• Title/Summary/Keyword: 화학

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Experimental Investigation of Stannite-Sphalerite System In Relation to Ores (황석석일섬아연석계(黃錫石一閃亞鉛石系)의 실험연구(實驗硏究)와 천연건물(天然鍵物)에의 활용(活用))

  • Lee, Jae Yeong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-23
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    • 1975
  • The subject of this study deals with phase relations between stannite ($Cu_2FeSnS_4$) and sphalerite (${\beta}-ZnS$)/wurtzite (${\alpha}-ZnS$). The phase relations were systematically investigated from liquidus temperature to $400^{\circ}C$ under controlled conditions. ${\beta}-stannite$ (tetragonal) is stable up to $706{\pm}5^{\circ}C$, where it inverts to a high-temperature polymorph ${\alpha}-stannite$ (cubic) melting congruently at $867{\pm}5^{\circ}C$. Sphalerite (cubic, ${\beta}-ZnS$) inverts at $1013{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ to wurtzite, which is the hexagonal hightemperature polymorph of ZnS. Between ${\alpha}-stannite$ and sphalerite a complete solid solution series exists above approximately $870^{\circ}C$ up to solidus temperature. The melting temperature of ${\alpha}-stannite$ rises towards sphalerite and reaches a maximum at $1074{\pm}3^{\circ}C$, which is the peritectic with the composition of 91 wt. % sphalerite and 9 wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$. At this temperature, wurtzite takes only 5wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$ in solid solution which decreases with increasing temperature. The inverson temperature of ${\alpha}/{\beta}-stannite$ is lowered with increasing amounts of sphalerite in solid solution down to $614{\pm}7^{\circ}C$, which is the eutectoid with the composition of 13 wt. % sphalerite and 87 wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$. Here, ${\beta}-stannite$ contains only 10wt. % sphalerite in solid solution. With decreasing temperature, the ranges of the solid solution on both sides of the system narrow. The phase relations in the above pure system changed due to the FeS impurities in the sphalerite solid solution. The eutectoid increased from $614{\pm}7^{\circ}C$ up to $695{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ (5 wt. % FeS) and $700{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ (10wt. % FeS), while the peritectic decreased from $1074{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ down to $1036{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ (wt. %FeS) and $987{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ (10wt. %FeS). A most notable change is the appearance of non-binary regions. An important feature is the combination of this study system with the experimental results reported by Sprinfer (1972). If a stannite-kesterite solid solution is used in the place of stannite as a bulk composition, the inversion temperature is lowered to less than $400^{\circ}C$ which belongs to temperatures of the hydrothermal region.

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Phase Equilibria of the System Pd-Sb-Te and Its Geological Implications (팔라듐-안티몬-테루르 계(系)의 상평형(相平衡)과 지질학적(地質學的) 의의(意義))

  • Kim, Won-Sa;Chao, George Y.
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.327-335
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    • 1993
  • Phase relations in the system Pd-Sb-Te were investigated at $1000^{\circ}$, $800^{\circ}$, and $600^{\circ}C$, using the sealed-capsule technique; the quenched products were studied by reflected light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis. At $1000^{\circ}C$, the solid phases Pd, $Pd_{20}Sb_7$, $Pd_8Sb_3$, $Pd_{31}Sb_{12}$, and $Pd_5Sb_2$ are stable with a liquid phase that occupies most of the isothermal diagram. Additional solid phases at $800^{\circ}C$ are $Pd_5Sb_3$, PdSb, $Pd_8Te_3$, $Pd_7Te_3$, and a continuous $Pd_{20}Te_7-Pd_{20}Sb_7$ solid solution becomes stable. At $600^{\circ}$, $PdSb_2$, $Pd_{17}Te_4$, $Pd_9Te_4$, PdTe, $PdTe_2$, $Sb_2Te_3$, and Sb and continuous PdSb-PdTe and $PdTe-PdTe_2$ solid solutions are stable. All the solid phases exhibit solid solution, mainly by substitution between Sb and Te to an extent that varies with temperature of formation. The maximum substitution (at.%) of Te for Sb in the Pd-Sb phases is: 44.3 in $Pd_8Sb_3$, 52.0 in $Pd_{31}Sb_{12}$, 46.2 in $Pd_5Sb_2$ at $800^{\circ}C$; 15.3 in $Pd_5Sb_3$, 68.3 in $PdSb_2$ at $600^{\circ}C$. The maximum substitution (at.%) of Sb for Te in the Pd-Te phases is 34.5 in $Pd_5Sb_3$ at $800^{\circ}C$, and 41.6 in $Pd_7Te_3$, 5.2 in $Pd_{17}T_4$, 12.4 in $Pd_9Te_4$, and 19.1 in $PdTe_2$ at $600^{\circ}C$. Physical properties and X-ray data of the synthetic $Pd_9Te_4$, PdTe, $PdTe_2$, $Pd_8Sb_3$, PdSb, and $Sb_2Te_3$ correspond very well with those of telluropalladinite, kotulskite, merenskyite, mertieite II, sudburyite, and tellurantimony, respectively. Because X-ray powder diffraction data consistently reveal a 310 peak ($2.035{\AA}$), the $PdSb_2$ phase is most probably of cubic structure with space group $P2_13$. The X-ray powder pattern of a phase with PdSbTe composition, synthesized at $600^{\circ}C$, compares well with that of testibipalladite. Therefore, testibiopalladite may be a member of the $PdSb_2-Pd(Sb_{0.32}Te_{0.68})$ solid solution series which is cubic and $P2_13$ in symmetry. Thus the ideal fonnula for testibiopalladite, presently PdSbTe, must be revised to PdTe(Sb, Te). Borovskite($pd_3SbTe_4$) has not been found in the synthetic system in the temperature range $1000^{\circ}-600^{\circ}C$.

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IR Study on the Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on Silica Supported Ruthenium-Nickel Alloy (실리카 지지 루테늄-니켈 합금에 있어서 일산화탄소의 흡착에 관한 IR 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Youn;Yoon, Dong-Wook
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 2006
  • We have investigated adsorption and desorption properties of CO adsorption on silica supported Ru/Ni alloys at various Ru/Ni mole content ratio as well as CO partial pressures using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). For Ru-$SiO_{2}$ sample, four bands were observed at $2080.0cm^{-1}$, $2021.0{\sim}2030.7cm^{-1}$, $1778.9{\sim}1799.3cm^{-1}$, $1623.8cm^{-1}$ on adsorption and three bands were observed at $2138.7cm^{-1}$, $2069.3cm^{-1}$, $1988.3{\sim}2030.7cm^{-1}$ on vacumn desorption. For Ni-$SiO_{2}$ sample, four bands were observed at $2057.7cm^{-1}$, $2019.1{\sim}2040.3cm^{-1}$, $1862.9{\sim}1868.7cm^{-1}$, $1625.7cm^{-1}$ on adsorption and two bands were observed at $2009.5{\sim}2040.3cm^{-1}$, $1828.4{\sim}1868.7cm^{-1}$ on vacumn desorption. These absorption bands correspond with those of the previous reports approximately. For Ru/Ni(9/1, 8/2, 7/3, 6/4, 5/5; mole content ratio)-$SiO_{2}$ samples, three bands were observed at $2001.8{\sim}2057.7cm^{-1}$, $1812.8{\sim}1926.5cm^{-1}$, $1623.8{\sim}1625.7cm^{-1}$ on adsorption and three bands were observed at $2140.6cm^{-1}$, $2073.1cm^{-1}$, $1969.0{\sim}2057.7cm^{-1}$ on vacumn desorption. The spectrum pattern observed for Ru/Ni-$SiO_{2}$ sample at 9/1 Ru/Ni mole content ratio on CO adsorption and on vacumn desorption is almost like the spectrum pattern observed for Ru-$SiO_{2}$ sample. But the spectrum patterns observed for Ru/Ni-$SiO_{2}$ samples under 8/2 Ru/Ni mole content ratio on CO adsorption and vacumn desorption are almost like the pattern observed for $Ni-SiO_{2}$ sample. It may be suggested surfaces of alloy clusters on the Ru/Ni-$SiO_{2}$ samples contain more Ni components than the mole content ratio of the sample considering the above phenomena. With Ru/Ni-$SiO_{2}$ samples the absorption band shifts may be ascribed to variations of surface concentration, strain variation due to atomic size difference, variation of bonding energy and electronic densities, and changes of surface geometries according to surface concentration variation. Studies for CO adsorption on Ru/Ni alloy cluster surface by LEED and Auger spectroscopy, interation between Ru/Ni alloy cluster and $SiO_{2}$, and MO calculation for the system would be needed to look into the phenomena.

Preparation and Characterization of Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Bread Enriched with Two Types of Wild Grape Extract (제조방법이 다른 두 종류의 머루즙 첨가가 빵의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Byung-Yong;Lee, Malp-Eum;O, Jin-Hwan;Kim, Eun-Cho;Surh, Jeong-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.636-648
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    • 2010
  • Two types of wild grape extracts(WGE) prepared by different methods were added into butter-top bread at different concentrations(0, 5, 10, 15, 20% of water). Then, the resulting breads were analyzed for their physicochemical and sensory properties in order to identify whether or not the WGE-enriched breads were comparable to control bread in terms of qualities and preferences. Wild grape sugar mixture(WGS), which was prepared by osmotic dehydration of wild grape fruits with the same amounts of sugar, presented significantly lower moisture content and titratable acidity as well as higher pH and sugar content compared to wild grape juice(WGJ), which was produced by boiling the fruits in a vacuum jar and squeezing. The pH of the doughs and breads containing WGE tended to decrease with increasing amounts of WGE, and this phenomenon was more appreciable in those containing WGJ than WGS. This was presumably due to the higher contents of tartaric acid in WGJ. For both types of extracts, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the doughs decreased with the addition of WGE, nevertheless, which properties were not remained in the resulting breads. This could be partially attributed to the relatively high degree of baking loss and lower pH of the WGE-enriched breads than those of control bread. Contrary to the mechanical analyses, the sensory properties of the breads were dependent on the WGE type. That is, WGJ-enriched bread showed lower consistency and moistness than control bread, which consequently led to relatively lower overall acceptability. However, WGS addition did not adversely affect the sensory properties of the bread. In particular, addition of 5% WGS somewhat improved the physical and sensory qualities of the bread. Thus, WGE-enriched bread could be produced without loss of bread quality when prepared with 5% WGS.

The 1998, 1999 Patterns of Care Study for Breast Irradiation after Mastectomy in Korea (1998, 1999년도 우리나라에서 시행된 근치적 유방 전절제술 후 방사선치료 현황 조사)

  • Keum,, Ki-Chang;Shim, Su-Jung;Lee, Ik-Jae;Park, Won;Lee, Sang-Wook;Shin, Hyun-Soo;Chung, Eun-Ji;Chie, Eui-Kyu;Kim, Il-Han;Oh, Do-Hoon;Ha, Sung-Whan;Lee, Hyung-Sik;Ahn, Sung-Ja
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2007
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: To determine the patterns of evaluation and treatment in patients with breast cancer after mastectomy and treated with radiotherapy. A nationwide study was performed with the goal of improving radiotherapy treatment. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: A web- based database system for the Korean Patterns of Care Study (PCS) for 6 common cancers was developed. Randomly selected records of 286 eligible patients treated between 1998 and 1999 from 17 hospitals were reviewed. $\underline{Results}$: The ages of the study patients ranged from 20 to 80 years (median age 44 years). The pathologic T stage by the AJCC was T1 in 9.7% of the cases, T2 in 59.2% of the cases, T3 in 25.6% of the cases, and T4 in 5.3% of the cases. For analysis of nodal involvement, N0 was 7.3%, N1 was 14%, N2 was 38.8%, and N3 was 38.5% of the cases. The AJCC stage was stage I in 0.7% of the cases, stage IIa in 3.8% of the cases, stage IIb in 9.8% of the cases, stage IIIa in 43% of the cases, stage IIIb in 2.8% of the cases, and IIIc in 38.5% of the cases. There were various sequences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy after mastectomy. Mastectomy and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy was the most commonly performed sequence in 47% of the cases. Mastectomy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy followed by additional chemotherapy was performed in 35% of the cases, and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed in 12.5% of the cases. The radiotherapy volume was chest wall only in 5.6% of the cases. The volume was chest wall and supraclavicular fossa (SCL) in 20.3% of the cases; chest wall, SCL and internal mammary lymph node (IMN) in 27.6% of the cases; chest wall, SCL and posterior axillary lymph node in 25.9% of the cases; chest wall, SCL, IMN, and posterior axillary lymph node in 19.9% of the cases. Two patients received IMN only. The method of chest wall irradiation was tangential field in 57.3% of the cases and electron beam in 42% of the cases. A bolus for the chest wall was used in 54.8% of the tangential field cases and 52.5% of the electron beam cases. The radiation dose to the chest wall was $45{\sim}59.4\;Gy$ (median 50.4 Gy), to the SCL was $45{\sim}59.4\;Gy$ (median 50.4 Gy), and to the PAB was $4.8{\sim}38.8\;Gy$, (median 9 Gy) $\underline{Conclusion}$: Different and various treatment methods were used for radiotherapy of the breast cancer patients after mastectomy in each hospital. Most of treatment methods varied in the irradiation of the chest wall. A separate analysis for the details of radiotherapy planning also needs to be followed and the outcome of treatment is needed in order to evaluate the different processes.

On the Wood Properties of Genus Pinus Grown in Korea (소나무속(屬)의 재질(材質)에 관(關)한 시험(試驗))

  • Jo, Jae-Myeong;Kang, Sun-Goo;Ahn, Jung-Mo;Lee, Chan-Ho;Jo, Nam-Suk;Shim, Chong-Supp;Jung, Hee-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.96-108
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    • 1982
  • Pinus is one of the most important species supplying domestic industrial timbers such as constitutional lumber, pulpwood, and mine props. It occupies nearly 50 percent of the total forest resources in Korea. With above conception, to develop this forest resources and to obtain the basic data on the reasonable and effective utilization of Pinus, this study was carried out. Five species (P. koraiensis S. et Z., P. densiflora S. et Z., P. thunbergii Parlat, P. densiflara far erecta, P. rigida Miller) grown in Kwangnoong experimental forest stand, Chungcheongnam-Do, and Gangwon-Do regions were selected as sample trees. Anatomical, physical, mechanical and chemical properties of them were investigated.

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A Studs on Farmers Syndrome and Its Risk Factors of Vinylhouse Workers and Evaluation of Risk Factors of Vinylhouse Works (일부 농촌지역 비닐하우스 농사자들의 작업환경 및 농부증 실태와 관련요인평가)

  • Lee, Jung-Jeung
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.101-119
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: In order to estimate risk factors affecting the health of vinylhouse workers and harmful environments in vinylhouse working. Methods: The investigator performed questionnaires and laboratory examinations on 102 vinylhouse workers and 69 farmers in 7 myoens (Korean subcounties). one eup (a Korean town), Goryeong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do between April 8 and 18, 2004 (for 11 days), and measured the heavy metal in the air and the soil, temperature, humidity, air current, harmful gases in vinylhouses. Results: Even in cloudy days, the temperature in vinylhouses in daylight was $33.4^{\circ}$ and the temperature difference between inside and outside vinylhouses was around $16^{\circ}$. Oxygen concentration was similar inside and outside vinylhouses, while carbon dioxide concentration was lower inside than outside vinylhouses. Carbon monoxide was not detected. In the air inside vinylhouses, cadmium was not detected. Lean concentration in the soil was lower inside vinylhouses than outside vinylhouses at surface, while cadmium concentration was similar inside and outside vinylhouses in the soil except some areas. Out of male vinylhouse workers. 16.4---- were positive farmer's syndrome and 49.2---- were suspicious, while out of females, 41.5---- were positive and 46.3---- were suspicious. Out of male farmers, 30.4---- were positive farmer's syndrome, while out of female farmers, 60.0---- were positive and 28.3---- were suspicious. There was no difference between vinylhouse workers and farmers in the distribution of hypertension and abnormal liver function, while diabetes mellitus was more common in farmers than in vinylhouse workers. Vinylhouse working, sex, and hours of farming per day were selected as significant variables affecting farmer's syndrome in this study, and the rate of positive farmer's syndrome was rather lower in vinylhouse workers than in farmers. Females were higher than males in the rate, and those who farmed at least 10 hours per day were higher in the rate than those who farmed less than 10 hours per day. Out of the vinylhouse workers, no differences were found between the distribution of farmer's syndrome and farming-related variables such as the total period of farming, the size of farm land, the mean farming hours per day, the number of family members who farm together, the frequency of scattering agricultural chemicals. In addition, there were no differences between the distribution and the wearing masks and protectors and personal sanitation among those who scattered agricultural chemicals by themselves. There were no differences found in blood lean concentration, urinary cadmium concentration, serum cholinesterase, and hemoglobin according to the distribution of farmer's syndrome. In the vinylhouse workers, females were higher than males in the rate of farmer's syndrome, and those who farmed at least 10 hours per day were higher in the rate than those who farmed less than 10 hours per day. Meanwhile, the rate was lower in those who slept at least 8 hours a day than in those who slept less than 8 hours. Conclusions: In conclusion, the physical environments inside vinylhouses were harmful, but no significant difference was found in harmfulness of the chemical environments. The chronic diseases such as farmer's syndrome. hypertension, diabetes, and dyshepatia were not common in the vinylhouse workers than in the farmers. Meanwhile, farmer's syndrome was more common in the vinylhouse workers who worked longer and slept less.

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Influence of Age on The Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Patients with Exudative Pleural Effusion (연령의 증가가 삼출성 흉수 Adenosine Deaminase 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yeon, Kyu-Min;Kim, Chong-Ju;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Kim, Chi-Hoon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.530-541
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    • 2002
  • Background : Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity can be helpful in a differntial diagnosis of an exudative pleural effusion because it is increased in a tuberculous pleural effusion. The ADA activity is determined mainly by the lymphocyte function. Age-associated immune decline is characterized by a decrease in T-lymphocyte function. For that reason, the pleural fluid ADA level would be lower in older patients with exudative pleural effusion. This study focused on the influence of age on the pleural fluid ADA activity in patients with exudative pleural effusion. Methods : A total of 81 patients with exudative pleural effusion were enrolled in this study. In all patients, the pleural fluid ADA activity was measured using an automated kinetic method. Results : The mean age of the patients was $52.7{\pm}21.2$ years. In all patients with exudative pleural effusion, the pleural fluid ADA activity revealed a significant difference between young patients (under 65 years of age) and old patients (p<0.05), and showed a negative correlation with age (r=-0.325, p<0.05). In the 60 patients with a tuberculous pleural effusion, the pleural fluid ADA activity revealed a significant difference between the young and older patients : $103.5{\pm}36.9$ IU/L in young patients Vs. $72.2{\pm}31.6$ IU/L in old patients (p<0.05), and showed a negative correlation with age (r=-0.384, p<0.05). In the 21 patients with non-tuberculous exudative pleural effusion, the pleural fluid ADA activity of the young patients and old patients was similar : $23.7{\pm}15.3$ IU/L in young patients Vs. $16.1{\pm}10.2$ IU/L in old patients (p>0.05), and did not show any correlation with age (r=-0.263, p>0.05). The diagnostic cutoff value of pleural fluid ADA activity for tuberculous pleural effusion was lower in the older patients (25.9 IU/L) than in the younger patients (49.1 IU/L) or all patients (38.4 IU/L) with exudative pleural effusion. Conclusion : Tuberculous pleural effusion is an important possibility to consider in older patients with a clinical suspicion of a tuberculous pleural effusion, although no marked increase in the pleural fluid ADA activity is usually detected. For a diagnosis of a tuberculous pleural effusion in old patients, the cutoff for the pleural fluid ADA activity should be set lower.

Studies on the chemical composition of citrus fruits in Korea(II) -Changes of acid and sugar components with growth- (한국산(韓國産) 감귤류(柑橘類)의 화학성분(化學成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) (II) -주요품종별(主要品種別) 당(糖) 및 산조성(酸組成)의 시기별(時期別) 변화(變化)에 관(關)하여-)

  • Park, H.;Kim, Y.S.;Kim, Z.U.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.9
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    • pp.41-57
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    • 1968
  • Changes of acids (total, titratable and combined form) and sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) in the edible part and the rind of 17 varieties the in growing and ripening period were investigated. The results were summarized as follows. 1) The percentage of rind was notably decreased in growing period and slightly in the ripening period- It may suggest that the rates of translocation of metabolite from leaves to each part of fruit are different with growth phase. 2) The heavier the weight of fruit, the higher the percentage of rind was and the varieties having over 200 g per fruit showed the value over 30 in the rind percentage and over 15 in the number seeds per fruit. 3) Total acid contents in the rind were highest at the maximum grow th of fruit except in Citrus grandis having tie lowest value (below 20 me/100 g F.W). of total acid at maximum point in which total acid content is steadily increase. 4) Total acid and titratable acid in the edible part and total acid and combined acid in whole fruit life showed 0.933 and 0.970 of correlation coefficient significant at 1% level respectively, and most acid in the edible part was titratable acid(73%) whereas acid in the rind consists mostly of combined acid. 5) The content of combined acid in the ripening period increased in the edible part and decreased in the rind. It may be contributed to translocation of some cations from the rind to the edible part. 6) The grouping criteria on citrus fruit were applicable on melon, watermelon and tomatoes. 7) The contents of total sugar and non-reducing sugar in the edible part were continuously increased whereas the content of reducing sugar were decreased in certain varieties, notablly in citrus natsudaidai. The correlation coefficient between total sugar and reducing sugar in the edible part with ripening decreased as $0.849^{**},\;0.732^{**}.\;0.583^*$. ( $^{**}$: significant at 1% level and $^{*}:$: at 5%) 8) 61% of total sugar in the edible part was non-reducing sugar whereas 88% of total sugar in the rind was reducing form at the end of ripening and the correlation coefficient between total and non-reducing sugar in the edible part was 0.861 end total and reducing sugar in the rind was 0.972, both significant at 1% level. 9) Varieties having the percentage of the rind below 36 showed higher value than I in the ratio of total sugar in the edible part to one in the rind. It may suggest that there exists any intimate relation between relative sugar content and growth rate of fruit parts. 10) Citrus unshiu in Guje island showed lower values in the content of acid and sugar, and the rind percentage but higher sweetness index (the ratio of total sugar to titratable acid) comparing with the same variety in Jeiu.

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Changes of Distribution of Vascular Hydrophytes in the Nakdong River Estuary and Growth Dynamics of Schenoplectus triqueter, Waterfowl Food Plant (낙동강 하구의 수생관속식물의 분포 변화와 수금류(고니류)의 먹이식물인 세모고랭이의 성장 변화)

  • Kim, Gu-Yeon;Lee, Chan-Woo;Yoon, Hae-Soon;Joo, Gea-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.335-345
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    • 2005
  • A study on changes on the distribution of vascular hydrophytes and the growth pattern of Schenoplectus triqueter (Scirpus triqueter) was undertaken at the Nakdong River estuary from 2002 to 2004. The change was due to physical alteration of the estuary for the past 25 years. These plant species are the major food sources for winter waterfowl. A total of 32 species of vascular hydrophytes from 17 families were found in the West Nakdong River (freshwater), the main channel of Nakdong River (freshwater) and the Nakdong River Estuary (brackish water). After the construction of the barrage on the estuary in 1987, the number of hydrophytes has remarkably increased to 17 species (5 species in 1985) in the main channel of the River. In particular, a community of Eurale ferox was found at the backwater wetland of the Daejeo side of the main channel. The introduced species of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes that were epidemic in 2001 at West Nakdong River was not found any more. The other species such as Nymphoides indica, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ruppia spp. were rediscovered. The large area (about 1,300ha) of Zostera spp. was the main sources of food for swans, but disappeared because of direct and indirect impacts of reclamation in the River estuary. Currently, there remains a small patch of Zostera spp. and about 250ha of S. triqueter. Schenoplectus triqueter grew mostly between April-September and tuber formed, between September-October. The growth of S. triqueter up to $60\sim80cm$ in length was observed in 5 sites out of the 7 sites in brackish area. Tubers of S. triqueter were eaten by waterfowls such as swans as winter food. In five sites, tubers took $44\sim57%$ of total biomass in October. Tubers were found in deep layers; $5\sim15cm$ (9%), $15\sim25cm$ (28%), $25\sim40cm$ (55%), below 40cm $(6\sim7%)$. The distribution of vascular hydrophytes has remarkably changed in the Nakdong River Estuary due to the reclamation of the area. In order to determine the extent of changes of the distribution of these plants and the carrying capacity of the area for waterfowl, an intensive research is urgently needed.