• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATP

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Effects of Potassium-Channel Opener on Thallium-201 Kinetics: In-vitro Study in Rat Myocyte Preparations and In-vivo Mice Biodistribution Study (K-통로개방제가 배양심근세포와 생쥐 체내의 Thallium-201역동학에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Tae;Kim, Eun-Ji;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Sohn, Kang-Kyun;Lee, Kyu-Bo;Ha, Jeoung-Hee;Kim, Chun-K.
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.507-515
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    • 1996
  • Background : Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens ATP-sensitive K'-channel located at cell membrane and induces potassium efflux from cytosol, resulting in intracellular hyperpolarization. Newly synthesized K-opener is currently examined for pharmacologic potency by means of rubidium release test from smooth muscle strip pre-incubated with Rb-86. Since in-vivo behavior of thallium is similar to that of rubidium, we hypothesized that K-opener can alter T1-201 kinetics in vivo. Purpose : This study was prepared to investigate the effects of pinacidil (one of potent K-openers) on the T1-201 uptake and clearance in cultured myocyte, and in-vivo biodistribution in mice. Methods : Spontaneous contracting myocytes were prepared to imitate in-vivo condition from 20 hearts of 3-5 days old Sprague-Dawley rat and cultured for 3-5 days before use ($5{\times}10^5$ cells/ml). Pinacidil was dissolved in 10% DMSO solution at a final concentration of 100nM or l0uM and was co-incubated with T1-201 in HBSS buffer for 20-min to evaluate its effect on cellular T1-uptake, or challenged to cell preparation pre-incubated with T1-201 for washout study. Two, 40 or $100{\mu}g$ of pinacidil was injected intravenously into ICR mice at 10 min after $5{\mu}Ci$ T1-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention rate were measured at different time points. Results : Co-incubation of pinacidil with T1-201 resulted in a decrease in T1-201 uptake into cultured myocyte by 1.6 to 2.5 times, depending on pinacidil concentration and activity of T1-201 used. Pinacidil enhanced T1-201 washout by 1.6-3.1 times from myocyte preparations pre-incubated with T1-201. Pinacidil treatment appears to be resulted in mild decreases in blood and liver activity in normal mice, in contrast, renal and cardiac uptake were mildly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Whole body retention ratios of T1-201 were lower at 24 hour after injection with $100{\mu}g$ of pinacidil than control. Conclusion : These results suggest that treatment with K-opener may affect the interpretation of T1-201 myocardial images, due to decreasing thallium accumulation and enhancing washout from myocardium.

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The Clinical Comparision of Amrinone and Dopamine after Open Heart Surgery (개심술후 암리논과 도파민의 효과에 대한 임상 비교)

  • 이성호;이현재
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 1996
  • Amrinone is a non-glycosidic, non-adrenergic positive inotropic agent with peripheral and coronary vasodilator effect. It inhibits phosphodiesterase F-III, the cardiac cyclic-AMP specific phosphodiesterase, selectively and potently. In this study, the effects of IV administered amrinone and dopamine were compared in 40 patients who had open heart surgery. Amrinone was administered as a bolus of 1 5~2mglkg for several minutes, followed by continuous infusion at 5~1 Oug/kg/min. The hemodynamic measurements including heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure, cardiac index, pulmonary wedge pressure, and systemic vascular resistance were recorded immediately for 12~24 hours awl 7th day following operation. In amrinone group, cardiac index increased from 3.73$\pm$1.39 L/min/m2 to 5.44$\pm$2.65 L/min/m2 at the time of posterative 48 hours (n=20, p< 0.05). The decrease in systemic vascular resistance from 1237.5 $\pm$ 637.7 dyne/sec/cm2 to 1000.8 $\pm$ 608.5 dyne/sec/cm2(p<0.05). In Dopamine group, the heart rate increased from 92.1 $\pm$ 13.0/min to 101.0 $\pm$ 13.1/min and the cardiac index decreased from 3.40 $\pm$ 0.50 L/min/m2 to 2.53 $\pm$ 1.15 L/min/m2 at the time of postoperative 12 hours(p<0.05). Systemic vascular resistance increased from 1058.5 $\pm$ 234.6 dyne/sec/cm2 to 1979.7 $\pm$ 759.2 dynelsec/cm2 The comparison of the hemodynamic effects of amrinone and dopamine, both drugs improved cardiac performance. But the administration of amrinone results in a higher cardiac index, diastolic blood pressure and lower systemic vascular resistance than those achieved with dopamine (p<0.05). The uniqueness of the action of amrinone on the heart and its sustained hemodynamic effect suggest it has clinical promise, pos operative care of cardiac surgery

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Effects of Pinacidil, a Potassium-Channel Opener, on Biodistribution of Thallium-201 in Tumor-Bearing Mice ($K^+$ 통로개방제 Pinacidil이 종양이식 생쥐에서 Tl-201의 체내분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Tae;Chun, Kyung-Ah;Lee, Sang-Woo;Kang, Do-Young;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Jun, Soo-Han;Lee, Kyu-Bo;Ha, Jeoung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: Thallium behaves similarly to potassium in vivo. Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens ATP-sensitive $K^+$-channel located at cell membrane, resulting in potassium efflux from cytosol. We have previously reported that K-opener can alter biokinetics of Tl-201 in cultured cells and in vivo. Malignant tumor cells have high Na-K ATPase activity due to increased metabolic activities and dedifferentiation, and differential delineation of malignant tumor can be possible with Tl-201 imaging. K-opener may affect tumoral uptake of Tl-201 in vivo. To investigate the effects of pinacidil (one of the potent K-openers) on the localization of the tumor with Tl-201 chloride, we evaluated the changes in biodistribution of Tl-201 with pinacidil treatment in tumor-bearing mice. Materials and Methods: Baltic mice received subcutaneous implantation of murine breast cancer cells in the thigh and were used for biodistribution study 3 weeks later. $100{\mu}g$ of pinacidil dissolved in $200{\mu}l$ DMSO/PBS solution was injected intravenously via tail vein at 10 min after 185 KBq ($5{\mu}Ci$) Tl-201 injection. Percentage organ uptake and whole body retention ratio of Tl-201 were measured at various periods after injection, and values were compared between control and pinacidil-treated mice. Results: Pinacidil treatment resulted in mild decrease in blood levels of Tl-201, but renal uptakes were markedly decreased at 30-min, 1- and 2-hour, compared to control group. Hepatic, intestinal and muscular uptake were not different. Absolute percentage uptake and tumor to blood ratios of Tl-201 were lower in pinacidil treated mice than in the control group at all time points measured. Whole body retention ratio of Tl-201 was lower in pinacidil treated mice ($58{\pm}4%$ ), than in the control group ($67{\pm}3%$) at 24 hours after with injection of $100{\mu}g$ pinacidil. Conclusion: K-opener did not enhance, but rather decreased absolute tumoral uptake and tumor-to-blood ratios of Tl-201. Decreased whole body retention ratio and renal uptake were observed with pinacidil treatment in tumor-bearing mice.

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숙성 토하젓의 기능성분 및 토하젓 소스 개발에 관한 연구

  • 박복희
    • Proceedings of the SOHE Conference
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 1997
  • Toha-jeod was manufactured by seven methods ; low salt group (L:15% sodium chloride), high salt g group (H:23% sodium chloride), 50% conventional soybean sauce group (S), low salt group containing 2% w wheat bran (W2%-L), high saIt group containing 2% wheat bran (W2%-H),high salt group containing 2% wheat bran (W2%-H), high salt group containing 4% wheat bran (W4%-H). After these seven groups were refrigerated at $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$, they were sampled at intervals of three months and analyzed functional components. The free amino acid in Toha-jeod which are omitine, glutamic acid, leucine, alanine, lysine and valine increased gradually up to six months of fermentation and decreased by nine months. Conventional soybean sauce group increased continuously during the fermentation process. Hypoxanthine was altered almost among other nueletides. ATP was not detected, IMP and inosine had disapapted after the six months fermentation. Polyene fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids were decreased and s saturated fatty acids were not altered in the group containing wheat bran during fermentation. In the Hunter values, the group containing wheat bran and high salt group showed lower level than the group n not containing wheat bran and low salt group. Redness indicating the value of Toha-jeod increased as Toha-jeod was fermentated. Low salt group and conventional soybean sauce group were superior to other groups in the extent of redness. As the fermentation of Toha-jeod progressed for a long time, molecular weight distribution tended to become less molecular and the formation of chitin oligosaccharides was increased significantly. After nine months of fermentation, 24.75% chitin oligosaccharides [($GlcNAd_4$ ~ ($GlcNAd_8$, M.W. 823~1789] were created in the high salt group containing 2% wheat bran. [($GlcNAd_6$. M.W. 1236J , that is NACOS-6, which was reported as an antitumor activity material, was present in 4.01~4.37% of total Toha chitin content. 66.30% chitin oligosaccharides were created in conventional soybean sauce.

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Isolation and Characterization of vasa Gene of Triploid and Diploid Human Lung Flukes (Paragonimus westermani) (폐흡충의 이배체와 삼배체 vasa 유전자 분석 및 특징)

  • Lee, Keun-Hee;Yu, Hak-Sun;Hur, Jae-Won;Yu, Sung-Suk;Choi, Sun-Hee;Park, Sang-Kyun;Lee, Sun-Joo;Chung, Dong-Il;Kong, Hyun-Hee;Ock, Mee-Sun;Jeong, Hae-Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.462-469
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we isolated, characterized, and compared the vasa homologous genes of diploid and triploid Paragonimus westermani and localized VASA homologous proteins in both lung fluke types. Open reading frames of Pw-vasa-2n and Pw-vasa-3n were of 1812 bp, and encoded deduced proteins of 622 amino acids with calculated molecular weights of 69.0 kDa and 68.9 kDa and pI's of 9.11 and 9.03, respectively. A comparison of these two VASA deduced protein sequences showed that only 6 of the 622 amino acids differed. The deduced sequences of Pw-VASA-2n and Pw-VASA-3n contained eight consensus sequences characteristic of the DEAD-box protein family and their N-terminal regions contained four arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) motifs. These two lung fluke VASA-like proteins were more similar to those of other VASA proteins than to those of other DEAD-family proteins isolated from several organisms (planarian, zebra fish, mouse, and human). vasa homologous gene transcription and VASA protein expressions in triploid type lung flukes was slightly stronger than in the diploid type. Immunostaining showed that testes and a portion of the ovaries of both diploid and triploid lung flukes reacted strongly to anti-Pw-VASA antibody.

Controversial issues in the legal restriction for prenatal genetic testing in Korea (산전검사 대상 질환에 대한 법적 규제의 문제점에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Ji-Young;Jeong, Seon-Yong;Kim, Hyon-J.
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.186-189
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    • 2007
  • More than 6,000 rare disorders including genetic diseases have been reported. Of them, 1,500 diseases (1,211 for clinical diagnosis and 289 for research only) are technically possible for genetic testing. In Korea, since 2005, only 63 genetic diseases is permitted for prenatal genetic testing by the "Bioethics and Biosafety Law". The article 25 in the law prescribes 63 genetic diseases without clear indication for its selection and inclusion criteria. In EU, USA, and other foreign countries, however, there is no provision in the statute on prenatal genetic testing; it is not restricted by a law. Recently, a woman (Mrs. L, 38y) who is a carrier for Menkes disease made an appeal to a government for an amendment of the "Bioethics and Biosafety Law" prohibiting the prenatal diagnosis of her pregnancy at risk for Menkes disease. Menkes disease (MNK) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, connective tissue defects and hair abnormalities, and no effective treatment is available yet. The prevalence rate of MNK is one in about 250,000 live births. Menkes syndrome patients fail to absorb copper from the gastrointestinal tract in quantities adequate for meeting nutritional needs. These needs seem particularly acute during the initial 12 month of life, when the velocity of brain growth and motor neurodevelopment. Most of pts. die around 3yrs. of age. Mrs. L had a boy with Menkes disease who died at 2y.o. in 2001. Subsequent pregnancy in 2003, she was able to have prenatal genetic testing for mutation of the Menkes (ATP7A) gene and delivered a healthy baby boy. Now, She is pregnant again and wants to have prenatal diagnosis. however, this time, she was not allowed to have any more because Menkes disease is not included in 63 genetic diseases permitted by the law for prenatal genetic testing, in spite of the fact that she is a Menkes disease carrier and her pregnancy is at risk to have an affected baby. This case shows the practical problem of the legal restriction for prenatal genetic testing in Korea. In this study, we report a arguable case and discuss the controversial issues in the legal restriction for prenatal genetic testing in Korea.

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Study of Hedyotis Diffusa Methanol Extract on Anti-tumoral Effect and Mechanism (백화사설초(白花蛇舌草) 메탄올 추출물(抽出物)의 항종양(抗腫瘍) 효과(效果) 및 항암(抗癌) 기전(機轉)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • No, Hoon-Jeong;Moon, Gu;Moon, Seok-Jae;Won, Jin-Hee;Moon, Young-Ho;Park, Rae-Gil
    • THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN ORIENTAL ONCOLOGY
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.81-97
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    • 2000
  • Objectives: This experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of Hedyotis diffusa which has long been used for cancer treatment in oriental medicines on the induction of apoptotic cell death in human lymphoid leukemia cell line, HL-60. Methods: Cells were treated with various concentrations (200 to $0.4{\mu}g$) and periods (6 to 30 hr) of $H_2O$ and methanol extracts of Hedyotis diffusa. Then, cells were tested for viability by MTT assay. Cells wrere treated with $200{\mu}g/ml$ of methanol extract fork various periods. Genomic DNA was isolated, separated, on 1.5% agarose gels, stained with ethidium bromide and visualized under UV light. Cells were treated with $200{\mu}g/ml$ of each extract for 16 hr. Then, cells were treated with Hoechst dye 33342 and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Cells were treated with various doses of each for 12 hr and $100{\mu}g/ml$ of methanol extract for various periods. Lysate from the cells used to measure the activity of Caspase-1 and-3 proteases by using fluorogenic peptide substrates including acetyl-YVAD-AMC and acetyl-DEVD-AMC, respectively. Cells were treated with $200{\mu}g/ml$ of each extract for various periods. Cell lysates were immunoprecipated with anti-JNKl antibodies. The immune complex was reacted with $32^p-ATP$ and c-Jun as a substrate. The phosphotransferase activity of JNKI was measured by using PhosphoImage analyzer (Fuji Co., Japan). Nuclear extracts were isolated and incubated with oligonucleotide probe of $NF-{\kappa}B$. Transcriptional activation of ${\kappa}B$ was measured by using EMSA and visualized by PhosphoImage analyzer (Fuji Co, Japan). Cell lysates were prepared and analyzed by Western blotting with anti-Bc12 antibodies and anti-Bax antibodies. Cells were pretreated with various doses of methanol extract for 2 hr. Then, the extract was removed by centrifugation. Cells were resuspended with RPMI-1640 media containing 0.3% agarose, 10% FBS, overlayred onto bottom layer agarose and incubated at $CO_2$ incubator for 6 days. The number of colony was counted under light microscopy ($\time100$). Results: The death of HL-60 cells was markedly induced by the addition of methanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa in a dose and time-dependent manners. The apoptotic characteristic ladder pattern of DNA strand break was observed in death of HL-60 cells. In addition, it was shown nucleus chromatin condensation and fragmentation under Hoechst staining. Therefore, Hedyotis diffusa extract-induced death of HL-60 cells is mediated by apoptotic signaling processes. The activity of Caspase 3-like proteases remained in a basal level in HL-60 cells treated with aqueous extract of Hedyotis diffusa. However, it was markedly increased in HL-60 cells treated with methanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa. In addition, the phosphotransferase activity of JNKl was increased in HL-60 cells treated with methanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa. Furthermore, the activation of transcriptional activator, $NF-{\kappa}B$ was markedly induced by methanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa. Anti-apoptotic Bc12 was cleaved into 23Kda fragment by treatment of methanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa. However, expression of proapoptotic Bax protein was increased by treatment of methanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, methanol extract markedly inhibited the colony forming efficiency of HL-60 cells in semisolid agar culture. Conclusions: Above results suggest that methanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa induces the apoptotic death of human leukemic HL-60 cells via activations of Caspase-3 proteases, JNKI, transcriptional activator $NF-{\kappa}B$, In addition, our results also suggest that methanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa reduces the malignant potential of HL-60 cells via down regulation of colony forming effciency through cleavage of Bc12 as well as induction of Bax.

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Development of Natural Seasoning using Desalinated Tuna Boiled Extract (탈염된 참치 자숙액을 이용한 천연조미료 개발)

  • KIM Se-Kwon;BYUN Hee-Guk;JEON You-Jin;JOO Dong-Sik;KIM Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 1999
  • The hydrolysate of desalinated tuna boiled extract (TBE) were prepared by continuous hydrolysis of TBE using a membrane reactor. TBE and tuna boiled extract hydrolysate (TBEH) were isolated depending on molecular weights. The major molecular weight distributions of TBEH-l0K, TBEH-5K and TBEH-lK were 9,800Da, 3,000Da and 990Da, respectively. The amounts of nucleotides and their related compounds of TBE were 3.47 $\mu$mole/g AMP, 23.75 $\mu$mole/g IMP, 9.07 $\mu$mole/g inosine and 1.89 $\mu$mole/g hypoxanthine. Total content of amino acids having desirable taste (glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, proline, aspartic acid, serine) was about $63\%$ of total amino acid from TBE and about $62\%$ from TBEH. The natural seasoninings were prepared with TBE and TBEH. From the results of sensory evaluations, complex seasoning containing TBEH-1K was almost equal to the shellfish complex seasoning obtained from the market. The mixed sauce which was made by mixing of $50\%$ TBEH sauce and $50\%$ fermented soy sauce was similar to the tradition soybean sauce in product quality and it showed the possibility to be used for the substitute product for acid hydrolyzed soysauce.

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Clinical Experiences of Continuous Tepid Blood Cardioplegia; Valvular Heart Surgery (미온혈 심정지액의 임상적 고찰)

  • 이종국;박승일;조재민;원준호;박묘식
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 1999
  • Background: In cardiac surgery, hypothermia is associated with a number of major disadvantage, including its detrimental effects on enzymatic function, energy generation and cellular integrity. Warm cardioplegia with normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass cause three times more incidence of permanent neurologic deficits than the cold crystalloid cardioplegia with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Interruptions or inadequate distribution of warm cardioplegia may induce anaerobic metabolism and warm ischemic injury. To avoid these problems, tepid blood cardioplegia was recently introduced. Material and Method: To evaluate whether continuous tepid blood cardioplegia is beneficial in clinical practice during valvular surgery, we studied two groups of patients matched by numbers and clinical characteristics. Warm group(37$^{\circ}C$) consisted of 18 patients who underwent valvular surgery with continuous warm blood cardioplegia. Tepid group(32$^{\circ}C$) consisted of 17 patients who underwent valvular surgery with continuous tepid blood cardioplegia. Result: Heartbeat in 100% of the patients receiving continuous warm blood cardioplegia and 88.2% of the patients receiving continuous tepid blood cardioplegia converted to normal sinus rhythm spontaneously after removal of the aortic cross clamp. There were no differences between these two groups in CPB time, ACC time, the amount of crystalloid cardioplegia used and peak level of potassium. During the operation, the total amount of urine output was more in the warm group than the tepid group(2372${\pm}$243 ml versus 1535${\pm}$130 ml, p<0.01). There were no differences between the two groups in troponin T level measured 1hr and 12hrs after the operation. Conclusion: Continuous tepid blood cardioplegia is as safe and effective as continuous warm blood cardioplegia undergoing cardiac valve surgery in myocardial protection.

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Changes in Blood Lipid Profile and Hepatic Enzyme Levels after Oriental Medical Treatment to Metabolic Syndrome Patients with Abnormal Liver Function

  • Kim, Dong-Woung
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1626-1632
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    • 2008
  • Among patients who are receiving treatments at an oriental medical hospital for various symptoms and diseases, patients whose main disease is accompanied by metabolic syndrome with abnormal liver function. This research was performed in order to observe the progression of changes in the liver function and serum lipid profile after the oriental medical treatments to patients who have been receiving oriental medical treatment for various other diseases and have been diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome at their first visit to the hospital based on NCEP ATP III diagnosis criteria and WHO Asia Pacific region criteria. Total number of subject patients were 39cases(mean age:55.58${\pm}$2.09 years) which had 20 male and 19 female. For the references for hepatic enzyme levels and blood lipid profile were measured in before treatment and four times after treatments(every 2.31${\pm}$06.17 weeks). Serum AST was 48.86${\pm}$7.46 IU/L before oriental medical treatment. After the treatment, 40.63${\pm}$4.69, 43.12${\pm}$5.46, 37.82${\pm}$4.52 IU/L were measured where although the level decreased to the normal level compared to pre-treatment, the value was not significant statistically(P>0.05). ALT was 66.26${\pm}$11.01 IU/L before oriental medical treatment. After the treatment 62.10${\pm}$8.20, 61.10${\pm}$8.76, 43.79${\pm}$5.68 were measured where although the level decreased, abnormally high level was maintained. The last result was significant statistically(P<0.05) compared to pre-treatment. ALP was 193.06${\pm}$14.20 IU/L before oriental medical treatment. After the treatment, 176.80${\pm}$6.48, 177.46${\pm}$11.81, 162.41${\pm}$9.06 where although compared to pre-treatment the last result was significant statistically(P<0.05), the change was within the normal range. ${\gamma}$-GGT was 87.83${\pm}$12.59 IU/L before oriental medical treatment. After the treatment, progressively near normal level was achieved with 118.73${\pm}$46.45, 85.03${\pm}$17.12, 70.64${\pm}$10.93 and the last result was statistically significant compared to pre-treatment (P<0.05). Blood triglyceride was 217.63${\pm}$32.18 mg/dL before oriental medical treatment. After treatment 215.09${\pm}$22.18, 189.93${\pm}$22.44, 191.22${\pm}$18.51 where abnormal values continued even after treatment although results was not statistically significant compared to pre-treatment(P>0.05). Total-cholesterol was 197.28${\pm}$9.24 mg/dL before oriental medical treatment, after treatment 201.55${\pm}$11.13, 186.87${\pm}$8.77 and 186.68${\pm}$7.61 were measured that results were not statistically significant compared to pre-treatment(P>0.05). HDL-cholesterol was 41.88${\pm}$2.38 mg/dL before oriental medical treatment, after treatment 48.75${\pm}$4.22, 44.10${\pm}$1.91, 48.00${\pm}$2.06 the results were not statistically significant compared to pre-treatment(P>0.05). LDL-cholesterol was 111.66${\pm}$13.08 mg/dL before oriental medical treatment, after treatment 109.94${\pm}$10.18, 101.79${\pm}$8.63, 104.00${\pm}$6.98 the results were not statistically significant compared to pre-treatment(P>0.05). With such results, even if common oriental medical treatments were given to metabolic syndrome patients with abnormal liver function, the liver function was confirmed not to be aggravated, and the concentration of lipids in the blood was confirmed not to be affected in most patients.