• Title, Summary, Keyword: AKD

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Formation of Hydrophobic Self-assembled Monolayers on Paper Surface with Silanes (실란화 반응에 의한 종이 표면의 소수성 자기조립 단분자막 형성)

  • Oh, Min-Jeong;Lee, Hyoung;Paik, Ki-Hyon
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.64-73
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to modify the surface properties of papers by formation of hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer(SAM) on paper surface with silanes. A base paper I(0.5% AKD) and base paper II(1.0-1.5% AKD) were reacted with silanes(PFDTES, DMDCS, MODDCS) by immersion method and vapor deposition method. Hydrophobic SAMs(contact angle value>$120^{\circ}C$) were obtained on all papers after treatment with $10^{\mu}l$ PFDTES for 15min, with $50^{\mu}l$ DMDCS for 30min, with $50^{\mu}l$ MODDCS for 300min. When applying PFDTES to paper surface, lower silane concentration and shorter reaction time were required, whereas MODDCS with long alkyl chain required the longest reaction time of 300min. The st$\ddot{o}$ckight sizing degree of silane treated papers were increased between 105sec(base paper I) and 130sec(base paper II). The wet tensile strength of PFDTES-treated base papers(I, II) increased by 10-34% after SAM formation. However, the wet tensile strength of the DMDCS-treated base paper(I) was found to decrease from 0.067kN/m to 0.038kN/m; this may due to the cellulose degrading as a result of generated hydrogen chloride when hydroxyl group of cellulose were reacted with DMDCS. No apparent changes of PPS roughness on silane-treated papers are observed. The ATR-IR spectrum showed absorption peak located at 465 and 1200cm-1 which can be assigned to the Si-O-C asymmetric stretching and Si-O-C bonds, respectively.

Evaluation of Freshness Prolonging Ability of Antibacterial Packaging Bags and Corrugated Boxes (항균포장지와 포장상자에 저장된 과채류의 선도평가)

  • Kim, Chul-Hwan;Kim, Jae-Ok;Park, Woo-Po;Jung, Jun-Ho;Cho, Sung-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.364-371
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    • 2005
  • Packaging bags and corrugated boxes prepared from newly developed antimicrobial packaging paper had greater ability to prolong freshness of packed fruits, and lower weight loss of fruits and microbial growth than non-treated bags and boxes. Addition of zeolite to paper greatly increased absorbance of aging hormone, $C_{2}H_{4}$, emitted from stored fruits, and contributed to decrease in putrefied fruits during storage. Water repellent agent such as alkyl ketone dimer played significant role in preventing functional paper from absorbing water from stored fruits, leading to preservation of fresh weight in stored fruits. Because rise in production cost of functional packaging paper could be offset by reduction of fruit and vegetable wastes, storing fruits and vegetables in functional paper containers was more economical than storing in non-treated containers.

Influence of Base Paper Properties on Coating Penetration

  • Kim, Bong-Yong;Bousfield, Douglas W.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.148-153
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    • 2003
  • The influence of sizing, fiber and pigment type on coating penetration, using commercial paper and two types of handsheets as the base paper which were prepared from thermomechanical pulp(TMP) and hardwood bleached kraft pulp(KP) sized internally with alkyl ketone dimmer(AKD), was studied in terms of characteristics of coating holdout. Laboratory rod draw down coater was used for surface sizing and coating application. Characterization of coating penetration was done by measuring the roughness of the backside of coating layer. The backside of the coating was exposed by dissolving the fibers in a solution of cupriethylenedimine(CED). Data show that internal sizing of base paper is effective and surface sizing is more effective to prevent coating penetration. Comparing between the two types of base papers, backside roughness of coating layer of TMP sheet is much larger and sizing is more effective to reduce coating penetration than those of KP sheet. With regard to pigment type, clay is more effective than calcium carbonate for better coating holdout.

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Dimensional Stability of Korean Red Pine Treated with Water Repellents (발수제 처리 소나무재의 치수안정성)

  • Han, Gyu-Seong
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the water repellents' treatment on the water absorptivity and the dimensional stability of Korean red pine wood(Pinus densiflora). The alkylketene dimer(AKD), fluororesin emulsion(Wood-seal, WS), and paraffin wax emulsions(PW25, PW40, and PW1200) were used as water repellents. PW40 and WS were proved as excellent water repellents for pine wood, because the samples treated with these agents showed high contact angles and large reduction in water absorptivities. Also, the dimensional stability(antiswelling efficiency) of pine wood was considerably improved by water repellents treatments, such as PW40 and WS at the pressure of 2MPa. The water repellent treated woods with WS, PW40, and PW1200 at the pressure of 2MPa were relatively stable to the wet-dry cyclic leaching test.

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Factors influencing the penetration kinetics of PVAm solution in z-direction of paper (PVAm 용액 종이 두께 방향 침투 kinetics에 영향하는 인자들)

  • Cho, Byoung-Uk;Won, Jong-Myoung;Moon, Eun-Sik;Choi, Do-Chim
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.31-35
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    • 2011
  • Factors influencing penetration kinetics of PVAm solution into paper were investigated with ultrasonic Penetration Evenness Analyzer (PEA). Paper structure was varied by changing basis weight, freeness of pulp, calendering, number of plies and filler addition and hydrophobicity of paper was varied by adding AKD. Important factors affecting liquid penetration are found to be pore structure and hydrophobicity of paper. Pore structure of paper can be designed by controlling refining degree and filler addition. Hydrophobicity of paper can be controlled by internal sizing.

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Automatic Measurement System for Sizing Test I (사이즈도 자동 측정 시스템 개발을 위한 기초연구 I)

  • Kim, Gyeong-Cheol;Kim, Cheol-Hwan;Lee, Ji-Yeong;Sheikh, Mominul Islam;Park, Hyeon-Jin;Kim, Seong-Ho;Sim, Seong-Ung;Jo, Hu-Seung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.327-333
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    • 2011
  • This study investigated the prime difference between different methods for measuring a sizing degree. Based on the results coming from the study, a new type of the automatic measuring system of a sizing degree. The system includes synchronized devices for measuring contact angle and St$\ddot{o}$ckigt sizing degree at the same time.

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Deterioration Mechanism of Paper according to Sizing and Beating(I)-Influences of Sizing- (사이징과 고해에 따른 종이의 열화기구(제1보)- 사이징의 영향 -)

  • 김봉용
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out in order to elucidate the deterioration mechanism of paper according to various sizing chemicals. No additive paper and four kinds of papers containing rosin-alum, alum only, alkylketene dimer(AKD)-cation polymer and cation polymer only were treated by UV light to study changes of water-resistant, optical and mechanical properties from the view points of natural deterioration of paper. Since rosin chemicals have UV absorption at the relatively long wavelength region, rosins are degraded to form hydrophilic groups such as carboxylic acid from their double bonds by UV treatments. These phenomena caused the decreasing of sizing degree and wetting time in case of rosin-sized paper, while the UV treatments brought about the slight increase of wetting time in rosin-free papers such as no additive, alum and kymene only paper owing to the auto-sizing effect. Optical properties were primarily influenced by sizing chemicals. Rosin-sized paper showed lower brightness after UV and near UV treatment because of its UV instability.

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Instrumental Analysis of Deposits on Paper Machine and Holes/Spots in Paper (제지공정 침착이물질 및 종이내 불순물 성분의 기기분석)

  • Ma, Geum-Ja;Lee, Bok-Jin
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 1998
  • The constituents of deposits on paper machine and holes/spots in paper have been analyzed by a combination of analytical techniques, such as FTIR, Py-GC-MS, and EDS. FTIR spectroscopy was used prior to Py-GC-MS and EDS analysis, as a preliminary analysis. The analysis of organic components was carried out with a pyrolysis unit connected to a GC-MS, and inorganic components in ash were analyzed by SEM equipped with an EDS analyzer after pyrolysis at $590^{\circ}C$. The deposits on the dryer section were complex pitch, which was the mixture of the organic components of fatty acid ester and starch, and the inorganic components of talc, clay, and calcium carbonate. The complex pitch was estimated to come from the coated broke. We knew the deposits on the metering rod of sym-sizer were associated with the interaction of unstable alkyl keten dimer(AKD) and $CaCO_3$. The compositions of holes or spots varied considerably and were associated with chemical interaction within the system. The holes, spots, and blotches in the finished paper were PE and PP from pulp sources, complex pitch that were caused by the interaction of the different additives in the system, polymer such as flexible PVC that was used for the prop of palette, and hot melt as adhesives that came from the inadequate handling of broke. In addition, we identified that poly(caprolactam) which is used for forming fabrics or press felts, could be mixed with the raw materials by accident and results in streaks on coating.

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Surface Chemical Studies on Flotation Processes -Importance of the Hydrophobic Property of Solid Particles in Flotation Efficiency- (부유부상 공정에 대한 표면화학적 연구 -부유부상 효율과 고형입자의 소수화도-)

  • 이학래;이진희;허용성;조중연;한신호
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2001
  • The immediate purposes of this study is to establish the surface chemical principles associated with the flotation process of waste papers and to verify them by practical flotation experiments. To achieve this AKD sized hydrophobic microcrystallince cellulose (MCC) with different levels of hydrophobicity, and hydrophilic MCC dyed with black were prepared as model substances. The effects of surface characteristics on flotation efficiency were evaluated by measuing the brightness of the flotation rejects obtained after the flotation experiments carried out using MCC mixtures prepared with different ratios of hydrophobic and hydrophilic MCCs. Results showed that more than 90% of the flotation rejects consisted of hydrophobic MCC indicating the critical importance of the hydrophobicity of the materials in the flotation process. The proportions of hydrophobic materials in the reject remained constant when highly sized MCC was used as a model of hydrophobic substance.

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Total sizing system (총 사이징 시스템)

  • Proverb, Robert J.;Pawlowska, Lucyna;Komarowska, Kasia;Garro, Gina;Dilts, Kimberly
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.19-42
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    • 2004
  • Sizing properties in paper are generally developed through the application of both internal and surface sizes. Rosin, wax, and synthetic sizes including ASA, AKD, and stearic anhydride are and have been used to provide wet-end sizing to paper. In many cases, the use of some of these sizes leads to runnability problems that are inherent in the wet-end operation. Variability in furnish, fines, broke, filler, water chemistry, conductivity, and pH control impacts the wet-end operation. Size press chemicals including starch and polymers such as styrene-acrylic, styrene-maleic, and styrene acrylate emulsions are used in conjunction with internal sizes to improve the paper surface for printing and strength properties, porosity, and opacity improvement. This paper will discuss results from a new, proprietary formulation and process that allows application of sizing chemistry more totally at the size press with reduced emphasis on wet end sizing. Runnability issues are thus minimized at the wet-end, chemical usage is more efficient, and significant cost savings can be realized. Case histories will be presented illustrating the advantages of this new application in commercial trials.

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