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Taste Compounds of Fresh-Water Fishes 6. Taste Compounds of Korean Catfish Meat (담수어의 정미성분에 관한 연구 6. 메기의 정미성분)

  • YANG Syng-Taek;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 1983
  • In order to elucidate the taste compounds of Korean catfish, Parasilurus asotus, free amino acids, nucleotides and their related compounds, organic bases, sugars, organic acids and minerals in the extracts of Korean catfish were analyzed, and then evaluated by sensory test of synthetic extract prepared on the basis of the analytical data. Taste panel assessments of synthetic extracts prepared with each extractive component omitted were carried out by a triangle difference test, and changes in taste profile were assessed. In free amino acid composition, glycine was dominant occupying $25\%$ of total free amino acids. The other abundant free amino acids were lysine, taurine and alanine. Judging from the result of analysis of nucleotides, IMP was dominant showing about $70\%$ of total nucleotides while ATP, ADP, AMP, inosine and hypoxanthine were low in content. Among organic bases, total creatinine was abundant and its nitrogen content occupied more than $50\%$ of the total extractive nitrogen. The amount of betaine was 18mg/100g and trace amount of trimethylamine and trimethylamine oxide were detected. The main organic acids were succinic, butyric, propionic and valeric acid. On the other hand, oxalic, fumaric, maleic, tartaric and citric acids were analyzed in trace. As for the sugars, glucose was found to be the most abundant monosaccharide. Extremely small amounts of fructoae, inositol were also detected and ribose and arabinose were trace in content. $K^+,\;Na^+,\;PO_{4}^{3-}$ and $Cl^-$ were found to be the major ions and small amount of $Ca^{2+}$ were defected. The synthetic extract, prepared with about 40 pure chemicals based on the analytical data satisfactorily revealed the natural taste of the original extract except slight difference in meaty taste and mildness. From the results of omission test the major components which contribute to produce the taste were serine, IMP, succinic acid and $PO_{4}^{3-}$.

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Effect of Cold Exposure on Thyroid Thermogenesis in Rats (한냉에 노출된 흰쥐에서 갑상선 호르몬이 체열 생산인 미치는 영향)

  • 황애란
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.87-104
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    • 1983
  • It has been well documented that animals exposed to cold show increased activity of thyroid gland. The calorigenic action of thyroid hormone has been demonstrated by a variety of in vivo and in vitro studies. According to Edelman et al., the thyroid thermogenesis is due to activation of energy consuming processes, especially the active sodium transport by the hormone in target tissues. If so, the increase in thyroid activity during cold exposure should induce increased capacity of sodium transport in target tissue and the change in tissue metabolism should be precisely correlated with the change in Na+_K+_ATPase activity of the tissue. This possibility was tested in the present study: in one series, changes in oxygen consumption and Na+_K+_-ATPase activity of liver preparations were measured in rats as a function of thyroid status, in order to establish the effect of thyroid hormone on the tissue respiration and enzyme system in another series, the effect of cold stimulus on the serum thyroid hormone level, hepatic tissue oxygen consumption and Na+_K+_ATPase activity in rats. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The Na+_dependent oxygen consumption of liver slices, the oxygen consumption of liver mitochondria and the Na+_K+_ATPase activity of liver preparations were significantly inhibited in hypothyroidism and activated in hyperthyroidism. Kinetic analysis indicated that the Vmax. of Na+_K+_ATPase was decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperth)'roidism. 2. In cold exposed rats, the serum triiodothyronine (T₃) level increased rapidly during the initial one day of cold exposure, then declined slowly to the control level after two weeks. The serum thyroxine (T₄) level decreased gradually throughout the cold exposure. Accordingly the T₃/T₄ratio increased. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption and the Na+_dependent oxygen consumption of liver slices increased during the first two days and then remained unchanged thereafter The activity of the Na+_K+_ATPase in liver preparations increased during cold exposure with a time course similar to that of oxygen consumption. Kinetic analysis indicated that the Vmax. of Na+_K+_ATPase increased. 3. Once the animal was adapted to cold, induction of hypothyroidism did not significantly alter the hepatic oxygen consumption and Na+_K+_ATPase activity. These results indicate that: 1) thyroid hormone increases capacities of mitochondrial respiration and active sodium transport in target tissues such as liver; 2) the increased T₃level during the initial period of cold exposure facilitates biosynthesis of Na+_K+_ATPase and mitochondrial enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation, leading to enhanced production and utilization of ATP, hence heat production.

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The Effect of Antioxidants on the Fermented Sardine and Taste Compounds of Product (정어리젓 가공에 있어서의 항산화제 처리 효과 및 제품의 정미성분)

  • LEE Eung-Ho;CHO Soon-Yeong;CHA Yong-Jun;JEON Joong-Kyun;KIM Se-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.201-211
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    • 1981
  • For the effective utilization of sardine, sardinops melanosticta, one of the major coastal fish in Korea, of which annual catch has been increasing from year to year since 1970, it was processed in form of fermented fish paste. The fish were treated with BHA and Teaox-Ⅱ in concentration of $0.01\%\;and\;0.02\%$ to prevent the oxidation of lipid during fermentation and then salted with $20\%$ table salt and fermented at room temperature of $25\pm3^{\circ}C$. The duration of fermentation necessary for the final product with an acceptable taste was determined by sensory evaluation by means of profile method. From the result of sensory evaluation, one month was found to be suitable as the reasonable duration of fermentation. Both BHA and Tenox-Ⅱ in conceatration of $0.02\%$showed a good preventing effect on the lipid oxidation during fermentation. In case of fermented sardine treated with both antioxidants, lipid oxidation occurred little up to two months, whereas the control showed a remarkable deterioration during one month of fermentation. Most of the nucleotides in sardine was decomposed from adenosing triphosphate to inosine and hypoxanthine during the fermentation of one month. The great portion of free amino acids in the extractives of product was occupied by leucine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, alanine, valine and ysine in turn, and their coatent was $59.4\%$ of the total free amino acids. The amount of essential amino acids was $59.4\%$ of the total free amino acids. The contents of 5'-IMP, betaine, trimethylamine oxide and total creatinine in the extractives of product were $1.9{\mu}mole/g,\;4.9mg\%,\;1.0mg\%\;and\;475mg\%$, respectively. According to the omission test, the main constituents of the characteristic taste of fermented sardine could be assumed as free amino acids and a little amount of 5'-IMP.

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Changes of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Plasma of Rats during Cold Exposure (저온환경 적응에 있어서의 갑상선 Hormone의 변동)

  • Lee, H.W.;Kim, W.J.;Hong, S.S.;Kim, H.S.;Hong, S.U.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 1981
  • The importance of thyroid hormones for the survival of rats in the cold is along-established fact. Hypothyroid animals are unable to survive in a cold environment. It was also reported that acute exposure of rats, guinea pigs and rabbits to cold produced an increased secretion of TSH and thereby thyroid hormone secretion within 10 to 30 min, but this increase of thyroid activity disappeared quite rapidly during warming. However, in human study no significant difference was found in the concentration of $T_4$, TSH and cortisol between summer and winter. But plasma $T_3$ concentration was increased significantly in winter in 56 adult men. On the other hand, it has been also known that catecholamines are important in the maintenance of body temperature of rat exposured to cold. Abundant evidences suggest that the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the activation of nonshivering thermogenesis and that thyroid hormone metabolism and secretion are influenced by catecholamines and consequently by the activity of the sympatheticadrenal system. Many of the metabolic effects of catecholamines are associated with an increase in the level of cAMP mediated through activation of adenylate cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP. Other studies have shown that thyroid hormones affect the amount of adenylate cyclase present in the adipose tissue. On the other hand. it was also reported that a particulate cAMP phosphodiesterase activity in fat cells was modulated by the action of thyroid hormones. The objective of the present study was to determine the interaction between thyroid activity and cyclic nucleotides during acute exposure to cold. Albino rats weighing around 200 g were used as the experimental animal. The room temperature group was kept at $25^{\circ}C$ and the cold-exposured group was kept at $4^{\circ}C$ for 1 week or 2 weeks. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups; control, KI, and MTU group. At the end of experiment the animals were etherized and blood was taken from abdominal aorta for $T_4,\;T_3$ and cyclic nucleotides. The determinations of $T_3,\;T_4$ and cyclic nucleotides were carried out with a radioimmunoassay(RIA) method. The results were summerized as followings. 1) A significant increase of thyroid weight was observed in rats exposured to cold for 2 weeks. Furthermore, in rats administered MTU while to exposure to cold the thyroid weight was also increased significantly. 2) After 2 weeks $T_3$ concentration in the plasma of cold-exposured rats was significantly increased in KI group and MTU group as well as in control group. On the contrary, after 2 weeks of cold exposure $T_4$ level was decreased in control group. 3) In the case of cyclic nucleotides, plasma cAMP was increased in the control group after 1 or 2 weeks of cold exposure. However, cAMP level in plasma was rather significantly decreased in KI group and MTU group as well as in control group.

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A Study of the Bio-Nutritional Evaluation of Duck-Meat (오리고기의 영양생화학적 가치에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yong-Ock;Nam, Hyun-Keun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.16-25
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    • 1981
  • Commercially available duck-meat was subjected to proximate analysis. On a wet basis, the duck-meat contained 62.87, 17.05, 19.06 ana 1.02 percent of moisture, crude fat, crude protein and ash, respectively. Almost all the essential amino acids contained in the duck-meat protein, ana the tryptophan was the limiting one by amino acid analysis of GLC. An analysis of the fatty acid composition by GLC showed a relatively high concentration of oleic acid. There was also a considerable content of linoleic acid. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids of duck-meat was 70.9% and the P/S ratio of fatty acids was 3.4. The cholesterol content in duck-meat was determined to be approximately 70. 5mg/100g ofm sample. According to blood analysis, it was understood that the content of phospholipids was relatively high, particulary in lecithin. ATP-phosphorus, at the higher temperature, was released faster than at the lower temperature, by two hours after postmortem. The ATPase activity of Myogibril was inhibited at the relatively high concentration of added EDTA and metallic ions, but the activity was very high in the lower concentrations. According to the cooking conditions, boiled duck-meat showed good digestion by pepsin. It was understood that the digestibility of duck meat was relatively high, so the duck-meat protein is good source of animal protein. Therefore, it is able to be recommended that duck-meat is good nitrogen source animal food.

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Adenyl Cyclase Activity in Cold-acclimatized Animals (한냉적응이 Adenyl Cyclase Activity에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Bok-Soon;Lee, Sang-Ho;Kang, Doo-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1974
  • The object of this research is aimed to determine the activity of adenyl cyclase in both skeletal muscle sarcolemma and fat cell ghost of epididymal adipose tissue isolated from rats exposed to cold for various length of time in an attempt to evaluate whether the tissue sensitivity to catecholamine is increased when rats are exposed to cold for long periods of time Methods: a)Animals: Albino rats ranging in weight from 150 to 200 gm were used throughout this study. For experimental purposes, the rats are divided into two groups: experimental animals were place4 in a cold room at $4^{\circ}C$, controls being kept at $25^{\circ}C$. At the end of 2, 4, 6, 12, and 16 weeks. exposure to cold the rats were used to measure the adenyl cyclase activity. b) Isolation of plasma membrane from skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: The Plasma membrane of skeletal muscle from hind limbs of rats are prepared by the method employed by Rosenthal et at. and fat cell ghost of epididymal adipose tissue of rats by the method employed by Rodbell. c) Adenyl cyclase assay: Adenyl cyclase activity were measured by the method employed by Marinetti et al. Briefly, plasma membrane was incubated with $3^H-ATP$, various amount of noradrenaline and other incubation mixture at $37^{\circ}C$ for 20 minutes. After stopping the enzyme reaction by immersion in boiling water, carrier 3',5'-AMP was added to the system as a marker and $100\;{\mu}1$ aliquots of incubation mixture were pipetted on $20{\time}20$ Whatman No. 3 MM filter paper for one dimensional chromatography. The cyclic AMP spots were cut off and placed in counting vials containing 10ml of Bray's scintillation cocktail. Radioactivity was determined with a Packard Tri-Carb liquid scintillation counter. The enzyme activity is expressed as nanomoles of cyclic AMP produced per mg of membrane per hour. Result: 1. Average adenyl cyclase activity in the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle before and after noradrenaline administration was significantly higher in the cold-exposed rats as compared to the control. Continuous exposure to cold Produced an increased adenyl cyclase activity before and after noradrenaline administration. Adenyl cyclase activity reached peak levels at the 6 weeks exposure to told and level of adenyl cyclase activity remained high. Noradrenaline administration to the incubation medium induced a significant increase in adenyl cyclase activity and the degree of stimulation were proportional to the hormonal concentration But the rate of inclement in adenyl cyclase activity by noradreasline was the same in both groups. 2. Adenyl cyclase activity in fat cell ghost between cold exposed and control rats showed no significant differences before and after noradreualine administration. In summary, it can be concluded that cold adaptation give rise an increased activity of adenyl cyclase in plasma membrane of skeletal muscle in rats.

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The Effect of Higenamine on the Calcium Transport of Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (Higenamine이 심근 Sarcoplasmic Reticulum의 칼슘운반에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Joo-Hyun;Lee, Yung-Kyoon;Kim, Hae-Won;Kim, Myung-Suk;Park, Chan-Woong;Lim, Jung-Kyoo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 1982
  • Higenamine(dl-demethylcoclaurine, dl-1-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrah-ydroisoquinoline hydrochloride), which has recently been isolated from Aconite root by Drs. Kosuge and Yokota, has known to be the main cardiotonic component of the Aconite root. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Higenamine on the calcium binding and release and ATPase activity of fragmented cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum under in vitro condition. The calcium binding and release of sarcoplasmic reticulum were measured by using the double-beam spectrophotometer and the calcium sensitive dye, murexide. In the presence of $10^{-4}{\sim}5{\times}10^{-3}M$ of Higenamine, the maximal calcium binding and the initial binding rate of porcine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum were inhibited dose dependently by up to 43%. However, the calcium release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, which was loaded with $Ca^{++}(50{\mu}M)$, was stimulated in dose dependent manner. When incubated in the medium of 20 mM Tris-maleate(pH 7.0), 100 mM KCl, 10 mM $MgCl_2,\;0.05mM\;CaCl_2\;and\;0.014{\sim}1\;mM\;Tris-ATP\;at\;30^{\circ}C$ in the presence of Higenamine $(10^{-4}{\sim}5{\times}10^{-3}M)$, both $Ca^{++}-and\;Mg^{++}-ATPase$ of sarcoplasmic reticulum were inhibited non-competitively by Higenamine and values of $K_i$ were 4.896 mM and 6.875 mM respectively. It is suggested from the above findings that the cardiotonic effects of Higenamine might be partially explained by the inhibition of calcium binding and the stimulation of calcium release from the sarcoplasimic reticulum which may increase the free intracellular calcium that is available in the contraction of the cardiac muscle fiber.

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The Effects of Ginseng Saponin Fraction on Growth and Siderophore Formation in Eseherichia coli K-12 (인삼사포닌 분획이 Escherichia coli K-12의 성장과 Siderophore 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 조영동;이용범
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 1983
  • The effects of saponin, one of major components (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), on the growth of E. coli K-12 and the formation of siderphore was observed The following results were obtained. 1. When E. coli was grown on medium containing 1${\times}$10-5%-11${\times}$10-1% of the saponin, the rate of growth was stimulated at 10-1% of the saponin significantly compared to that of control. 2. When E. coli K-12 was grown on medium containing 1${\times}$10-1% of the saponin, the amount of siderphore was two times as much as the control. 3. The growth of E. coli was observed to be dependent on the concentration of siderophore when siderophore was added to medium. 4. The effect of saponin on the formation of siderophore in vitro was observed to reach maximum at 1${\times}$10-3% of the saponin. Such results suggest that the growth rate of E. coli K-12 could be enhanced by ginseng saponin fraction through stimulation of siderphore formation. We have described the fast growth of E. coli, K-12 and B. subtilis, rapid uptake of 14C-glucose, and high level of other metabolites such as lipids and proteins of E. coli, and B. subtilis in medium containing saponing fraction compared to that of microorganisms without saponin fraction.1∼3Such differences were claimed to be due to rapid uptake of 14C-glucose by widened periplasmic region throught unknown mechanism in the prescence of saponin fraction in medium3 and have raised a question whether there is another possible factor, siderophore4(Greek for iron bears), since microorganisms must secure a sufficient amount of iron for normal growth. These are known to be synthesized by the cells under iron-deficient condition and in most case, excreted into the medium5, where they can complex and solubilize any iron present there. It is generally believed that these complexes are then taken into the cells presumably by specific transport systems, thus providing iron for cell metabolism. Within the group of enteric bacteria, only three species (E. coli, S. typhimurium, and A. aerogense) have, so far, been studied in a ny detail. The main iron-binding compound produced by these species is enterochelin, and its role in iron transport is now well established. And biosynthesis of enterochelin from 2, 3- dihydroxybenzoate and serine in the prescence of magnesium ions and ATP was reported6. 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoate was also shown to involve isochorismate and 2, 3-dihydro-2, 3-dihydroxybenzoate as intermediate.7∼11 The present paper deals with the effect of ginseng saponin fraction on growth, the level of enterochelin formation in vivo and the conversion of 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoate and serine into entrochelin in vitro, and entrochelin obtained on the growth in relation to possible explanation of ginseng saponin fraction on the rapid growth of E. coli, K-12.

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Taste Compounds of Fresh-Water Fishes 7. Taste Compounds of Wild Eel Meat (담수어의 정미성분에 관한 연구 7. 천연산 뱀장어의 정미성분)

  • YANG Syng-Taek;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 1984
  • In order to elucidate the taste compounds of wild eel, Anguilla japonica, free amino acids, nucleotides and their related compounds, organic bases, sugars, organic acids and minerals were analyzed, and then followed by organoleptic test of synthetic extract prepared on the basis of the analytical data. Taste panel assessments of synthetic extracts prepared with each extractive component omitted were carried out by a triangle difference test, and changes in profile were assessed. In free amino acid composition, lysine was dominant occupying $25\%$ of total free amino acid. The other abundant amino acids were glycine, arginine, alanine and histidine. From the results of analysis of nucleotides, IMP was dominant showing about $70\%$ of total nucleotides while ATP, ADP, AMP, inosine and hypoxanthine were low in content. Among organic bases total creatinine was abundant. The amount of betaine was 24 mg/100 g. The main organic acid were butyric acid, valeric acid and succinic acid. As for the sugars, glucose and inositol were 1-2 mg/ 100g in content. $K^+,\;Na^+,\;PO_{4}^{3-}\;and\;Cl^-$ were found to be the major ions. From the results of omission test the major components which contribute to produce the taste were glycine, serine, glutamic acid, IMP, $Na^+,\;K^+,\;Cl^-,\;PO_{4}^{3-}$, lysine, alanine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and creatinine.

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Antiepileptic Therapy for Latent Epilepsy (잠복성 간질에 대한 항간제 투여의 뇌파상 효과)

  • Park, Choong-Sub;Byun, Yung-Joo;Ha, Jung-Sang
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 1985
  • The clinical state with EEG pattern similar to interval discharge of epileptics is named as latent epilepsy, which does not necessarily mean that the patient will develop epilepsy later. However, since there is possibility of developing epilepsy on later date, antiepileptic mainly dilantin was tried to control the abnormal EEG. Since January to October 1985, total 580 headache sases with more than moderately abnormal EEG Visited the Neurology clinic. Among them 162 cases with interval seizure pattern (ISP) of epilepsy were selected for the study. The main ISP was 1. diffuse theta and/or delta bursts and 2. spikes. Since the study is only analysis of clinical treatment of 162 cases Without previous planning based on financial aid, about 30% of the patients did not return after the 1st EEG examination, in 42% failed to follow the EEG after the treatment and only remaining 28% of the cases were studied. Among 29 patients who were treated with Dilantin 100mg tid po, 16 improved and 13 not. Of the 13, 4 showed partial Improvement and partial progression. Case 1. In 4 weeks of antiepileptic the ray (AR), spikes disappeared but in 2 months developed bursts. Case 2. In 17days of AR, spikes and bursts disappeared but in 3 months bursts reccured. Case 3. In 1 week of AR, bursts disappeared but spikes developed. Case 4. In 3 months of AR, no change of spikes and bursts and she discontinued the AR. In 6 months she developed grandmal seizure. Eighteen cases, treated with other drugs except antiepileptics, all showed improvement. The other drugs were vincaprol, polygammalon, aronamin, ATP and hydergine. The improved cases had spikes more often than theta bursts. In view of the small number of the cases due to dropping most patients out of present study, it is considered meaningless to perform statistical analysis. Further well planned study With more patients is to be expected.

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