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The Comparison of Existing Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Method in Korea (국내 기존 합성단위도 방법의 비교)

  • Jeong, Seong-Won;Mun, Jang-Won
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.659-672
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    • 2001
  • Generally, design flood for a hydraulic structure is estimated using statistical analysis of runoff data. However, due to the lack of runoff data, it is difficult that the statistical method is applied for estimation of design flood. In this case, the synthetic unit hydrograph method is used generally and the models such as NYMO method, Snyder method, SCS method, and HYMO method have been widely used in Korea. In this study, these methods and KICT method, which is developed in year 2000, are compared and analyzed in 10 study areas. Firstly, peak flow and peak time of representative unit hydrograph and synthetic unit hydrograph in study area are compared, and secondly, the shape of unit hydrograph is compared using a root mean square error(RMSE). In Nakayasu method developed in Japan, synthetic unit hydrograph is very different from peak flow, peak time, and the shape of representative unit hydrograph, and KICT method(2000) is superior to others. Also, KICT method(2000) is superior to others in the aspects of using hydrologic and topographical data. Therefore, Nakayasu method is not a proper in hydrological practice. Moreover, it is considered that KICT model is a better method for the estimation of design flood. However, if other model, i.e. SCS method, Nakayasu method, and HYMO method, is used, parameters or regression equations must be adjusted by analysis of real data in Korea.

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Report on the External Audits Conducted by Korean Society of Medical Physics (한국의학물리학회 선형가속기 외부 품질관리 실시 현황보고)

  • Huh, Hyun Do;Cho, Kwang Hwan;Cho, Sam Ju;Choi, Sang Hyoun;Kim, Dong Wook;Hwang, Ui-Jung;Kim, Ki Hwan;Min, Chul Kee;Choi, Tae Jin;Oh, Young Kee;Lee, Seoung Jun;Park, Dahl;Park, Sung-Kwang;Ji, Young Hoon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this work is to verify the self-quality assurances in medical institutions in Korea through the external audits by the group of experts and have a mutual discussion of the systematic problems. In order to validate the external audits 30 of 80 medical institutions across the nation were picked out considering the regional distribution and the final 25 institutions applied voluntarily to take part in this work. The basic rules were setup that any information of the participants be kept secrete and the measurements be performed with the dosimetry system already verified through intercomparision. The outputs for 2 or more photon beams, the accuracy of gantry rotation and collimator rotation and the poistional accuracy of MLC movement were measured. The findings for the output measurement showed the differences of -0.8%~4.5%, -0.79%~3.01%, and -0.7%~0.07% with respect to that of the verified dosimetry system for the 6MV, 10MV, and 15MV, respectively. For the reference absorbed dose 8 (16%) of 50 photon beams in 25 medical institutions differed 2.0% or greater from the reference value. The coincidences of Field size with x-ray beam and radiation isocenters of Gantry roration and collimator rotation gave the results of within ${\pm}2$ mm for every institute except 2 institutions. The positional accuracy of MLC movement agreed to within ${\pm}1$ mm for every institute. For the beam qualities of 6 MV photon beams kQ values showed the distribution within 0.4% between maximum and minimum. For the protocols 21 institutions (84%) used absorbed dose to water based protocol while 4 insitutions (16%) used air kerma based one. 22 institutions employed the SSD technique while 3 institutions did the SAD one. External audit plays an important role in discovering the systematic problems of self-performing Quality Assurances and having in depth discussion for mutual complementation. Training experts of international level as well as national support system are required so that both the group of experts of medical physicists and government laboratory could perform together periodical and constant external audits.

A Study on the Production of Artificial Seed and Intermediate culture for Attached Spats of the Chinese Stock of a Scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis (중국산 참가리비, Patinopecten yessoensis의 인공종묘 생산 및 부착치패 중간양성에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Bong-Se;Lee, Jeong-Yong;Park, Se-Ku;Lee, Chu;Jo, Q-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2008
  • We investigated artificial mass seed production of a Chinese scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, in 2004. The GSI(gonad somatic index) of the Chinese scallop, P yessoensis was 17.2 on mid-February, 20.2 on mid-March, while that of Korean scallop, P yessoensis was 6.9 on mid-February, 10.8 on mid-March. Matured 120 females and 350 males were selected for artificial mass production. They were exposed in air for 1 hr at over $20^{\circ}C$, and placed into a spawning tank(20 ton) containing sea water treated with UV radiation at $12^{\circ}C$. We gained a total of 228,000 thousand scallop embryos between March 10th and 15th, and reared larvae at the indoor tank during 25 days. When the mean shell length of larvae reached 250 ${\mu}m$ and they have eye-spots, the number of pre-settling larvae was 47,500 thousand. We gained 1,850 thousand attached scallop spats from two kinds of collectors. Attached spats were reared in indoor tank for different periods from 5 days to 60 days. They were divided into 5 groups according to the length of reared days. Each group of attached spats was moved to intermediate rearing sites at Yangyang fishing port in Gangreung-city for acclimation to ocean environments. The highest survival rate of attached spats was 13.0% shown at the group reared for 12 days, but the significant difference in their growth was not found between the groups. The shell length of artificial attached spats increased from 0.9 ${\mu}m$ on July 10th to 24.7 ${\mu}m$ on December 16th with the survival rate of 85.0% while that of natural attached spats increased from 0.6 ${\mu}m$ on July 10th to 23.9 ${\mu}m$ on December 16th with the survival rate of 85.7%.

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Effects of Boliing, Steaming, and Chemical Treatment on Solid Wood Bending of Quercus acutissima Carr. and Pinus densiflora S. et. Z. (자비(煮沸), 증자(蒸煮) 및 약제처리(藥劑處理)가 상수리나무와 소나무의 휨가공성(加工性)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • So, Won-Tek
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.19-62
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    • 1985
  • This study was performed to investigate: (i) the bending processing properties of silk worm oak (Quercus acutissima Carr.) and Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) by boiling and steaming treatments; (ii) the effects of interrelated factors - sapwood and heartwood, annual ring placement, softening temperature and time, moisture content. and wood defects on bending processing properties; (iii) the changing rates of bending radii after release from a tension strap, and (iv) the improving methods of bending process by treatment with chemicals. The size of specimens tested was $15{\times}15{\times}350mm$ for boiling and steaming treatments and $5{\times}10{\times}200mm$ for treatments with chemicals. The specimens were green for boiling treatments and dried to 15 percent for steaming treatments. The specimens for treatments with chemicals were soaked in saturated urea solution, 35 percent formaldehyde solution, 25 percent polyethylene glycol -400 solution, and 25 percent ammonium hydroxide solution for 5 days and immediately followed the bending process, respectively. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The internal temperature of silk worm oak and Korean red pine by boiling and steaming time was raised slowly to $30^{\circ}C$ but rapidly from $30^{\circ}C$ to $80-90^{\circ}C$ and then slowly from $80-90^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$. 2. The softening time required to the final temperature was directly proportional to the thickness of specimen. The time required from $25^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$ for 15mm-squared specimen was 9.6-11.2 minutes in silk worm oak and 7.6-8.1 minutes in Korean red pine. 3. The moisture content (M.C.) of specimen by steaming time was increased rapidly first 4 minutes in the both species, and moderately from 4 to 20 minutes and then slowly and constantly in silk worm oak, and moderately from 4 to 15 minutes and then slowly and constantly in Korean red pine. The M.C. of 15mm-squared specimen in 50 minutes of steaming was increased to 18.0 percent in the oak and 22.4 percent in the pine from the initial conditioned M.C. of 15 percent The rate of moisture adsorption measured was therefore faster in the pine than in the oak. 4. The mechanical properties of the both species were decreased significantly with the increase of boiling rime. The decrement by the boiling treatment for 60 minutes was measured to 36.6-45.0 percent in compressive strength, 12.5-17.5 percent in tensile strength, 31.6-40.9 percent in modulus of rupture, and 23.3-34.6 percent in modulus of elasticity. 5. The minimum bending radius (M.B.R.) of sapwood and heartwood was 60-80 mm and 90 mm in silk worm oak, and 260 - 300 mm and 280 - 300 mm in Korean red pine, respectively. Therefore, the both species showed better bending processing properties in sapwood than in heartwood. 6. The M.B.R. of edge-grained and flat-grained specimen in suk worm oak was 60-80 mm, but the M.B.R. in Korean red pine was 240-280 mm and 260-360 mm, respectively. Comparing the M.B.R. of edge-grained with flat-grained specimen, in the pine the edge-grained showed better bending processing property than the flat-grained. 7. The bending processing properties of the both species were improved by the rising of softening temperature from $40^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$. The minimum softening temperature for bending was $90^{\circ}C$ in silk worm oak and $80^{\circ}C$ in Korean red pine, and the dependency of softening temperature for bending was therefore higher in the oak than in the pine. 8. The bending processing properties of the both species were improved by the increase of softening time as well as temperature, but even after the internal temperature of specimen reaching to the final temperature, somewhat prolonged softening was required to obtain the best plastic conditions. The minimum softening time for bending of 15 mm-squared silk worm oak and Korean red pine specimen was 15 and 10 minutes in the boiling treatment, and 30 and 20 minutes in the steaming treatment, respectively. 9. The optimum M.C. for bending of silk worm oak was 20 percent, and the M.C. above fiber saturation point rather degraded the bending processing property, whereas the optimum M.C. of Korean red pine needed to be above 30 percent. 10. The bending works in the optimum conditions obtained as seen in Table 24 showed that the M.B.R. of silk worm oak and Korean red pine was 80 mm and 240 mm in the boiling treatment, and 50 mm and 280 mm in the steaming treatment, respectively. Therefore, the bending processing property of the oak was better in the steaming than in the boiling treatment, but that of the pine better in the boiling than in the steaming treatment. 11. In the bending without a tension strap, the radio r/t of the minimum bending radius t to the thickness t of silk worm oak and Korean red pine specimen amounted to 16.0 and 21.3 in the boiling treatment, and 17.3 and 24.0 in the steaming treatment, respectively. But in the bending with a tension strap, the r/t of the oak and the pine specimen decreased to 5.3 and 16.0 in t he boiling treatment, and 3.3 and 18.7 in the steaming treatment, respectively. Therefore, the bending processing properties of the both species were significantly improved by the strap. 12. The effect of pin knot on the degradation of bending processing property was very severe in silk worm oak by side, e.g. 90 percent of the oak specimens with pin knot on the concave side were ruptured when bent to a 100 mm radius but only 10 percent of the other specimens with pin knot on the convex side were ruptured. 13. The changing rate in the bending radius of specimen bent to a 300 mm radius after 30 days of exposure to room temperature conditions was measured to 4.0-10.3 percent in the boiling treatment and 13,0-15.0 percent in the steaming treatment. Therefore, the degree of spring back after release was higher in the steaming than in the boiling treatment. And the changing rate of moisture-proofing treated specimen by expoxy resin coating was only -1.0.0 percent. 14. Formaldehyde, 35 percent solution, and 25 percent polyethylene glycol-400 solution found no effect on the plasticization of the both species, but saturated urea solution and 25 percent ammonium hydroxide solution found significant effect in comparison to non-treated specimen. But the effect of the treatment with chemicals alone was inferior to that of the steaming treatment, and the steaming treatment after the treatment with chemicals improved 10-24 percent over the bending processing property of steam-bent specimen. 15. Three plasticity coefficients - load-strain coefficient, strain coefficient, and energy coefficient - were evaluated to be appropriate for the index of bending processing property because the coefficients had highly significant correlation with the bending radius. The fitness of the coefficients as the index was good at load-strain coefficient, energy coefficient, and strain coefficient, in order.

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