• Title, Summary, Keyword: 2단계 군집분석

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Phytosociological Changes of Pinus densiflora Forest Induced by Insect Damage in Kyonggi-do Area (경기도지방(京畿道地方) 적송림(赤松林)의 식물사회학적(植物社會學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Yim, Kyong Bin;Park, In Hyeop;Lee, Kyong Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.56-71
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    • 1980
  • To study the changes of vegetational composition of each plant successional stage of Pinus densiflora forest caused by pine gall midge damage, Thecodiplosis japonensis, located in Kyonggi-do area, the middle part of Korea, four districts, Anseong, Yongin, Gwangju, and Gapyeong, were selected according to the length of insect damage duration. The forest in the Anseong district was the noninfested one selected as the check. And forests in Yongin, Gwangju, and Gapyeong were the recent]y damaged, severely damaged, and damage prolonged ones in sequence. It was considered that this order could be in concord with the gradual transition of plant successional stage. In view of temperature, precipitation and soil factors, these four districts were sited within the same environment. Four survey plots were selected from each district and the distance between them was 3~4 km. Then again four subplots were set within a plot. Through needle accumulation after insect infestation, light intensity, soil moisture content, and the amount of soil organic matter were increased and these conditions could create a favorable environment enabling the new species invasion and their growth. These were naturally closely related with the increase in quantity of Pinus densiflora defoliation. After considerable time lapse, the quantities of above mentioned factors decreased with the development of the new substitute tree species. It was found that Quercus mongolica was an excellently substitute tree species come first in this studied area. Species diversity increased to a degree at the early stage of the duration of pine gall midge damage and decreased thereafter. As the same manner, similarity index value between plots in the same district decreased to a degree and increased thereafter. This was linked admittedly with the increase and decrease of tree species and evenness. Synthesizing above mentioned results, the process of plant succession studied quantitatively by changes of relative density and relative importance value, it can be concluded that Pinus densiflora forest gives way to Genus Quercus forest in which Genus Lespedeza and Genus Rhododendron species become as subdominance species after removal of the Pinus densiflora trees damaged by pine gall midge.

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Hue Shift Model and Hue Correction in High Luminance Display (고휘도 디스플레이의 색상이동모델과 색 보정)

  • Lee, Tae-Hyoung;Kwon, Oh-Seol;Park, Tae-Yong;Ha, Yeong-Ho
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.60-69
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    • 2007
  • The human eye usually experiences a loss of color sensitivity when it is subjected to high levels of luminance, and perceives a discrepancy in color between high and normal-luminance displays, generally known as a hue shift. Accordingly, this paper models the hue-shift phenomenon and proposes a hue-correction method to provide perceptual matching between high and normal-luminance displays. The value of hue-shift is determined by perceived hue matching experiments. At first the phenomenon is observed at three lightness levels, that is, the ratio of luminance is the same between high and normal-luminance display when the perceived hue matching experiments we performed. To quantify the hue-shift phenomenon for the whole hue angle, color patches with the same lightness are first created and equally spaced inside the hue angle. These patches are then displayed one-by-one on both displays with the ratio of luminance between two displays. Next, the hue value for each patch appearing on the high-luminance display is adjusted by observers until the perceived hue for the patches on both displays appears the same visually. After obtaining the hue-shift values, these values are fit piecewise to allow shifted-hue amounts to be approximately determined for arbitrary hue values of pixels in a high-luminance display and then used for correction. Essentially, input RGB values of an image is converted to CIELAB values, and then, LCh (lightness, chroma, and hue) values are calculated to obtain the hue values for all the pixels. These hue values are shifted according to the amount calculated by the functions of the hue-shift model. Finally, the corrected CIELAB values are calculated from corrected hue values, after that, output RGB values for all pixels are estimated. For evaluation, an observer's preference test was performed with hue-shift results and Almost observers conclude that the images from hue-shift model were visually matched with images on normal luminance display.

Usefulness of Data Mining in Criminal Investigation (데이터 마이닝의 범죄수사 적용 가능성)

  • Kim, Joon-Woo;Sohn, Joong-Kweon;Lee, Sang-Han
    • Journal of forensic and investigative science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.5-19
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    • 2006
  • Data mining is an information extraction activity to discover hidden facts contained in databases. Using a combination of machine learning, statistical analysis, modeling techniques and database technology, data mining finds patterns and subtle relationships in data and infers rules that allow the prediction of future results. Typical applications include market segmentation, customer profiling, fraud detection, evaluation of retail promotions, and credit risk analysis. Law enforcement agencies deal with mass data to investigate the crime and its amount is increasing due to the development of processing the data by using computer. Now new challenge to discover knowledge in that data is confronted to us. It can be applied in criminal investigation to find offenders by analysis of complex and relational data structures and free texts using their criminal records or statement texts. This study was aimed to evaluate possibile application of data mining and its limitation in practical criminal investigation. Clustering of the criminal cases will be possible in habitual crimes such as fraud and burglary when using data mining to identify the crime pattern. Neural network modelling, one of tools in data mining, can be applied to differentiating suspect's photograph or handwriting with that of convict or criminal profiling. A case study of in practical insurance fraud showed that data mining was useful in organized crimes such as gang, terrorism and money laundering. But the products of data mining in criminal investigation should be cautious for evaluating because data mining just offer a clue instead of conclusion. The legal regulation is needed to control the abuse of law enforcement agencies and to protect personal privacy or human rights.

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Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Diospyros malabarica Stem Extract against Streptococcus mutans (Streptococcus mutans에 대한 인도감나무 줄기 추출물의 항균활성 및 생물막 형성 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Hye Soo;Lee, Sang Woo;Sydara, Kongmany;Cho, Soo Jeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2019
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Diospyros malabarica stem extract, a natural materials, in oral health material. With this aim in mind, thin layer chromatography (TLC), TLC-bioautography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and real-time qPCR were performed. The antibacterial activity of D. malabarica stem extract against Streptococcus mutans KCTC3065 was confirmed in an n-hexane fraction with low polarity. The molecular weight of the antibacterial compound was estimated to be 188 by ESI-MS analysis. The inhibitory effects of the extract on biofilm formation and gene expression related to biofilm formation of S. mutans were determined by SEM and real-time PCR analysis. The extract inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at D. malabarica stem extract concentrations of 1 mg/ml, as shown by SEM. The real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the gtfC gene, which is associated with biofilm formation, was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that D. malabarica stem extracts, a natural materials, can be used in oral health products to suppress the formation of biofilms by inhibiting tooth adhesion of S. mutans, a causative agent of dental caries.

Marine Environments and Ecological Characteristics of Phytoplankton in Southern Coastal Waters During June to October in 2004-2006 (2004-2006년 6-10월 동안의 남해중부연안 해역특성 및 식물플랑크톤의 군집생태)

  • Cho, Eun-Seob;Lee, Sang-Yong;Kim, Sang-Soo;Choi, Yoon-Seok
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.941-957
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    • 2007
  • This study monitored marine environments and ecological characteristics of phytoplankton in southern coastal waters during June to October in 2004-2006 and provided an information to how Cochlodinium blooms have occurred. A total of sampling sites was 16 (Dukyang bay, Goheung, Yeoja bay, Gamak bay, Gwangyang bay, Yeosu, and Namhae). Temperature ranged from $19^{\circ}C\;to\;29^{\circ}C$, which all of sampling in Yeoja bay was the highest temperature of $27^{\circ}C\;and\;29^{\circ}C$ during summer. On June, July, September, and October did not show a remarkable difference regardless of sampling sites. Yeoja and Gwangyang bays had 25-27 in salinity that was lower approximately 5-6 compared with other sampling sites. Chlorophyll had considerable fluctuations depending on sampling sites on July and October, in particular, Gwangyang bay was the highest value of $15{\mu}gl^{-1}$ that had five times as much as. Unlikely to temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll, transparency ranged from 2 m to 5 m regardless of sampling sites. Gwangyang bay was the highest DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen) of $0.53mgl^{-1}$ on July and August that had ten times as much as, whereas DIP (Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus) did not show a significant difference between sampling sites. On July, the correlation of DIN and chlorophyll was a negative that should extremely require DIN to grow phytoplankton, but was a positive liner on August. Mean cell number of phytoplankton reached to encounter a peak of 500 cells $ml^{-1}$ in July and August, which diatoms were dominant species and attained an abundance of >60% regardless of months. In August, the occurrence of dinoflagellates ranged from 20% to 30%. Skeletonema costatum, one of dominant speicies, was the highest occurrence to throughout sampling sites during 2004 to 2006. On the basis of cluster analysis for phytoplankton, they were distributed in all of sampling sites. Consequently, significant fluctuations of marine environments were shown in summer and S. costatum was regarded as the representive phytoplankton in southern coastal waters. In particular, the outbreaks of Cochlodinium polykrikoides have occurred in Dukyang bay, Gamak bay, Goheung, Yeosu, and Namhae, but Yeoja and Gwangyang bays did not occur. The distinguish characteristics of occurring sampling sites and non-occurring in Cochlodinium blooms based on this study was DIN that was enough to persistently grow and maintain them even a litter dissolved in water. This suggests that Cochlodinium red tide seems to be occur in off waters.

A Study of Traffic Incident Flow Characteristics on Korean Highway Using Multi-Regime (Multi-Regime에 의한 돌발상황 시 교통류 분석)

  • Lee Seon-Ha;kang Hee-Chan
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.43-56
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    • 2005
  • This research has examined a time series analysis(TSA) of an every hour traffic information such as occupancy, a traffic flow, and a speed, a statistical model of a surveyed data on the traffic fundamental diagram and an expand aspect of a traffic jam by many Parts of the traffic flow. Based on the detected data from traffic accidents on the Cheonan-Nonsan high way and events when the road volume decreases dramatically like traffic accidents it can be estimated from the change of occupancy right after accidents. When it comes to a traffic jam like events the changing gap of the occupancy and the mean speed is gentle, in addition to a quickness and an accuracy of a detection by the time series analyse of simple traffic index is weak. When it is a stable flow a relationship between the occupancy and a flow is a linear, which explain a very high reliability. In contrast, a platoon form presented by a wide deviation about an ideal speed of drivers is difficult to express by a statical model in a relationship between the speed and occupancy, In this case the speed drops shifty at 6$\~$8$\%$ occupancy. In case of an unstable flow, it is difficult to adopt a statistical model because the formation-clearance Process of a traffic jam is analyzed in each parts. Taken the formation-clearance process of a traffic jam by 2 parts division into consideration the flow having an accident is transferred to a stopped flow and the occupancy increases dramatically. When the flow recovers from a sloped flow to a free flow the occupancy which has increased dramatically decrease gradually and then traffic flow increases according as the result analyzed traffic flow by the multi regime as time series. When it is on the traffic jam the traffic flow transfers from an impeded free flow to a congested flow and then a jammed flow which is complicated more than on the accidents and the gap of traffic volume in each traffic conditions about a same occupancy is generated huge. This research presents a need of a multi-regime division when analyzing a traffic flow and for the future it needs a fixed quantity division and model about each traffic regimes.

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Study on the Community Structure of Benthic Macro-Invertebrates in Jangsu-cheon, an Urban Restoration Stream of Incheon City (인천시 도시복원하천 장수천의 저서성대형무척추동물의 군집구조에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Yeong-Ju;Ju, Yong-Don;Park, Bo-Sun;Kim, Jong-Myung;Kwon, Eun-Ho;Chae, Do-Young;Lee, Hee-Jo;Bae, Yang-Seop
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the natural river conservation work and to find remedies for them, targeting Jangsu-cheon with high frequency of use by citizens among the rivers in Incheon Metroplitan City, Korea; for this, this study conducted investigations and analyses of Jangsu-cheon completed in December, 2008. As a result of investigating 3 spots for the water system of Jangsu-cheon over a total of 3 years (2009, 2010, 2014), it was found that benthic macro-invertebrates of a total of 3 phyla, 5 classes, 11 orders, 26 families, 56 species, and 980 specimens were distributed there. When they were analyzed by year, 18 families and 30 species in 2009, right after the natural river conservation work, and 22 families and 37 species in 2010, 2 years after the work, were found, with 7 species increasing in number; after that, as a result of the investigation in 2014, 22 families and 38 species were found, which tells the river has entered the stabilization stage since the recovery in 2010.Therefore, this study could identify: the water environment of the river was improved due to the natural river conservation work for Jangsu-cheon; in addition, Jangsu-cheon showed good ecological environment due to the continuous maintenance of the good wetlands in Incheon Grand Park in the upper area of the river; and the natural river conservation work of Jangsu-cheon created positive effects.

The Characteristics and Performances of Manufacturing SMEs that Utilize Public Information Support Infrastructure (공공 정보지원 인프라 활용한 제조 중소기업의 특징과 성과에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Keun-Hwan;Kwon, Taehoon;Jun, Seung-pyo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.1-33
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    • 2019
  • The small and medium sized enterprises (hereinafter SMEs) are already at a competitive disadvantaged when compared to large companies with more abundant resources. Manufacturing SMEs not only need a lot of information needed for new product development for sustainable growth and survival, but also seek networking to overcome the limitations of resources, but they are faced with limitations due to their size limitations. In a new era in which connectivity increases the complexity and uncertainty of the business environment, SMEs are increasingly urged to find information and solve networking problems. In order to solve these problems, the government funded research institutes plays an important role and duty to solve the information asymmetry problem of SMEs. The purpose of this study is to identify the differentiating characteristics of SMEs that utilize the public information support infrastructure provided by SMEs to enhance the innovation capacity of SMEs, and how they contribute to corporate performance. We argue that we need an infrastructure for providing information support to SMEs as part of this effort to strengthen of the role of government funded institutions; in this study, we specifically identify the target of such a policy and furthermore empirically demonstrate the effects of such policy-based efforts. Our goal is to help establish the strategies for building the information supporting infrastructure. To achieve this purpose, we first classified the characteristics of SMEs that have been found to utilize the information supporting infrastructure provided by government funded institutions. This allows us to verify whether selection bias appears in the analyzed group, which helps us clarify the interpretative limits of our study results. Next, we performed mediator and moderator effect analysis for multiple variables to analyze the process through which the use of information supporting infrastructure led to an improvement in external networking capabilities and resulted in enhancing product competitiveness. This analysis helps identify the key factors we should focus on when offering indirect support to SMEs through the information supporting infrastructure, which in turn helps us more efficiently manage research related to SME supporting policies implemented by government funded institutions. The results of this study showed the following. First, SMEs that used the information supporting infrastructure were found to have a significant difference in size in comparison to domestic R&D SMEs, but on the other hand, there was no significant difference in the cluster analysis that considered various variables. Based on these findings, we confirmed that SMEs that use the information supporting infrastructure are superior in size, and had a relatively higher distribution of companies that transact to a greater degree with large companies, when compared to the SMEs composing the general group of SMEs. Also, we found that companies that already receive support from the information infrastructure have a high concentration of companies that need collaboration with government funded institution. Secondly, among the SMEs that use the information supporting infrastructure, we found that increasing external networking capabilities contributed to enhancing product competitiveness, and while this was no the effect of direct assistance, we also found that indirect contributions were made by increasing the open marketing capabilities: in other words, this was the result of an indirect-only mediator effect. Also, the number of times the company received additional support in this process through mentoring related to information utilization was found to have a mediated moderator effect on improving external networking capabilities and in turn strengthening product competitiveness. The results of this study provide several insights that will help establish policies. KISTI's information support infrastructure may lead to the conclusion that marketing is already well underway, but it intentionally supports groups that enable to achieve good performance. As a result, the government should provide clear priorities whether to support the companies in the underdevelopment or to aid better performance. Through our research, we have identified how public information infrastructure contributes to product competitiveness. Here, we can draw some policy implications. First, the public information support infrastructure should have the capability to enhance the ability to interact with or to find the expert that provides required information. Second, if the utilization of public information support (online) infrastructure is effective, it is not necessary to continuously provide informational mentoring, which is a parallel offline support. Rather, offline support such as mentoring should be used as an appropriate device for abnormal symptom monitoring. Third, it is required that SMEs should improve their ability to utilize, because the effect of enhancing networking capacity through public information support infrastructure and enhancing product competitiveness through such infrastructure appears in most types of companies rather than in specific SMEs.