬의 합성과정에서 Rhizopus nigricans를 사용한 수산화반응과 ascorbic acid 합성과정에서 Acetobacter xylinum을 사용한 탈수반응이 유명하며 이러한 반응은 아직도 이용되고있다. 특히 지난 십수년간의 응용미생물학의 발전은 대단한 것이며 여러가지 항생물질, 당질, amino산, 핵산관련물질들이 생리활성물질과 함께 발효법으로 생산되고 있다. 그러나 이글에서 다루는 미생반응은 발효과정에서 생산되는 미생물자체의 일차적 대사산물 (primary metabolite)이나 이차적대사산물 (secondary metabolite)를 대상으로 한것이 아니며 어디까지나 외부에서 공급되는 화학물질에 대한 균체의 효소반응산물을 목적물로 하고있다. 또한 근래 활발히 이용되는 균체고정및 효소고정법을 이용한 효소공학적수법도 제외하고 배양과정의 균체 또는 배양후의 군체를 이용한 미생물반응에 한정코저 한다.

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The Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Blood components, Antioxidant enzymes and Reactive Oxygen in Hyperlipidemic Rats (맥동전자장이 고지혈증 흰쥐의 혈액 성분, 항산화 효소 및 활성 산소에 미치는 영향)

  • Bang, Hyun-Soo;Jeong, In-Ho;Lee, Sang-Deok
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 2014
  • The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of the application of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the blood components associated hyperlipidemia, antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen. The subjects were divided into three groups: General Diet, High fat Diet, High fat diet and pulsed electromagnetic fields. Pulsed electromagnetic field was applied with pulsed electromagnetic energy therapy equipment. The Glucose, free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin was used to measure hyperlipidemia-related blood components, and the GSH, GRD, XO and MDA was used to measure antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen. The applied pulsed electromagnetic field has improved the concentrations of blood components and increasing GSH and GRD, that were decreased due to a high-fat diet and by reducing the increased MDA and XO to a level of general diet group. Therefore, the applied pulsed electromagnetic field can be the effective treatment for changes in the blood composition of hyperlipidemic rats, enhancement of antioxidative activity and the inhibition of reactive oxygen.

Synergistic Effects of extracts from Korean Red ginseng, Saururus chinensis(Lour.) Baill. and Rubus coreanus Miq. on Antioxidative Activities in Rats (흰쥐의 항산화 활성에 미치는 홍삼, 삼백초, 복분자 추출물의 상승효과)

  • Choe, Myeon;Shin, Geon-Jae;Choi, Geun-Pyo;Do, Jae-Ho;Kim, Jong-Dai
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2003
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of Korean Red ginseng(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) extracts on antioxidative activities in Sprague-Dawley rats. This study also evaluated the synergistic effect of Korean red ginseng(RG) extracts with Saururus chinensis(Lour.) Baill(SC). and Rubus coreanus Miq.(RC) extracts. Experimental groups were divided into supplementation type(RG extracts, RG with SC and RC extracts) and amounts of extracts. Rats were received drinking water with or without RG, RC and SC extracts for eight weeks. In the antioxidant enzyme activities of liver cytosol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly increased in RG groups and RG with SC and RC groups compared to control group. The antioxidative activities were increased in proportion to supplementation period and amounts of extracts. These results suggest that RG, RC and SC extracts have an beneficial effect to enhance the cellular antioxidant activities in rats.

The Study of Hepatic Antioxidative Enzyme Activity and Eletrophoresis in Mice After Treatment with Paraquat and/(or) Ginseng Saponins (Paraquat를 투여한 생쥐 간에서 홍삼 사포닌의 항상화 효소 활성과 전기영동에 관한 연구)

  • Chun, Chul;Kim, Dong-Jo;Sung, Kum-Soo;Kim, Jong-Hwan;Kim, Ji-Sik;Chang, Che-chul
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.150-155
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    • 2001
  • This study examined effects of the active ingredients from ginseng on paraquat(PQ) toxitity. Mice were given PQ(25mg/kg, ip) and then they were given total saponins (TS; 5mg/kg, orally), protopanaxadiol (PD; 5mg/kg, orally) and protopanaxatriol(PT; 5mg/kg, orally) per day for periods of 1,3 & 7 days. We measured the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), electrophoretic isozyme band, catalase (CAT) were compared in the liver of mouse that dose with PQ and/or TS, PD and PT. The activities of SOD, CAT were generally higher in PQ+PD group than others groups. Especially the activity of SOD was the highest in PQ+PD group than others groups. SOD isozyme separated into three bands by electrophoresis. One band was located to near the anode side and two bands were cathode side. As the results of treated with KCN, we were confiremed that the Cu, Zn-SOD was located to near the anode side but the Mn-SOD were cathode side. Our results suggested that an antioxidant effect of ginseng saponins elevated a protection ability to an oxidative damage by direct action of SOD, CAT and reinforced the synthetic ability of endogenous antioxidant material in living organism. Particularly, PD was a effective antioxidant compared with others.

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The Effect of Kimchi Intake on Production of Free Radicals and Anti-oxidative Enzyme Activities in the Liver of SAM (김치가 노화촉진 쥐 간의 유리기 생성 및 항산화효소 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김종현;권명자;이소영;류재두;문갑순;최홍식;송영옥
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of kimchi intake on antiaging characteristics in liver of senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) in terms of free radical production and anti-oxidative enzyme activities. Two hundred twenty SAM were divided into four groups and fed kimchi diet for 12 months. Experimental groups were kimchi free AIN-76 diet (control) group, Korean cabbage kimchi diet (KCK) group, mustard leaf added (30%) Korean cabbage kimchi diet (MKCK) group, and mustard leaf kimchi diet (MLK) group. Amount of freez-dried kimchi added to the diet was 5% that is equivalent to 50 g of fresh kimchi. Concentrations of total free radical, OH radical, $H_2O$$_2$in the liver significantly increased as aged (p<0.05). But those free radical concentrations from kimchi diet groups were lower than those of control (p<0.05). Among kimchi groups, MKCK and MLK groues showed greater inhibiting effect than KCK. Antioxidant enzyme activities of Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GSH-px, catalase and GSH/GSSG in kimchi groups were significantly increased (P

Protein Kinases Involved in the Regulation of Wnt/β-catenin Signaling (Wnt/β-catenin 신호를 조절하는 인산화 효소)

  • Shin, Eun-Young;Park, Edmond Changkyun;Hong, Yeonhee;Kim, Gun-Hwa
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.947-954
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    • 2013
  • The Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling network that is critical for embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance. In addition, aberrant activation of Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling is implicated in the formation of various human diseases, including cancers. Thus, study of the underlying molecular mechanism of Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling regulation is important to understand and treat diseases. Inhibition of aberrant Wnt pathway activity in cancer cell lines efficiently blocks their growth, highlighting the great potential of therapeutics designed to achieve this in cancer patients. Recently, protein kinases have emerged as key regulating components of Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling. In this review, we provide the most recent information on Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling, describe protein kinases involved in Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling, and discuss their potential as drug targets.

The Effect of Antioxidant Vitamins on Liver Function Enzymes and Hepatic Damage of Aflatoxin $B_1$ treated mice (Aflatoxin $B_1$ 투여 마우스의 간 기능 효소 및 간 손상에 미치는 항 산화비타민의 효과)

  • Park, Seon-Ja;Park, Jung-Hyun;Park, Jong-Sun;Seo, Sook-Jae;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 2000
  • Aflatoxin $B_1(AFB_1)$ is a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin in human beings. It is accumulated in animal tissues and injured cell through variable metabolic pathway. This study was conducted to determine the effect of antioxidant vitamins on liver function enzymes and hepatic damage of $AFB_1$ treated mice. The 6 weeks old male ICR mice were randomly separated 6 groups, vehicle solvent or vitamin C(10 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E(63.8 mg/kg/day) were administered by intraperitoneal(i.p.) injection and 1 hr later, vehicle solution(DMSO) or $AFB_1$(0.4 mg/kg) were injected. The results obtained as follow ; The levels of liver function enzymes such as GOT, GPT, LDH, and alkaline phosphatase, in sera of mice were remarkably elevated by treatment with $AFB_1$ only. However, those enzymes were significantly alleviated by co-treatment with antioxidant vitamins(p<0.01). Especially the levels of LDH and ALK phosphatase were similar to those of control groups(p<0.01). The transmission electron microscopy(TEM) image of intracellular microrganelles on the liver cell of mice was also degenerated extremely by treatment with $AFB_1$, but vitamin C and vitamin E gave good effects on cellular deformation. The intracellular microrganelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and nucleic membrane were nearly disappeared the cellular deformation by antioxidant vitamins co-administration. With above results, we could estimated that antioxidant vitamins blocked AFB1 induced hepatic cell damage.

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Antioxidative Characteristics of Dihydroxyphenylalanine, Melanin and Enzymatic Browning Reaction Products of Tyrosine in a Model System (Dihydroxyphenylalanine, Melanin 및 Tyrosine의 효소적 산화반응생성물질의 항산화 특성)

  • Hong-Sik Cheigh;Soo-Hyoun Um;Hae-Gyoung Kim;Chang Y. Lee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.409-414
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    • 1995
  • Antioxidative characteristics of dihydroxyphenylalalnine(DOPA), melanin and enzymatic oxidation products of tyrosine(EOPTs) were studied in a model system. EOPTs were prepared by the tyrosine-tyrosinase reaction at pH 6.5 and $25^{\circ}C$ at various time intervals(0~120min). All EOPTs were brown in varied intensities with increased absorption at 200~210, 280, 310~320nm, and 450~490nm. EOPTs obtaiend at the early stage of the reaction(1~3min especially) showed a higher antioxidative activity than those from the later stage on the inhibition of peroxide, conjugated dienoic acid and malonaldehyde formations in linoleic acid autoxidation. Additionally among the substances of tyrosine, DOPA and melanin, DOPA showed the highest antioxidative activity while that of tyrosine was the lowest during the linoleic acid autooxidation. It was observed that DOPA and melanin had the ability of free radical scavenging, which may party contribute to their antioxidative activity.

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Epigenomic Alteration in Replicative Senescent-mesenchymal Stem Cells (중간엽줄기세포의 노화에 따른 후생유전학적 변화)

  • Oh, Youn Seo;Cho, Goang-Won
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.724-731
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    • 2015
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are characterized by their multipotency capacity, which allows them to differentiate into diverse cell types (bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, and neuron-like cells) and secrete a variety of trophic factors (ANG, FGF-2, HGF, IGF-1, PIGF, SDF-1α, TGF-β, and VEGF). MSCs can be easily isolated from human bone-marrow, fat, and umbilical-cord tissues. These features indicate that MSCs might be of use in stem-cell therapy. However, MSCs undergo cellular senescence during long-term expansion, and this is accompanied by functional declines in stem-cell potency. In the human body, because of their senescence and declines in their microenvironmental niches stem cells fail to maintain tissue homeostasis, and as a result, senescent cells accumulate in tissues. This can lead to age-related diseases, including degenerative disorders and cancers. Recent studies suggest that the number of histone modifications to stem cells’ genomes and aberrant alterations to their DNA methylation increase as stem cells progress into senescence. These epigenetic alterations have been partly reversed with treatments in which DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are introduced into replicative senescent-MSCs. This review focuses on epigenetic alteration in replicative senescent-MSCs and explains how epigenetic modifications are widely associated with stem-cell senescences such as differentiation, proliferation, migration, calcium signaling, and apoptosis.