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Role of Catecholamines in Ventricular Fibrillation (Catecholamines에 관(關)하여 -제4편(第四編) : 심실전동발생(心室顫動發生)에 있어서의 catecholamines의 의의(意義)-)

  • Lee, Woo-Choo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.15-35
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    • 1983
  • Although it has been well known that ventricular fibrillation is the most important complication during hypothermia, much investigation has failed to show the exact nature of the etiology of ventricular fibrillation. Recently, there has been considerable research on the relationship between sympathetic activity and ventricular fibrillation under hypothermia. Cardiac muscle normally contains a certain amount of norepinephrine and the dramatic effect of this catecholamines on the cardiac muscle is well documented. It is, therefore, conceivable that cardiac catecholamines might exert an influence on the susceptibility of heart muscle to tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and arrhythmia, under hypothermia. Hypothermia itself is stress enough to increase tonus of sympatheticoadrenal system. The normal heart is supplied by an autonomic innervation and is subjected to action of circulating catecholamines which may be released from the heart. If the reaction of the heart associated with a variable amount of cardiac catecholamines is. permitted to occur in the induction of hypothermia, the action of this agent on the heart has not to be differentiated from the direct effects of cooling. The studies presented in this paper were designed to provide further information about the cardio-physiological effects of reduced body temperature, with special reference to the role of catecholamines in ventricular fibrillation. Healthy cats, weighing about 3 kg, were anesthetized with pentobarbital(30 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The trachea was intubated and the endotracheal tube was connected to a C.F. Palmer type A.C. respirator. Hypothermia was induced by immersing the cat into a ice water tub and the rate of body temperature lowering was $1^{\circ}C$ per 5 to 8 min. Esophageal temperature and ECG (Lead II) were simultaneously monitored. In some cases the blood pH and serum sodium and potassium were estimated before the experiment. After the experiment the animals were killed and the hearts were excised. The catecholamines content of the cardiac muscle was measured by the method of Shore and Olin (1958). The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1) In control animal the heart rate was slowed as the temperature fell and the average pulse rates of eight animals were read 94/min at $31^{\circ}C$, 70/min at $27^{\circ}C$ and 43/min at $23^{\circ}C$ if esophageal temperature. Ventricular fibrillation was occurred with no exception at a mean temperature of $20.3^{\circ}C(21-l9^{\circ}C)$. The electrocardiogram revealed abnormal P waves in each progressive cooling of the heart. there was, ultimately, a marked delay in the P-R interval, QRS complex and Q-T interval. Inversion of the T waves was characteristic of all animals. The catecholamines content of the heart muscle excised immediately after the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation was about thirty percent lower than that of the pre-hypothermic heart, that is, $1.0\;{\mu}g/g$ wet weight compared to the prehypothermic value of $1.41\;{\mu}g/g$ wet weight. The changes of blood pH, serum sodium and potassium concentration were not remarkable. 2) By the adrenergic receptor blocking agent, DCI(2-3 mg/kg), given intramuscularly thirty minutes before hypothermia, ventricular fibrillation did not occur in one of five animals when their body temperature was reduced even to $16^{\circ}C$. These animals succumbed at that low temperature, and the changes of heart rate and loss of myocardial catecholamines after hypothermia were similar to those of normal animals. The actual effect of DCI preventing the ventricular fibrillation is not predictable. 3) Administration of reserpine(1 mg/kg, i.m.) 24 hours Prior to hypothermia disclosed reduced incidence of ventricular fibrillation, that is, six of the nine animals went into fibrillation at an average temperature of $19.6^{\circ}C$. By reserpine myocardial catecholamines content dropped to $0.045\;{\mu}g/g$ wet weight. 4) Bretylium pretreatment(20 mg/kg, i.m.), which blocks the release of catecholamines, Prevented the ventricular fibrillation under hypothermia in four of the eight cats. The pulse rate, however, was approximately the same as control and in some cases was rather slower. 5) Six cats treated with norepinephrine(2 mg/kg, i.m.) or DOPA(50 mg/kg) and tranylcypromine(10 mg/kg), which tab teen proved to cause significant increase in the catecholamines content of the heart muscle, showed ventricular fibrillation in all animals under hypothermia at average temperature of $21.6^{\circ}C$ and the pulse rate increased remarkably as compared with that of normal. Catecholamines content of cardiac muscle of these animals markedly decreased after hypothermia but higher than control animals. 6) The functional refractory periods of isolated rabbit atria, determined by the paired stimulus technique, was markedly shortened by administration of epinephrine, norepinephrine and isoproterenol. 7) Adrenergic beta-blocking agents, such as pronethalol, propranolol and sotalol(MJ-1999), inhibited completely the shortening of refractory period induced by norepinephrine. 8) Pretreatment with either phenoxftenbamine or phentolamine, an adrenergic alphatlocking agent, did not modify the decrease in refractory period induced by norepinephrine. From the above experiment it is possible to conclude that catecholamines play an important role in producing ventricular fibrillation under hypothermia. The shortening of the refractorf period of cardiac muscle induced by catecholamines mar be considered as a partial factor in producing ventriculr fibrillaton and to be mediated by beta-adrenergic receptor.

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Forest Community Structure of Mt. Bukhan Area (북한산 지역의 삼림군집구조에 관한 연구)

  • 박인협;이경재;조재창
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-23
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    • 1987
  • To investigate the forest structure of Mt. Bukhan. ranging from Seoul to Kyongkido, twenty plots were set up by the vegetation physiognomy and vegetation analysis was carried out. According to the leading dominant tree species in canopy stratum, forest communities were classified into three large groups of natural forest communities, semi-natural forest communities and artificial forest communities, and each of them covered 82.64, 7.03, and 5.71% of Mt. Bukhan area, respectively. Pure or mixed natural forest communities of Pinus densiflora and Quercus mongolica were major forest communities and covered 70.8% of Mt. Bukhan area. The important planted tree species were Robinia pseudoacacia, Pinus rigida, and Alnus birsuta and they were mainly planted at the southern slope and roadside. The degree of human disturbance of vegetation of 8, 7, and 6 area covered 82.64, 0, and 12.74%, respectively. According to forest dimensions, most of forest communities were young aged forests of which mean DBH was 20cm and canopy height below 10m. However, a few mature forest communities of Pinus densiflora or Quercus mongolica were found in the small area. The range of Shannon's species diversity of major natural forest communities, pure or mixed forest communities of Pinus densiflora and Quercus mongolica was 1.085~1.242. According to stand dynamic analysis by DBH class distribution, the present Quercus mongolica communities arid Robinia pseudoacacia communities may last long their present forest structure and most of other communities may be succeeded to Quercus mongolica communities, however, a few communities invaded by Robinia pseudoacacia and Quercus aliena-Quercus acutissima communities may be succeeded to Robinia pseudoacacia communities and Quercus aliena communities, respectively. DCA was the most effective method of this study. DCA ordination were showed that successional trends of tree species seem to be from Pinus densiflora through Quercus serrata. Prunus sargrntii. Sorbus alnifolia to Q. mongolica. Fraxinus mandsburica, F. rhynchophylla in the upper layer and from Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Lespedeza crytobotrya trough Rhus trichocarpa. Rh. verniciflua. Rhododendron mucronulatum. Rh. schlippenbachii to Acer pseudo-sieboldianus. Magnolia sieboldii, Euonymus sieboldianus.

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Effect of micro-environment in ridge and southern slope on soil respiration in Quercus mongolica forest

  • Lee, Jae-Seok
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.210-218
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    • 2018
  • Background: Soil respiration (Rs) is a major factor of the absorption and accumulation of carbon through photosynthesis in the ecosystem carbon cycle. This directly affects the amount of net ecosystem productivity, which affects the stability and sustainability of the ecosystem. Understanding the characteristics of Rs is indispensable to scientifically understand the carbon cycle of ecosystems. It is very important to study Rs characteristics through analysis of environmental factors closely related to Rs. Rs is affected by various environmental factors, such as temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, litter supply, organic matter content, dominant plant species, and soil disturbance. This study was conducted to analyze the effects of micro-topographical differences on Rs in forest vegetation by measuring the Rs on the ridge and southern slope sites of the broadly established Quercus mongolica forest in the central Korean area. Method: Rs, Ts, and soil moisture data were collected at the southern slope and ridge of the Q. mongolica forest in the Mt. Jeombong area in order to investigate the effects of topographical differences on Rs. Rs was collected by the closed chamber method, and data collection was performed from May 2011 to October 2013, except Winter seasons from November to April or May. For collecting the raw data of Rs in the field, acrylic collars were placed at the ridge and southern slope of the forest. The accumulated surface litter and the soil organic matter content (SOMC) were measured to a 5 cm depth. Based on these data, the Rs characteristics of the slope and ridge were analyzed. Results: Rs showed a distinct seasonal variation pattern in both the ridge and southern slope sites. In addition, Rs showed a distinct seasonal variation with high and low Ts changes. The average Rs measurements for the two sites, except for the Winter periods that were not measured, were $550.1\;mg\;CO_2m^{-2}h^{-1}$ at the ridge site and $289.4\;mg\;CO_2m^{-2}h^{-1}$ at the southern slope, a difference of 52.6%. There was no significant difference in the Rs difference between slopes except for the first half of 2013, and both sites showed a tendency to increase exponentially as Ts increased. In addition, although the correlation is low, the difference in Rs between sites tended to increase as Ts increased. SMC showed a large fluctuation at the southern slope site relative to the ridge site, as while it was very low in 2013, it was high in 2011 and 2012. The accumulated litter of the soil surface and the SOMC at the depth range of 0~5 cm were $874g\;m^{-2}$ and 23.3% at the ridge site, and $396g\;m^{-2}$ and 19.9% at the southern slope site. Conclusions: In this study, Rs was measured for the ridge and southern slope sites, which have two different results where the surface litter layer is disturbed by strong winds. The southern slope site shows that the litter layer formed in autumn due to strong winds almost disappeared, and while in the ridge site, it became thick due to the transfer of litter from the southern slope site. The mean Rs was about two times higher in the ridge site compared to that in the southern slope site. The Rs difference seems to be due to the difference in the amount of litter accumulated on the soil surface. As a result, the litter layer supplied to the soil surface is disturbed due to the micro-topographical difference, as the slope and the change of the community structure due to the plant season cause heterogeneity of the litter layer development, which in turn affects SMC and Rs. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce and understand these micro-topographical features and mechanisms when quantifying and analyzing the Rs of an ecosystem.

A study on the flora of Gyeryongsan (계룡산의 자원식물상 연구)

  • Tho Jae-Hwa;Kim Dong-Kap;Tae Kyoung-Hwan;Kim Joo-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.85-116
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    • 2005
  • Gyeryongsan(845m) is located at $36^{\circ}\;18'\;02'\;-36^{\circ}\;23'\;38'$ in latitude, at $127^{\circ}\;11'\;60'-127^{\circ}\;17'\;86'$ in longitude and on Nonsan City and Gongju City in Chungnam Province. Gyeryongsan shows the typical vegetation patterns including the middle area of temperate region represented by the secondary forests of Quercus mongotica and Q. serrata. And we tried to discuss on the distribution and availability of vascular plants including economical plants. The results of plant collection and their investigation from April in 1998 to October in 2002 are as follows : The vascular plants consist of total 684 taxa; 3 hybrids, 12 forms, 84 varieties, 1 subspecies, 584 species, 357 genera, 100 families, 34 orders, 4 classes, 3 subphyla. In this area useful resources plants were 277 taxa$(40.5\%)$ forage source, 261 taxa$(38.2\%)$ edible source, 204 taxa$(29.8\%)$ medicinal source, 80 taxa$(11.7\%)$ ornamental source, 20 taxa$(2.9\%)$ timber source, 3 taxa$(0.4\%)$ industrial raw material source respectively. Also, the Korean endemic plants are 29 taxa($4.2\%$ among total 684 taxa); 5 varieties, 24 species, 27 genera, 20 families. And rare and endangered plants are 2 taxa; Paeonia obovate, Gastrodia elata. Also, the naturalized plants are 31 taxa($4.5\%$ among total 684 taxa and $13.7\%$ among the total naturalized plants in Korea).

Effects of Boliing, Steaming, and Chemical Treatment on Solid Wood Bending of Quercus acutissima Carr. and Pinus densiflora S. et. Z. (자비(煮沸), 증자(蒸煮) 및 약제처리(藥劑處理)가 상수리나무와 소나무의 휨가공성(加工性)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • So, Won-Tek
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.19-62
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    • 1985
  • This study was performed to investigate: (i) the bending processing properties of silk worm oak (Quercus acutissima Carr.) and Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) by boiling and steaming treatments; (ii) the effects of interrelated factors - sapwood and heartwood, annual ring placement, softening temperature and time, moisture content. and wood defects on bending processing properties; (iii) the changing rates of bending radii after release from a tension strap, and (iv) the improving methods of bending process by treatment with chemicals. The size of specimens tested was $15{\times}15{\times}350mm$ for boiling and steaming treatments and $5{\times}10{\times}200mm$ for treatments with chemicals. The specimens were green for boiling treatments and dried to 15 percent for steaming treatments. The specimens for treatments with chemicals were soaked in saturated urea solution, 35 percent formaldehyde solution, 25 percent polyethylene glycol -400 solution, and 25 percent ammonium hydroxide solution for 5 days and immediately followed the bending process, respectively. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The internal temperature of silk worm oak and Korean red pine by boiling and steaming time was raised slowly to $30^{\circ}C$ but rapidly from $30^{\circ}C$ to $80-90^{\circ}C$ and then slowly from $80-90^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$. 2. The softening time required to the final temperature was directly proportional to the thickness of specimen. The time required from $25^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$ for 15mm-squared specimen was 9.6-11.2 minutes in silk worm oak and 7.6-8.1 minutes in Korean red pine. 3. The moisture content (M.C.) of specimen by steaming time was increased rapidly first 4 minutes in the both species, and moderately from 4 to 20 minutes and then slowly and constantly in silk worm oak, and moderately from 4 to 15 minutes and then slowly and constantly in Korean red pine. The M.C. of 15mm-squared specimen in 50 minutes of steaming was increased to 18.0 percent in the oak and 22.4 percent in the pine from the initial conditioned M.C. of 15 percent The rate of moisture adsorption measured was therefore faster in the pine than in the oak. 4. The mechanical properties of the both species were decreased significantly with the increase of boiling rime. The decrement by the boiling treatment for 60 minutes was measured to 36.6-45.0 percent in compressive strength, 12.5-17.5 percent in tensile strength, 31.6-40.9 percent in modulus of rupture, and 23.3-34.6 percent in modulus of elasticity. 5. The minimum bending radius (M.B.R.) of sapwood and heartwood was 60-80 mm and 90 mm in silk worm oak, and 260 - 300 mm and 280 - 300 mm in Korean red pine, respectively. Therefore, the both species showed better bending processing properties in sapwood than in heartwood. 6. The M.B.R. of edge-grained and flat-grained specimen in suk worm oak was 60-80 mm, but the M.B.R. in Korean red pine was 240-280 mm and 260-360 mm, respectively. Comparing the M.B.R. of edge-grained with flat-grained specimen, in the pine the edge-grained showed better bending processing property than the flat-grained. 7. The bending processing properties of the both species were improved by the rising of softening temperature from $40^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$. The minimum softening temperature for bending was $90^{\circ}C$ in silk worm oak and $80^{\circ}C$ in Korean red pine, and the dependency of softening temperature for bending was therefore higher in the oak than in the pine. 8. The bending processing properties of the both species were improved by the increase of softening time as well as temperature, but even after the internal temperature of specimen reaching to the final temperature, somewhat prolonged softening was required to obtain the best plastic conditions. The minimum softening time for bending of 15 mm-squared silk worm oak and Korean red pine specimen was 15 and 10 minutes in the boiling treatment, and 30 and 20 minutes in the steaming treatment, respectively. 9. The optimum M.C. for bending of silk worm oak was 20 percent, and the M.C. above fiber saturation point rather degraded the bending processing property, whereas the optimum M.C. of Korean red pine needed to be above 30 percent. 10. The bending works in the optimum conditions obtained as seen in Table 24 showed that the M.B.R. of silk worm oak and Korean red pine was 80 mm and 240 mm in the boiling treatment, and 50 mm and 280 mm in the steaming treatment, respectively. Therefore, the bending processing property of the oak was better in the steaming than in the boiling treatment, but that of the pine better in the boiling than in the steaming treatment. 11. In the bending without a tension strap, the radio r/t of the minimum bending radius t to the thickness t of silk worm oak and Korean red pine specimen amounted to 16.0 and 21.3 in the boiling treatment, and 17.3 and 24.0 in the steaming treatment, respectively. But in the bending with a tension strap, the r/t of the oak and the pine specimen decreased to 5.3 and 16.0 in t he boiling treatment, and 3.3 and 18.7 in the steaming treatment, respectively. Therefore, the bending processing properties of the both species were significantly improved by the strap. 12. The effect of pin knot on the degradation of bending processing property was very severe in silk worm oak by side, e.g. 90 percent of the oak specimens with pin knot on the concave side were ruptured when bent to a 100 mm radius but only 10 percent of the other specimens with pin knot on the convex side were ruptured. 13. The changing rate in the bending radius of specimen bent to a 300 mm radius after 30 days of exposure to room temperature conditions was measured to 4.0-10.3 percent in the boiling treatment and 13,0-15.0 percent in the steaming treatment. Therefore, the degree of spring back after release was higher in the steaming than in the boiling treatment. And the changing rate of moisture-proofing treated specimen by expoxy resin coating was only -1.0.0 percent. 14. Formaldehyde, 35 percent solution, and 25 percent polyethylene glycol-400 solution found no effect on the plasticization of the both species, but saturated urea solution and 25 percent ammonium hydroxide solution found significant effect in comparison to non-treated specimen. But the effect of the treatment with chemicals alone was inferior to that of the steaming treatment, and the steaming treatment after the treatment with chemicals improved 10-24 percent over the bending processing property of steam-bent specimen. 15. Three plasticity coefficients - load-strain coefficient, strain coefficient, and energy coefficient - were evaluated to be appropriate for the index of bending processing property because the coefficients had highly significant correlation with the bending radius. The fitness of the coefficients as the index was good at load-strain coefficient, energy coefficient, and strain coefficient, in order.

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