• Title, Summary, Keyword: 2단계 군집분석

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Moving Object Tracking Using Co-occurrence Features of Objects (이동 물체의 상호 발생 특징정보를 이용한 동영상에서의 이동물체 추적)

  • Kim, Seongdong;Seongah Chin;Moonwon Choo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, we propose an object tracking system which can be convinced of moving area shaped on objects through color sequential images, decided moving directions of foot messengers or vehicles of image sequences. In static camera, we suggests a new evaluating method extracting co-occurrence matrix with feature vectors of RGB after analyzing and blocking difference images, which is accessed to field of camera view for motion. They are energy, entropy, contrast, maximum probability, inverse difference moment, and correlation of RGB color vectors. we describe how to analyze and compute corresponding relations of objects between adjacent frames. In the clustering, we apply an algorithm of FCM(fuzzy c means) to analyze matching and clustering problems of adjacent frames of the featured vectors, energy and entropy, gotten from previous phase. In the matching phase, we also propose a method to know correspondence relation that can track motion each objects by clustering with similar area, compute object centers and cluster around them in case of same objects based on membership function of motion area of adjacent frames.

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Plant Community Structure of Muju Resort Golf Course in T$\v{o}$kyusan National Park (덕유산 국립공원내 무주리조트 골프장예정지 식물군집구조)

  • Lee, Kyong-Jae;Cho, Woo;Han, Bong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.118-134
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to investigated the plant community structure and to revaluate the part of plant ecosystem on statement of environmental impact assessment in Muju resort golf course, Solch'on area, Tokyusan National Park. The actual vegetation was comprised of Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica-Q. serrata community(33.21%), Q. spp. community(27.30%), P. densiflora community(20.68%) and high mountain marsh(4.93%) etc., which communities were the major vegetation and the forest vegetation was came to being a peculiar to environmental condition. The degree of green naturality 8, 9 was covered 93% in survey area, and so this result reflect the stability of ecosystem. There was all the difference between the statement of environmental impact assessment of development concerned and this study result in the estimation of degree of green naturality. The plant community were divided into six groups in fifty-four plots by DCA and the dividing groups were P. densiflora, P. densiflora-Q. mongolica, P. densiflora-Q. serrata-F. mandschurica-B. davurica, Q. mongolica-Q. serrata-P. densiflora, Q. mongolica-Q. variabilis, Salix koreansis- B. davurica community. Except P. densiflora forest in survey site, the ecological succession trend of the other communities was seemed to be from P. densiflora to Q. spp.

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Korean Automated Scoring System for Supply-Type Items using Semi-Supervised Learning (준지도학습 방법을 이용한 한국어 서답형 문항 자동채점 시스템)

  • Cheon, Min-Ah;Seo, Hyeong-Won;Kim, Jae-Hoon;Noh, Eun-Hee;Sung, Kyung-Hee;Lim, EunYoung
    • Annual Conference on Human and Language Technology
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    • pp.112-116
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    • 2014
  • 서답형 문항은 학생들의 종합적인 사고능력을 판단하는데 매우 유용하지만 채점할 때, 시간과 비용이 매우 많이 소요되고 채점자의 공정성을 확보해야 하는 어려움이 있다. 이러한 문제를 개선하기 위해 본 논문에서는 서답형 문항에 대한 자동채점 시스템을 제안한다. 본 논문에서 제안하는 시스템은 크게 언어 처리 단계와 채점 단계로 나뉜다. 첫 번째로 언어 처리 단계에서는 형태소 분석과 같은 한국어 정보처리 시스템을 이용하여 학생들의 답안을 분석한다. 두 번째로 채점 단계를 진행하는데 이 단계는 아래와 같은 순서로 진행된다. 1) 첫 번째 단계에서 분석 결과가 완전히 일치하는 답안들을 하나의 유형으로 간주하여 각 유형에 속한 답안의 빈도수가 높은 순서대로 정렬하여 인간 채점자가 고빈도 학생 답안을 수동으로 채점한다. 2) 현재까지 채점된 결과와 모범답안을 학습말뭉치로 간주하여 자질 추출 및 자질 가중치 학습을 수행한다. 3) 2)의 학습 결과를 토대로 미채점 답안들을 군집화하여 분류한다. 4) 분류된 결과 중에서 신뢰성이 높은 채점 답안에 대해서 인간 채점자가 확인하고 학습말뭉치에 추가한다. 5) 이와 같은 방법으로 미채점 답안이 존재하지 않을 때까지 반복한다. 제안된 시스템을 평가하기 위해서 2013년 학업성취도 평가의 사회(중3) 및 국어(고2) 과목의 서답형 문항을 사용하였다. 각 과목에서 1000개의 학생 답안을 추출하여 채점시간과 정확률을 평가하였다. 채점시간을 전체적으로 약 80% 이상 줄일 수 있었고 채점 정확률은 사회 및 국어 과목에 대해 각각 98.7%와 97.2%로 나타났다. 앞으로 자동 채점 시스템의 성능을 개선하고 인간 채점자의 집중도를 높일 수 있도록 인터페이스를 개선한다면 국가수준의 대단위 평가에 충분히 활용할 수 있을 것으로 생각한다.

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A Study on Analysis of Research Trends and Intellectual Structure of Cataloging Field (목록 분야 연구동향 및 지적구조 분석)

  • Lee, Ji Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.279-300
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    • 2019
  • This study aims to analyze and to demonstrate the research trends and intellectual structure in the field of catalog in the 2000s and 2010s through co-word analysis. The field of catalog had firmly established its own research area and Many differences were found in research trends and intellectual structures in the 2000s and 2010s. First, the average number of articles decreased by 4.2 in the 2010s compared to the 2000s, but the number of author keywords was not significantly different. Only 22.2% of keywords appeared more than three times in both periods, and 77.8% of keywords appeared more than three times in one period. Second, in terms of intellectual structure, the 2000s, represented by three-level clusters, formed a more complex network than the 2010s, represented by two-level clusters. Third, as a result of examining the changes in the characteristics of each cluster, there were some research topics with few changes, but many research topics were more actively progressed or subdivided, and decreased. The results of this study are meaningful in that they can visually grasp the intellectual structure along with the trend of the age of catalogue, and can prepare for related education and research by predicting the future.

Development and Analysis of COMS AMV Target Tracking Algorithm using Gaussian Cluster Analysis (가우시안 군집분석을 이용한 천리안 위성의 대기운동벡터 표적추적 알고리듬 개발 및 분석)

  • Oh, Yurim;Kim, Jae Hwan;Park, Hyungmin;Baek, Kanghyun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.531-548
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    • 2015
  • Atmospheric Motion Vector (AMV) from satellite images have shown Slow Speed Bias (SSB) in comparison with rawinsonde. The causes of SSB are originated from tracking, selection, and height assignment error, which is known to be the leading error. However, recent works have shown that height assignment error cannot be fully explained the cause of SSB. This paper attempts a new approach to examine the possibility of SSB reduction of COMS AMV by using a new target tracking algorithm. Tracking error can be caused by averaging of various wind patterns within a target and changing of cloud shape in searching process over time. To overcome this problem, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) has been adopted to extract the coldest cluster as target since the shape of such target is less subject to transformation. Then, an image filtering scheme is applied to weigh more on the selected coldest pixels than the other, which makes it easy to track the target. When AMV derived from our algorithm with sum of squared distance method and current COMS are compared with rawindsonde, our products show noticeable improvement over COMS products in mean wind speed by an increase of $2.7ms^{-1}$ and SSB reduction by 29%. However, the statistics regarding the bias show negative impact for mid/low level with our algorithm, and the number of vectors are reduced by 40% relative to COMS. Therefore, further study is required to improve accuracy for mid/low level winds and increase the number of AMV vectors.

A study on Somatotype Classification of the Early Middle-Aged Women (중년 전기 여성의 체형 유형화에 관한 연구)

  • 심정희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1386-1397
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to classify and analyze the somatotype of early middle-aged women and to provide its total data for clothing construction, and to improve clothing culture. The subjects were 277 early middle-aged women between 35 and 44 years old. Data were collected through anthropometry and photometry and analyzed by factor analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results were as follows; 1. The result of factor analysis indicated that 10 factors were extracted through factor analysis and those factors comprised 86.13 percent of total variance. 2. Using factor scores, cluster analysis was carried out and the subject were classified into 4 cluster. Type 1 is tall, slim, and X type in front. Type 2 is standard height and weight, short upper body, and hip-protruded on the side. Type 3 is standard height, thin, H type in front, back and hip are clearly protruded, and lean-back type on the side. Type 4 is standard height, fat, and long upper body. 3. According to the stepwise discriminant analysis, the 8 important iems is classifying the somatotype of early middle-aged women are as follows : bust girth, back length hip breadth-waist breadth, back protruded point depth(back)-back waist depth(back), hip tangent tilt, hip depth(back) waist dapth(back), bust depth-waist depth, and cervical hight, The correct classification rate for these items is as exact as 83.20%.

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Block loss analysis of queuing stragegy with 2-level overload control (과부하 제어를 위한 2-단계 Queuing 전략의 블록 손실에 대한 분석)

  • Kwag, Min-Kon
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.1554-1561
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    • 1998
  • When the superposition of realtime traffic and non-realtime traffic is applied to the ATM network, the successive cell loss(block loss) is more influential on the quality of service (QoS) of two traffic streams than the single loss in case of bursty traffic. Block loss can be identified as an important performance measure because of delay-oriented policy for realtime traffic. In this paper, we consider the system with the two-level overload control reducing of the recurrence of shut-down periods and develop a recursive algorithm to obtain both block loss and cell loss probabilities of both traffic. We can see that it gives the more precise and diverse investigations on performance analysis of queuing strategy.

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The Structure of the Plant Community in Seonamsagol(Valley), Jogyesan(Mt.) Provincial Park, Suncheon City (순천시 조계산도립공원 선암사골 계곡부 식물군집구조)

  • Kim, Jong-Yup
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.593-603
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the ecological succession sere and conservative value, and to provide the basic data for the planning of the Provincial Park Management in Seonamsagol(Valley), Jogyesan(Mt.) Provincial Park(altitude 884m), Suncheon City, Korea by analysing the structure of the plant community. Twenty plots(size is $20m{\times}20m$) were set up at an altitude of range from 315m to 480m. As a result of analysis of TWINSPAN which is one of the ordination technique, the plant communities were divided into four groups which are community I(Quercus variabilis community), community II(Q. serrata community), community III(Decideous broad-leaved plant community), and community IV(Carpinus tschonoskii community). The warmth index is $104^{\circ}C{\cdot}month$ based on the data of monthly mean temperature during the past thirty years(1981~2010), so we found out that the vegetation of the study site located in the South Temperate Climate Zone. We supposed that the ecological succession sere of the study site is in the early stage of developing from Q. serrata community to Carpinus tshonoskii community, however we should do a long-term monitoring to investigate the changes of the ecological succession each plant community, meanwhile Sasa borealis was dominant species in the shrub layer. The diameter at breast height of specimen tree is range from 20 to 55cm(average 36cm) and the height of that is range from 14 to 35m(average 23cm). The age of community I was 64 years old, that of community II was from 59 to 64 years old, that of community III was from 51 to 62 years old, and that of community IV was from 41 to 68 years old, thus the age of the study site is about from 38 to 72 years old. According to the index of Shnnon's diversity(unit: $400m^2$), community IV was ranged from 0.8452 to 1.2312, community III was ranged from 0.8044 to 1.1404, community II was ranged from 0.8221 to 0.9971, and community I was 0.8324.

Actual Vegetation and Structure of Plant Community of Forest Ecosystem in Taejongdae, Busan City, Korea (부산광역시 태종대 산림생태계의 현존식생 및 식물군집구조)

  • Kim, Jong-Yup
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.426-436
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate actual vegetation, the structure of plant community, and ecological succession sere of coastal forest ecosystem in warm temperate climate zone, Taejongdae, Busan City, Korea to provide the basic data for planning of the forest management. As a result of analysis of actual vegetation, vegetation types divided into 35 types, and the area of survey site was $1,750,461m^2$. The ratio of vegetation type dominated by Pinus thunbergii was 80.7%, dominated by Quercus spp. was just 5.0%, and dominated by Carpinus tschonoskii was just 0.4%. Eighteen plots(size is $20m{\times}20m$) were set up and the results analyzed by DCA which is one of the ordination technique showed that the plant communities were divided into four groups which are community I(P. thunbergii community), community II(P. thunbergii-Quercus serrata community), community III(Q. serrata-P. thunbergii community), and community IV(Carpinus tschonoskii-P. thunbergii community). The age of community I was from 38 to 59 years old, that of community II was from 35 to 71 years old, that of community III was from 37 to 53 years old, that of community IV was from 50 to 72 years old, thus we supposed that the age of the study site is about from 38 to 72 years old. We supposed that the successional sere of the study site is in the early stage of ecological succession in the warm temperate climate zone. The dominant species will be changed from P. thunbergii to Q. serrata or Carpinus tschonoskii in the canopy layer, on the other hand, Eurya japonica will be dominant species in the understory layer, and E. japonica and Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermediumwill be dominant species in the shrub layer for a while. According to the index of Shnnon's diversity(unit: $400m^2$), community I ranged from 0.8640 to 1.3986, community II was from 0.1731 to 1.1885, community III was from 0.8250 to 1.0042, and community IV was from 0.3436 to 0.6986.

Prediction Model for Specific Cutting Energy of Pick Cutters Based on Gene Expression Programming and Particle Swarm Optimization (유전자 프로그래밍과 개체군집최적화를 이용한 픽 커터의 절삭비에너지 예측모델)

  • Hojjati, Shahabedin;Jeong, Hoyoung;Jeon, Seokwon
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.651-669
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    • 2018
  • This study suggests the prediction model to estimate the specific energy of a pick cutter using a gene expression programming (GEP) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Estimating the performance of mechanical excavators is of crucial importance in early design stage of tunnelling projects, and the specific energy (SE) based approach serves as a standard performance prediction procedure that is applicable to all excavation machines. The purpose of this research, is to investigate the relationship between UCS and BTS, penetration depth, cut spacing, and SE. A total of 46 full-scale linear cutting test results using pick cutters and different values of depth of cut and cut spacing on various rock types was collected from the previous study for the analysis. The Mean Squared Error (MSE) associated with the conventional Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) method is more than two times larger than the MSE generated by GEP-PSO algorithm. The $R^2$ value associated with the GEP-PSO algorithm, is about 0.13 higher than the $R^2$ associated with MLR.