• Title, Summary, Keyword: 2단계 군집분석

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Bacterial Community Dynamics during Composting of Food Wastes (음식물 쓰레기 퇴비화 과정에 따른 세균군집 구조의 변화)

  • Shin, Ji-Hye;Lee, Jin-Woo;Nam, Ji-Hyun;Park, Se-Yong;Lee, Dong-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2009
  • Composting is a biological process converting solid organic waste into valuable materials such as fertilizer. The change of bacterial populations in a composting reactor of food waste was investigated for 2 months. Based on shifts in temperature profile, the composting process could be divided into the first phase ($2^{\circ}C\sim55^{\circ}C$), the second phase ($55^{\circ}C\sim97^{\circ}C$), and the third phase ($50^{\circ}C\sim89^{\circ}C$). The number of total bacteria was $1.66\times10^{11}$ cell/g, $0.29\times10^{11}$ cell/g, and $0.28\times10^{11}$ cell/g in the first, second, and third stages, respectively. The proportions of thermophiles increased from 33% to 89% in the second stage. T-RFLP analysis and nucleotide sequencing of 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that the change of bacterial community structure was coupled with shifts in composting stages. The structure of bacterial community in the ultra-thermophilic second stage reflected that of seeding starter. The major decomposers driving the ultra-thermophilic composting were identified as phylotypes related to Bacillus and Pseudomonas.

A Study on the Stages in the Development of Geographic Concept: The Conception of 'Place' (지리개념의 발달단계에 대한 연구: '장소' 개념을 중심으로)

  • Seo, Tae-Yeol
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.699-715
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    • 1996
  • This paper examines the cross-sectional development of children's conception of place. Previous research by Piaget and Weil, Jahoda, Daggs has questioned how young children develop the ablity to comprehend place. Oral interview and graphic test were made vy the children at the age of 5-14, in order to attain information on their knowledge, understanding and feeling about place. These data were used ti indentify developmental stages through cluster analysis. The results suggest that young children's conception of place develops with an identifiable 4 stages. There is no significant difference in development of conception of place between the 2nd year of kindergarten and the 1st year of elementary school, or the between the 5th, 6th year of elementary school and 1st, 2nd year of middle school. Rather, the 4th year of elementary school is an important and crucial truning point in the development of children's conception of place. It is concluded that children's conception of place develops in line with Piaget's general cognitive developmental theory in which the pre-conceptual stage ends at age 7 and the concrete-operation stage starts at age 11 to 12.

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Seasonal Variations of Water Environments and Benthic Diatom Communities in Streams across Byeonsan-Bando and Seonunsan Parklands in Jeollabukdo, Korea (전라북도의 변산반도 국립공원과 선운산 도립공원 하천의 수환경과 부착규조류 군집의 계절적인 변화)

  • Park, Kyung-Woo;Kim, Yun-Sam;Park, Jung-Won;Jeune, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.239-251
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    • 2011
  • To compare the different water environments in the Jigsaw stream (st. 1, 2) and Jujin stream (st. 3, 4) crossing over the Byeonsan-Bando and Seonunsan parklands, the physico-chemical factors and the species compositions of epilithic diatoms were analyzed from March 2009 to February 2010. The mean values of conductivity (681.1 ${\mu}S\;cm^{-1}$), suspended solids (27.83 mg $L^{-1}$), biological oxygen demand (3.15 mg $L^{-1}$), total nitrogen (3.24 mg $L^{-1}$), total phosphorus (0.24 mg $L^{-1}$) and chlorophyll-${\alpha}$ (12.99 mg $m^{-3}$ ) in Jujin stream were significantly higher than each element in Jigsaw stream. Eighty taxa were classified into 73 species and seven varieties belonging to 24 genera, eight families, three suborders and two orders in Jigsaw stream. Eighty eight taxa were classified into 81 species and seven varieties belonging to 22 genera, seven families, three suborders and two orders in Jujin stream. Biological water quality assessments revealed that Jigsaw stream was ${\beta}$~${\alpha}$-oligosaprobic and Jujin stream was ${\beta}$-mesosaprobic. Dominant and diversity indices were indicated from 0.25~0.81 and from 1.73~4.14 in Jigsaw stream, respectively, and from 0.29~0.64 and from 2.72~4.02 in Jujin stream, respectively. Jujin stream was more eutrophic than those of Jigsaw stream. The different water environments between the two streams could be due to the different ecosystems of the neighboring basins of each stream crossing over in the mountain. Further studies should investigate the water environments of two streams by continuous and regular monitoring to analyze the different ecosystem mechanisms.

Determinants of Consumer Preference by type of Accommodation: Two Step Cluster Analysis (이단계 군집분석에 의한 농촌관광 편의시설 유형별 소비자 선호 결정요인)

  • Park, Duk-Byeong;Yoon, Yoo-Shik;Lee, Min-Soo
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2007
  • 1. Purpose Rural tourism is made by individuals with different characteristics, needs and wants. It is important to have information on the characteristics and preferences of the consumers of the different types of existing rural accommodation. The stud aims to identify the determinants of consumer preference by type of accommodations. 2. Methodology 2.1 Sample Data were collected from 1000 people by telephone survey with three-stage stratified random sampling in seven metropolitan areas in Korea. Respondents were chosen by sampling internal on telephone book published in 2006. We surveyed from four to ten-thirty 0'clock afternoon so as to systematic sampling considering respondents' life cycle. 2.2 Two-step cluster Analysis Our study is accomplished through the use of a two-step cluster method to classify the accommodation in a reduced number of groups, so that each group constitutes a type. This method had been suggested as appropriate in clustering large data sets with mixed attributes. The method is based on a distance measure that enables data with both continuous and categorical attributes to be clustered. This is derived from a probabilistic model in which the distance between two clusters in equivalent to the decrease in log-likelihood function as a result of merging. 2.3 Multinomial Logit Analysis The estimation of a Multionmial Logit model determines the characteristics of tourist who is most likely to opt for each type of accommodation. The Multinomial Logit model constitutes an appropriate framework to explore and explain choice process where the choice set consists of more than two alternatives. Due to its ease and quick estimation of parameters, the Multinomial Logit model has been used for many empirical studies of choice in tourism. 3. Findings The auto-clustering algorithm indicated that a five-cluster solution was the best model, because it minimized the BIC value and the change in them between adjacent numbers of clusters. The accommodation establishments can be classified into five types: Traditional House, Typical Farmhouse, Farmstay house for group Tour, Log Cabin for Family, and Log Cabin for Individuals. Group 1 (Traditional House) includes mainly the large accommodation establishments, i.e. those with ondoll style room providing meals and one shower room on family tourist, of original construction style house. Group 2 (Typical Farmhouse) encompasses accommodation establishments of Ondoll rooms and each bathroom providing meals. It includes, in other words, the tourist accommodations Known as "rural houses." Group 3 (Farmstay House for Group) has accommodation establishments of Ondoll rooms not providing meals and self cooking facilities, large room size over five persons. Group 4 (Log Cabin for Family) includes mainly the popular accommodation establishments, i.e. those with Ondoll style room with on shower room on family tourist, of western styled log house. While the accommodations in this group are not defined as regards type of construction, the group does include all the original Korean style construction, Finally, group 5 (Log Cabin for Individuals)includes those accommodations that are bedroom western styled wooden house with each bathroom. First Multinomial Logit model is estimated including all the explicative variables considered and taking accommodation group 2 as base alternative. The results show that the variables and the estimated values of the parameters for the model giving the probability of each of the five different types of accommodation available in rural tourism village in Korea, according to the socio-economic and trip related characteristics of the individuals. An initial observation of the analysis reveals that none of variables income, the number of journey, distance, and residential style of house is explicative in the choice of rural accommodation. The age and accompany variables are significant for accommodation establishment of group 1. The education and rural residential experience variables are significant for accommodation establishment of groups 4 and 5. The expenditure and marital status variables are significant for accommodation establishment of group 4. The gender and occupation variable are significant for accommodation establishment of group 3. The loyalty variable is significant for accommodation establishment of groups 3 and 4. The study indicates that significant differences exist among the individuals who choose each type of accommodation at a destination. From this investigation is evident that several profiles of tourists can be attracted by a rural destination according to the types of existing accommodations at this destination. Besides, the tourist profiles may be used as the basis for investment policy and promotion for each type of accommodation, making use in each case of the variables that indicate a greater likelihood of influencing the tourist choice of accommodation.

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Face Data Clustering Method for Face Recognition Using Self Organizing Feature Map (자기 조직화 지도 모형을 이용한 인종별 얼굴 영상 군집화 기법)

  • 권혜련;고병철;변혜란;이일병
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.577-579
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    • 2003
  • 본 논문에서는 생체인식 분야 중 얼굴인식의 검색 정확성 향상 및 검색 시간을 단축하기 위한 단계로 인종별 얼굴영상 데이터베이스에 대한 군집화 기법을 연구하였다. 우선, 일반적으로 얼굴 및 이미지 검색에 사용되는 다양한 특징을 추출하고, 추출한 다차원의 특징 데이터들로부터 다 인종 얼굴 데이터를 유사한 인종별로 정확하게 군집화 하기 위해 최적의 특징벡터를 자동으로 선택 할 수 있는 방법을 제안하였다. 군집결과 분석을 위해 자기 조직화 지도 모형을 이용하였는데, 이는 2차원 분석 및 가시화에 유용하며, 학습 후 코드북벡터를 사용하여 유사한 의미간의 거리부터 검색할 수 있는 특징을 가지고 있다. 특징추출에 관한 실험결과 인종별 구분을 위한 특징벡터로는 웨이블릿 주파수 성분(lowpass 성분)과 CbCr 특징벡터가 인종별 군집화에 가장 유용한 특징으로 선택되었으며. 추출된 특징을 바탕으로 semantic map을 구성하여 제안방법의 효율성을 제시하였다.

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Phytoplankton Community and the Evaluation of Water Quality Status in So-ok Stream, the Inflowing Stream to Daechung Lake (대청호의 유입지천인 소옥천의 식물플랑크톤 군집 분석 및 수질영양단계 평가)

  • Kim, Ok-Jin;Lee, Ok-Min
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.113-128
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    • 2011
  • The study analyzed the physico-chemical quality of water and the resident phytoplankton community, and evaluated the water trophic status in So-ok stream flowing into Daechung lake from October 2007 to July 2008. Algal blooming by cyanophytes and diatoms continued throughout the year, with Microcystis aeruginosa and Aulacoseira granulata being prevalent. Ten taxa that are indicators of polluted water, including Oscillatoria limosa appeared. Results based on (Trophic status index) TSI and (Lake trophic status index) LTSI evaluations of water quality status indicated mesotrophication.

A Study on Containerports Clustering Using Artificial Neural Network(Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function), Social Network, and Tabu Search Models with Empirical Verification of Clustering Using the Second Stage(Type IV) Cross-Efficiency Matrix Clustering Model (인공신경망모형(다층퍼셉트론, 방사형기저함수), 사회연결망모형, 타부서치모형을 이용한 컨테이너항만의 클러스터링 측정 및 2단계(Type IV) 교차효율성 메트릭스 군집모형을 이용한 실증적 검증에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Ro-Kyung
    • Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.757-772
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this paper is to measure the clustering change and analyze empirical results, and choose the clustering ports for Busan, Incheon, and Gwangyang ports by using Artificial Neural Network, Social Network, and Tabu Search models on 38 Asian container ports over the period 2007-2016. The models consider number of cranes, depth, birth length, and total area as inputs and container throughput as output. Followings are the main empirical results. First, the variables ranking order which affects the clustering according to artificial neural network are TEU, birth length, depth, total area, and number of cranes. Second, social network analysis shows the same clustering in the benevolent and aggressive models. Third, the efficiency of domestic ports are worsened after clustering using social network analysis and tabu search models. Forth, social network and tabu search models can increase the efficiency by 37% compared to that of the general CCR model. Fifth, according to the social network analysis and tabu search models, 3 Korean ports could be clustered with Asian ports like Busan Port(Kobe, Osaka, Port Klang, Tanjung Pelepas, and Manila), Incheon Port(Shahid Rajaee, and Gwangyang), and Gwangyang Port(Aqaba, Port Sulatan Qaboos, Dammam, Khor Fakkan, and Incheon). Korean seaport authority should introduce port improvement plans by using the methods used in this paper.

A Study on the effect of the fit between SCM usage pattern and Strategic Typology (SCM 활용 패턴과 전략 유형 적합의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Nam-Jae;Son, Ji-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Information Technology Applications Conference
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    • pp.463-484
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    • 2006
  • 본 연구는 많은 기업들이 SCM의 중요성을 인식하고 도입하여 활용을 하고 있는 정보시스템의 발전 단계에서 공급사슬에 참여하고 있는 기업이 어떻게 SCM을 활용하고 있는지에 초점을 둔 연구라 할 수 있다. 기존 연구에서 도출한 SCM 활용 목적에 대한 설문 항목을 중심으로 기업이 활용하고 있는 SCM 활용 패턴을 도출하였다. 군집 분석 방법을 활용하여 집단에 특성을 배정하여 동일 집단에 속한 대상의 유사성을 갖게 함으로써 집단 간의 차이를 명확하게 하였다. 군집 분석 결과 효율성을 추구 형, 군집, Business process 정확성 추구형 집단과 환경 변화 대응 추구형 군집으로 패턴을 나눌 수 있었다. 응답 기업을 Miles와 Snow의 전략유형으로 분류하여 응답 기업의 전략 유형을 판별한 결과 분석자형 40.6%, 방어자형 15.1%, 공격자형 37.2%, 반응자형 6.9%로 조사되었다. 위에서 유형화한 SCM의 활용 패턴과 전략유형을 Matrix화하여 가설인 SCM 활용 패턴과 전략유형의 적합도와 SCM 성과 만족도와의 관계를 검증하였다. 연구를 수행한 결과 기업이 SCM을 활용할 때, SCM 활용 패턴 및 전략 유형에 따라 SCM 성과 만족도가 다르게 나타난다는 것을 알 수 가 있다.

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The Analysis of the Forest Community Structure of Huibang Valley in Sobaeksan National Park (소백산 국립공원 희방계곡의 삼림군집구조분석)

  • 이경재;최송현;조현서
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.113-126
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    • 1993
  • To investigate the structure of the forest community of Huibang valley in Sobaeksan National Park, twenty five plots were set up and surveyed. According to the analysis of classification by DCA community divided 4 groups. The divided groups are Pinus densiflora community, Q. mongolica -P. densiflora community. Q. mongolica-Stewartia koreana-Carpinus laxiflora community, and Q. mongolica- Acer pseudosieboldianum community. In the analysis by ordination, CCA which points out the relationship among the environmental variables, species and plots indicated primary step of secondary succession. The successional trends of both techniques. seem to be from P. densiflora through Q. mongolica, Q. serrate to C. laxiflora(or S. koreana) in canopy layer below an altitude of 800 meters, and from Rhododendron mucronulaltum. Rh. schlippenbachli. Rhus trichocarpa through Styrax obassia. Lindera obtusiloba to Magnolia sieboldii, Corylus sieboldiana in subtree and shrub layer. The positive correlation between the stand ordination scores .and soil moisture and soil humus were calculated.

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Exploration of Hierarchical Techniques for Clustering Korean Author Names (한글 저자명 군집화를 위한 계층적 기법 비교)

  • Kang, In-Su
    • Journal of Information Management
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.95-115
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    • 2009
  • Author resolution is to disambiguate same-name author occurrences into real individuals. For this, pair-wise author similarities are computed for author name entities, and then clustering is performed. So far, many studies have employed hierarchical clustering techniques for author disambiguation. However, various hierarchical clustering methods have not been sufficiently investigated. This study covers an empirical evaluation and analysis of hierarchical clustering applied to Korean author resolution, using multiple distance functions such as Dice coefficient, Cosine similarity, Euclidean distance, Jaccard coefficient, Pearson correlation coefficient.