• Title, Summary, Keyword: Acetyl phosphate

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Two-component Signal Transduction in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under Phosphate Limitation: Role of Acetyl Phosphate

  • Juntarajumnong, Waraporn;Eaton-Rye, Julian J.;Incharoensakdi, Aran
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.708-714
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    • 2007
  • The two-component signal transduction, which typically consists of a histidine kinase and a response regulator, is used by bacterial cells to sense changes in their environment. Previously, the SphS-SphR histidine kinase and response regulator pair of phosphate sensing signal transduction has been identified in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In addition, some response regulators in bacteria have been shown to be cross regulated by low molecular weight phosphorylated compounds in the absence of the cognate histidine kinase. The ability of an endogenous acetyl phosphate to phosphorylate the response regulator, SphR in the absence of the cognate histidine kinase, SphS was therefore tested in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The mutant lacking functional SphS and acetate kinase showed no detectable alkaline phosphatase activity under phosphate-limiting growth conditions. The results suggested that the endogenous acetyl phosphate accumulated inside the mutants could not activate the SphR via phosphorylation. On the other hand, exogenous acetyl phosphate could allow the mutant lacking functional acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase to grow under phosphate-limiting conditions suggesting the role of acetyl phosphate as an energy source. Reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that the transcripts of acetate kinase and phospho-transacetylase genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is up-regulated in response to phosphate limitation suggesting the importance of these two enzymes for energy metabolism in Synechocystis cells

Metabolic Routes of Malonate in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

  • Byun, Hye-Sin;Kim, Yu-Sam
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 1995
  • In malonate grown Pseudomonas fluorescens, malonate decarboxylase and acetyl-CoA synthetase were induced, whereas in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus malonate decarboxylase, acetate kinase, and phosphate acetyltransferase were induced. In both bacteria malonate decarboxylase was the first, key enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of malonate to acetate, and it was localized in the periplasmic space. Acetate thus formed was metabolized to acetyl-CoA directly by acetyl-CoA synthetase in Pseudomonas, and to acetyl-CoA via acetyl phosphate by acetate kinase and phosphate acetyltransferase in Acinetobacter.

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Isolation and Properties of $\beta$-N-Acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B from Rat Uterus

  • Jung, Jin-Ha;Yang, Chul-Hak
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 1983
  • ${\beta}$-N-Acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B was highly purified with the following sequence of steps; DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatograpies. The specific activity of the purified ${\beta}$ -N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B was 2.2 units/mg protein with 12.9 % yield and 196.2 fold purity. The purified ${\beta}$-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B showed single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The final preparation of ${\beta}$ -N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B was completely free friom arylsulfatase and ${\beta}$-glucuronidase. ${\beta}$ -N-Acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B had pH optimum of 4.5 in 0.5 M sodium citrate buffer. The molecular weight of ${\beta}$-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B was 133,000 by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. The Km value of ${\beta}$-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B using p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-${\beta}$-D-glucosaminide as substrate was 1.0 mM and $V_{max}$ was 0.014 ${\mu}$ mole/min. ${\beta}$-N-Acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B was stable at $55^{circ}C$ for 70 minutes. The crude ${\beta}$ -N-acetyl-D-glucosamiinidase in 70 % ammonium sulfate retained 93 % activity after 7 months storage at -$55^{circ}C$. Bovine serum albumin, sodium chloride, and phosphate activated ${\beta}$ -N-Acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine, ${\alpha}$-methyl-D-mannoside, and acetate inhibited ${\beta}$ -N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase B.

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Enzymatic Manufacture of Deoxythymidine-5'-Triphosphate with Permeable Intact Cells of E. coli Coexpressing Thymidylate Kinase and Acetate Kinase

  • Zhang, Jiao;Qian, Yahui;Ding, Qingbao;Ou, Ling
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.2034-2042
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    • 2015
  • A one-pot process of enzymatic synthesis of deoxythymidine-5'-triphosphate (5'-dTTP) employing whole cells of recombinant Escherichia coli coexpressing thymidylate kinase (TMKase) and acetate kinase (ACKase) was developed. Genes tmk and ack from E. coli were cloned and inserted into pET28a(+), and then transduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3) to form recombinant strain pTA in which TMKase and ACKase were simultaneously overexpressed. It was found that the relative residual specific activities of TMKase and ACKase, in pTA pretreated with 20 mM ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 25℃ for 30 min, were 94% and 96%, respectively. The yield of 5'-dTTP reached above 94% from 5 mM deoxythymidine 5'-monophosphate (5'-dTMP) and 15 mM acetyl phosphate catalyzed with intact cells of pTA pretreated with EDTA. The process was so effective that only 0.125 mM adenosine-5'-triphosphate was sufficient to deliver the phosphate group from acetyl phosphate to dTMP and dTDP.

Growth Promotion of Lettuce by Biofertilizer, BIOACTIVE, Prepared from Bacillus subtilus HR-1019 and N-acetyl-thioproline (Bacillus subtilus HR-1019와 N-Acetyl-thioproline으로 제조한 미생물처리제, BIOACTIVE에 의한 상추의 생장 촉진)

  • Lee, Yong-Suk;Park, Dong-Ju;Kim, Jae Hoon;Kim, Hyeong Seok;Chung, Soo Yeol;Choi, Yong-Lark
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.79-83
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    • 2013
  • A biofertilizer, BIOACTIVE, was manufactured by N-acetyl-thioproline (ATCA) and mineral phosphate solubilizing bacteria. The growth promoting effect of the biofertilizer on lettuce was evaluated under three different pot conditions, and its stability was assessed in the field. According to the results of the pot experiments, plant growth was improved compared with that of control: 128%, 122%, and 153% for the leaf number, leaf length, and leaf mass, respectively. Applying the manufactured biofertilizer increased the concentration of phosphate: 118% and 132% in the cultivation soil and plant cells, respectively. These show that BIOACTIVE may have potential as an effective biofertilizer in agriculture.

Properties of Acetyl-CoA Synthetase from Pseudomonas fluorescens

  • Kim, Yu-Sam;An, Jae-Hyung;Yang, Bu-Hyun;Kim, Kyu-Wan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 1996
  • In Pseudomonas fluorescens grown on malonate as sole carbon source, acetyl-CoA synthetase was induced, suggesting that malonate is metabolized through acetate and then acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA synthetase was purified 18.6-fold in 4 steps to apparent homogeneity. The native molecular mass of the enzyme estimated by a native acrylamide gel electrophoresis was 130 kDa. The enzyme was composed of two identical subunits with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. Optimum pH was 70. The acetyl-CoA synthetase showed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the substrates, acetate, ATP and CoA, whose $K_m$ values were calculated to be 33.4, 74.8, and 40.7 mM respectively. Propionate. butyrate and pentanoate were also used as substrates by the enzyme, but the rate of the formation of the CoA derivatives was decreased in the order of the increase in carbon number. The enzyme was inhibited by the group-specific reagents diethylpyro-carbonate, 2,3-butanedione, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and N-bromosuccinimide. In the presence of substrates the inactivation rate of the enzyme, by all of the group-specific reagents mentioned above decreased, indicating the presence of catalytically essential histidine, arginine, lysine and tryptophan residues at or near the active site. Preincubation of the enzyme with ATP, $Mg^{2+}$ resulted in the increase of its susceptibility to diethylpyrocarbonate, suggesting that ATP, $Mg^{2+}$ may induce a conformational change in the active site exposing the essential histidine residue to diethylpyrocarbonate. The enzyme was acetylated in the presence of acetyl-CoA, indicating that this is one of acyl-enzyme.

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Phosphate Solubilizing Activity of Pseudomonas sp. CL-1 and Kluyvera sp. CL-2 (Pseudomonas sp. CL-1 및 Kluyvera sp. CL-2 균주의 인산가용화 특성)

  • Kwon, Jang-Sik;Suh, Jang-Sun;Weon, Hang-Yeon;Kim, Wan-Gyu;Noh, Hyung-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.442-446
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    • 2007
  • From the rhizoplane and rhizosphere of pepper, tomato, lettuce, pasture, and grass, unsoluble inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated using plate base assay on Pikovskaya's medium. Two strains, CL-1 and CL-2, which produced largest halo on plates (indicative of phosphate solubilization)were selected for further studies. Based on these biochemical and 16S rRNA analysis strains CL-1, CL-2 were found to be as species of Pseudomonas sp. and Kluyvera sp., respectively. In broth assay Pseudomonas sp. CL-1 and Kluyvera sp. CL-2 solubilized insoluble phosphate by 193.4 mg and $493.6P\;mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively after $3^{rd}$ day inoculation. These effecient phosphate solubilizing bacteria have a potential to be developed as microbial based fertilizer in future.

Control of Acetate Production Rate in Escherichia coli by Regulating Expression of Single-Copy pta Using $lacI^Q$ in Multicopy Plasmid

  • Lee, Sun-Gu;Liao, James C
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.334-337
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    • 2008
  • A tightly regulated gene expression system composed of a single-copy target gene under the control of a lac promoter derivative and lacI gene in a multicopy plasmid is proposed, and its ability to control the flux of a metabolic pathway is demonstrated. A model system to control the flux of acetyl-CoA to acetyl phosphate was constructed by integrating pta, a gene encoding phosphotransacetylase, under a tac promoter into the chromosome of E. coli with a pta-negative background and transforming a multicopy plasmid containing the $lacI^Q$ gene into the strain. The production rate of acetate was shown to be tightly controlled when varying the concentration of the inducer (IPTG) in he model system.

Effects of Insulin and IGFs on Phosphate Uptake in Primary Cultured Rabbit Renal Proximal Tubule Cells

  • Han, Ho-Jae;Park, Kwon-Moo
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.63-76
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    • 1996
  • The aim of present study was to characterize phosphate uptake and to investigate the mechanism for the insulin and insulin-like growth factor(IGF) stimulation of phosphate uptake in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells. Results were as follows : 1. The primary cultured proximal tubule cells had accumulated $6.68{\pm}0.70$ nmole phosphate/mg protein in the presence of 140 mM NaCl and $2.07{\pm}0.17$ nmole phosphate/mg protein in the presence of 140 mM KCl during a 60 minute uptake period. Raising the concentration of extracellular phosphate to 100 mM$(48.33{\pm}1.76\;pmole/mg\;protein/min)$ induced decrease in phosphate uptake compared with that in control cells maintained in 1 mM phosphate$(190.66{\pm}13.01\;pmole/mg\;protein/min)$. Optimal phosphate uptake was observed at pH 6.5 in the presence of 140 mM NaCl. Phosphate uptake at pH 7.2 and pH 7.9 decreased to $83.06{\pm}5.75%\;and\;74.61{\pm}3.29%$ of that of pH 6.5, respectively. 2. Phosphate uptake was inhibited by iodoacetic acid(IAA) or valinomycin treatment $(62.41{\pm}4.40%\;and\;12.80{\pm}1.64%\;of\;that\;of\;control,\;respectively)$. When IAA and valinomycin were added together, phosphate uptake was inhibited to $8.04{\pm}0.61%$ of that of control. Phosphate uptake by the primary proximal tubule cells was significantly reduced by ouabain treatment$(80.27{\pm}6.96%\;of\;that\;of\;control)$. Inhibition of protein and/or RNA synthesis by either cycloheximide or actinomycin D markedly attenuated phosphate uptake. 3. Extracellular CAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate(PMA) decreased phosphate uptake in a dose-dependent manner in all experimental conditions. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin or cholera toxin inhibited phosphate uptake. cAMP concentration between $10^{-6}\;M\;and\;10^{-4}\;M$ significantly inhibited phosphate uptake. Phosphate uptake was blocked to about 25% of that of control at 100 ng/ml PMA. 3-Isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine(IBMX) inhibited phosphate uptake. However, in the presence of IBMX, the inhibitory effect of exogenous cAMP was not significantly potentiated. Forskolin decreased phosphate transport. Acetylsalicylic acid did not inhibit phosphate uptake. The 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycorol(DAG) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn- glycerol(OAG) showed a inhibitory effect. However, staurosporine had no effect on phosphate uptake. When PMA and staurosporine were treated together, inhibition of phosphate uptake was not observed. In conclusion, phosphate uptake is stimulated by high sodium and low phosphate and pH 6.5 in the culture medium. Membrane potential and intracellular energy levels are also an important factor fer phosphate transport. Insulin and IGF-I stimulate phosphate uptake through a mechanisms that involve do novo protein and/or RNA synthesis and decrease of intracellular cAMP level. Also protein kinase C(PKC) is may play a regulatory role in transducing the insulin and IGF-I signal for phosphate transport in primary cultured proximal tubule cells.

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Replacement of the antifreeze-like domain of human N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphate synthase with the mouse antifreeze-like domain impacts both N-acetylneuraminic acid 9-phosphate synthase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-Dgalacto- nonulosonic acid 9-phosphate synthase activities

  • Reaves, Marshall Louis;Lopez, Linda Carolyn;Daskalova, Sasha Milcheva
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.72-78
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    • 2008
  • Human NeuNAc-9-P synthase is a two-domain protein with ability to synthesize both NeuNAc-9-P and KDN-9-P. Its mouse counterpart differs by only 20 out of 359 amino acids but does not produce KDN-9-P. By replacing the AFL domain of the human NeuNAc-9-P synthase which accommodates 12 of these differences, with the mouse AFL domain we examined its importance for the secondary KDN-9-P synthetic activity. The chimeric protein retained almost half of the ability of the human enzyme for KDN-9-P synthesis while the NeuNAc-9-P production was reduced to less than 10%. Data from the homology modeling and the effect of divalent ions and temperature on the enzyme activities suggest conformational differences between the human and mouse AFL domains that alter the shape of the cavity accommodating the substrates. Therefore, although the AFL domain itself does not define the ability of the human enzyme for KDN-9-P synthesis, it is important for both activities by aiding optimal positioning of the substrates.