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Effect of Refrigerated Sea Water on Keeping Freshness of Sardine (냉각해수저장법에 의한 정어리의 선도유지)

  • CHO Young-Je;KIM Chung-Gon;LEE Kang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 1988
  • The Present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of refrigerated seawater (RSW) at $-1^{\circ}C$ in order to delay spoilage and extend the shelf-life in Sardine(Sardinops melanosticta). The result obtained are summarized as follows : In case of freshness, K-value was shown above $30\%$ at 1 day of storage by icing, but in RSW system was shown $20\%$ until 2 days by storage. VBN and TMA were also shown the similar tendency when compared to K-value. The lipids extracted from sardine muscle held in ice was oxidized much more than those in RSW system by way of chemical test such as TBA and POV. The myofibrillar protein extracted from sardine stored in RSW system was denaturized more slowly compared with those by ice. $Ca^{2+}-ATPase$ activity indicated that myofibrillar protein held in RSW system was more stable than those held in ice. Total viable counts for sardine in RSW system showed an overall lower values. By TPA(Textural Porfile Analysis) , sardine meat pastes held in RSW system have a higher value than those held in ice.

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Biochemical Effect on Potato Tubers Irradiated by Gamma-Ray at Sprout-Inhibition Dose (방사선 조사에 의한 감자 발아 억제시 생화학적 효과)

  • Jeon, J.H.;Byun, S.M.;Chang, Y.S.P.;Chung, K.H.;Cho, H.O.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 1985
  • Potato tubers treated at $4^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks were irradiated with a dose of 0.12 kGy from $^{60}Co$ source and stored at $20^{\circ}C,\;70{\sim}90%$ humidity for 5 weeks. Changes of ${\alpha}-amylase$, peroxidase, indole acetic acid oxidase, indole acetic acid synthesizing enzyme activities were determined. In addition, treatment of gibberellin or indole acetic acid to tubers irradiated were carried out to examine reversal of sprout-inhibition of tubers irradiated. Results are as follows; 1. Irradiation by ${\gamma}-ray$ at 0. 12 kGy dose inactivated easily the enzyme activities in vitro. $D_{37}$ values obtained were 0.94, 0.36 kGy for ${\alpha}-amylase$ and peroxidase, respectively 2. Complete inhibition of the toter sprouting was resulted by the irradiation of tubers with a dose of 0.12 kGy. 3. The indole acetic acid oxidase activity increased 2 times immediately after irradiation. Meanwhile, indole acetic acid synthesizing activity decreased about $50{\sim}75%$ for 5-week storage in irradiated potatoes, whereas the activity increased about 3.5 times along with sprouting in non-irradiated tubers. 4. In morphological aspects, deformed buds with necrosis in the meristmatic tissue were developed in irradiated tubers. Treatment of gibberellin or indole acetic acid at the concentration of 100 or 20 ppm to the irradiated tubers reversed the sprout-inhibition partially. Nevertheless, the deformed buds remained without change.

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Changes in the Properties of Myofibrillar Proteins from Broiler Meat during Cold and Frozen Storage (육계육의 냉장 및 동결저장 중 근원섬유 단백질의 특성 변화)

  • 박창식;문윤희
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 1987
  • This study was carried out to compare the changes in the extractability, biological activity, and solubility of myofibrillar proteins and actomyosins during storage period at 4$^{\circ}C$ and -20$^{\circ}C$in pectoral. and leg muscle of broiler meat. 1. The results obtained are as fellows ; The extractabilities of myofibrillar proteins in pectoral and leg muscle were increased gradually to 7-days during storage at 4$^{\circ}C$ and decreased slightly during frozen storage at -20$^{\circ}C$. The extractabilities of actomyosins in pectoral and legmuscle were not greatly changed during cold storage and decreased gradually during frozen storage. 2. The Ca$\^$2+/-ATP ase activities of myofibrillar proteins in the both muscles were not greatly changed to 7-days during cold storage, and in the case of frozen storage, those were highest on the 2nd week, thereafter decreased with storage period. The Ca$\^$2+/-ATPase activities of actomyosins in pectoral and leg muscle were decreased sightly only frist day during cold storage and decreased gently during frozen storage. 3. Myofibrillar proteins in the both muscles were solubilized completely at 0.20M KCl in fresh meat, at 0.25M (pectoral) and 0.30M KCl (leg) in the cold storage, and at 0.30M KCl in the frozen storage. Actomyosins of both muscles were solubilized completely at 0.40M KCl in fresh meat, cold and frozen storage.

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Anti-fatigue effect of a cucumber vinegar beverage on rats after high-intensity exercise (고강도 운동을 실시한 흰쥐에 대한 오이식초음료의 항피로 효과)

  • Cho, Hyun Dong;Kim, Jeong Ho;Lee, Ju Hye;Hong, Seong Min;Yee, Sung Tae;Seo, Kwon Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 2017
  • We evaluated the effect of cucumber vinegar (CV) on fatigue accumulation in rats that performed high-intensity exercise. The rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sedentary control (SC), exercise control (EC), and CV. Body weights were higher in groups EC and CV than in group SC. Organ weights in group CV did not differ from those in group SC. Running time was significantly longer in group CV than in the other groups. Compared to group EC, cucumber vinegar administration markedly decreased serum concentrations of ammonia, inorganic phosphate, and ${{\small}L}$-lactate. The activities of serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in group CV than in groups SC and EC. Glycogen contents in the muscle and liver were higher in group CV than in groups SC and EC. These results suggest that cucumber vinegar can serve as a functional ingredient in the development of a beverage to attenuate fatigue.

Effect of Tartary Buckwheat Sprout on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Anti-Histone Acetyltransferase Activity (쓴메밀 새싹 추출물의 히스톤 아세틸화 효소 활성 저해에 의한 비알코올성 지방간 억제 효능)

  • Hwang, Jin-Taek;Nam, Tae Gyu;Chung, Min-Yu;Park, Jae Ho;Choi, Hyo-Kyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2017
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by chronic lipid accumulation due to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in the liver, and it is associated with various human diseases such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Histone acetylation is a representative epigenetic mechanism regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases. We observed that tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) suppressed lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells through its anti-HAT activity. We showed that TBS was a novel HAT inhibitor with specificity for the major HAT enzyme p300. Importantly, TBS reduced acetylation of total and histone proteins, H3K9, H3K36, and H4K8, resulting in decreased transcriptional activities of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, ATP citrate lyase, and fatty acid synthase. These results suggest that TBS inhibits the NAFLD transcription-modulating activity of lipogenesis-related genes through modification of histone acetylation.

Effects of deoxynivalenol- and zearalenone-contaminated feed on the gene expression profiles in the kidneys of piglets

  • Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Lee, Woong;Jeong, Jin young;Lee, Yookyung;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Min Seok;Kim, Dong-Woon;Yu, Dongjo;Cho, Ara;Oh, Young Kyoon;Lee, Sung Dae
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.138-148
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods: Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0.8 mg ZEN/kg feed. Kidney samples were collected after treatment, and RNA-seq was used to investigate the effects on immune-related genes and gene networks. Results: A total of 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened (120 upregulated and 66 downregulated). Gene ontology analysis revealed that the immune response, and cellular and metabolic processes were significantly controlled by these DEGs. The inflammatory stimulation might be an effect of the following enriched Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis found related to immune and disease responses: cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), tuberculosis, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and chemical carcinogenesis. The effects of DON and ZEN on genome-wide expression were assessed, and it was found that the DEGs associated with inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 receptor, beta, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9, CXCL10, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 4), proliferation (insulin like growth factor binding protein 4, IgG heavy chain, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, cytochrome P450 1A1, ATP-binding cassette sub-family 8), and other immune response networks (lysozyme, complement component 4 binding protein alpha, oligoadenylate synthetase 2, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-9, ${\alpha}$-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, Ig lambda chain c region, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4, carboxylesterase 1), were suppressed by DON and ZEN. Conclusion: In summary, our results indicate that high concentrations of DON and ZEN suppress the inflammatory response in kidneys, leading to potential effects on immune homeostasis.

Non-ribosomal Ribosome Assembly Factors in Escherichia coli (Escherichia coli 에서 리보솜 조립과정에 관여하는 단백질들)

  • Choi, Eunsil;Hwang, Jihwan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.915-926
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    • 2014
  • The ribosome is a protein synthesizing machinery and a ribonucleoprotein complex that consists of three ribosomal RNAs (23S, 16S and 5S) and 54 ribosomal proteins in bacteria. In the course of ribosome assembly, ribosomal proteins (r-protein) and rRNAs are modified, the r-proteins bind to rRNAs to form ribonucleoprotein complexes which are folded into mature ribosomal subunits. In this process, a number of non-ribosomal trans-acting factors organize the assembly process of the components. Those factors include GTP- and ATP-binding proteins, rRNA and r-protein modification enzymes, chaperones, and RNA helicases. During ribosome biogenesis, they participate in the modifications of ribosomal proteins and RNAs, and the assemblies of ribosomal proteins with rRNAs. Ribosomes can be assembled from a discrete set of components in vitro, and it is notable that in vivo ribosome assembly is much faster than in vitro ribosome assembly. This suggests that non-ribosomal ribosome assembly factors help to overcome several kinetic traps in ribosome biogenesis process. In spite of accumulation of genetic, structural, and biochemical data, not only the entire procedure of bacterial ribosome synthesis but also most of roles of ribosome assembly factors remain elusive. Here, we review ribosome assembly factors involved in the ribosome maturation of Escherichia coli, and summarize the contributions of several ribosome assembly factors which associate with 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits, respectively.

Proteomic Analysis of Protein Changes in Human Lung Cancer Epithelial Cells Following Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection (Streptococcus pneumonia 감염으로 변화한 사람 폐 상피세포 단백질의 프로테오믹 분석)

  • Lee, Yun Yeong;Chung, Kyung Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1050-1056
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    • 2013
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia throughout the world. The bacteria invade through lung tissue and cause sepsis, shock, and serious sequelae, including rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. However, the molecular mechanism associated with pneumonia's penetration of lung tissue and invasion of the blood stream are still unclear. We attempted to investigate the host cell response at protein levels to S. pneumoniae D39 invasion using human lung cancer epithelial cells, A549. Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 began to change the morphology of A549 cells to become round with filopodia at 2 hours post-infection. A549 cell proteins obtained at each infection time point were separated by SDS-PAGE and analyzed using MALDI-TOF. We identified several endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins such as Grp94 and Grp78 and mitochondrial proteins such as ATP synthase and Hsp60 that increased after S. pneumoniae D39 infection. Cytosolic Hsc70 and Hsp90 were, however, identified to decrease. These proteins were also confirmed by Western blot analysis. The identified ER resident proteins were known to be induced during ER stress signaling. These/ data, therefore, suggest that S. pneumoniae D39 infection may induce ER stress.

Development of Standard Specification of Korea Radio based Train Control System(KRTCS-2) for Conventional & High Speed Railway (일반·고속철도용 무선기반 열차제어시스템(KRTCS-2) 표준사양 개발)

  • Kim, Chan-ho;Park, Jong-won;Lee, Kang-gyoo;Sung, Dong-il;Yun, Hak-sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.736-743
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    • 2016
  • In accordance with the trend of higher speed and automation, the Train Control System is building on the technology of control methods using radio in the technology of exchanging information by wire, toward a wireless communication method that will be applied using LTE-R radio communication technology with $4^{th}$ generation LTE mobile communication a $2^{nd}$ generation GSM-R. Therefore, a standard specification suitable for the Korea Radio based Train Control System-2(below KRTCS-2) for the 350km/h class using wireless communication is created; a prototype based on the standard specification is installed on a high-speed train and is installed on a test section(Ik san-Jeong eup) on the Honam high speed line to ensure the reliability and safety of the standard specifications, which are verified through various performance tests. In the future, the standard specification that has been established as a national railway standard, and the standard specifications will be commercialized by applying the train control system to conventional and High speed railway lines.

A Clinical Study on Relevance between Classified Dampness-Phlegm Pattern of Metabolic Syndrome and Heart Rate Variability (대사증후군의 습담 변증군과 심박변이도의 관련성에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Jae-Wook;Shin, Yoon-Ri;Bae, Su-Hyun;Park, Seon-Young;Choi, Sang-Ok;Kim, Kyoung-Min;Kim, Young-Kyun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.284-297
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study was performed to investigate characteristic indice of heart rate variability (HRV) according to presence of metabolic syndrome (MS), pattern identification. Methods : We analyzed 167 subjects who participated in a stroke check-up. We classified the subjects into two groups as MS (n=48) and non-MS (n=119) based on NCEP ATP III. First, we investigated pattern identification of all subjects based on Korean Standard Pattern Identifications for Stroke-III. Second, we surveyed significance of HRV indices between MS and non-MS groups. Third, we investigated significance of HRV indices between classified DP of MS and classified DP of non-MS. Fourth, we investigated significance of HRV indices between classified DP of MS and non-MS. Fifth, we investigated significance between components of MS and HRV indices. Results : 1. SDNN, RMS-SD, HF, Ln(HF), and HF (NORM) were significantly lower in the MS than non-MS group. LN (TP), LF/HF were significantly higher in the MS than non-MS. 2. Ln (HF), Ln (TP), and LF/HF were statistically significant in the classified DP of MS group. 3. RMS-SD, and Ln (HF) were significantly lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group. SDNN, RMS-SD, TP, Ln (TP), VLF, Ln (VLF), and Ln (LF) were significantly lower in the hypertension group than in the non-hypertension group. RMS-SD was significantly lower in the diabetes group than in the non-diabetes group. Mean HRT,LF/HF were significantly higher in the hypertriglyceridemia than non-hypertriglyceridemia group, but Ln (HF), RMS-SD, and HF (NORM) were significantly lower in the hypertriglyceridemia than non-hypertriglyceridemia group. Conclusions : We found a few significant relationships between classified DP of MS and HRV indices. The resluts demonstrate that MS has potentially negative effects on the cardiovascular system, and these effects could be detected by HRV.