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Sodium Intakes of Korean Adults with 24-hour Urine Analysis and Dish Frequency Questionnaire and Comparison of Sodium Intakes According to the Regional Area and Dish Group (24시간 소변분석과 음식섭취빈도지를 사용한 우리나라 성인들의 나트륨 섭취량과 지역별, 음식군별 나트륨 섭취량의 비교)

  • Son, Sook-Mee;Park, Young-Sook;Lim, Hwa-Jae;Kim, Sook-Bae;Jeong, Yeon-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.545-558
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to assess the sodium intakes of Korean adults using a 24-hr urine analysis and dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ) according to each dish group and the regional area. The subjects of this study were comprised of 522 adults (male : 267, female : 285), aged 20-59yr residing in the metropolitan area (N=200), Chungcheng-Do (N=117), Jeolla-Do(N=117), and Gueongsang-Do provinces (N=118). The subjects were recruited from the residents who once participated or are participating in the various health programs offered by the public health center. The number of subjects who completed the 24-hr urine collection was 205 (male : 110, female : 95). The mean age and BMI of the subjects were $39.0{\pm}$11.7y and $23.1{\pm}2.9 kg/m^2$, respectively. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was $119.5{\pm}15.4 mmHg$, and $77.1{\pm}11.1 mmHg$, respectively. Eighteen percent of the subjects responded that they are currently smoking, 36% drinking and 50.4% exercising. Twenty point six percent of the subjects were assessed as having hypertension according to their systolic or diastolic blood pressure($SBP{\ge}140mmHg$ or $DBP{\ge}90mmHg$) measurements in the present study. Salt intake of the subjects estimated with 24-hr sodium excretion was 12.7g/d (male : 13.4g/d, female : 12.1g/d) based on the sodium excretion rate as 82%. Salt intake estimated with DFQ was 14.7g/d (male : 16.2g/d, female : 13.4g/d), 2 g more than the salt intake estimated with 24-hr urine analysis. The four dish groups that contributed most to the sodium intake in order were kimchi (11571.4mg), soup and stew (1260.5mg), fish and shellfish(706.3mg) and noodle and ramyeon(644.3mg). Salt intake estimated with DFQ was the highest in the subjects of Gueongsang-Do(17.0g/d), second highest Chungcheong-Do (16.4g/d) and the lowest in the metropolitan area (13.0g/d). Subjects of Gueongsang-Do showed the highest sodium intakes in most of the dish group, whereas subjects of the metropolitan area showed the lowest. Residents of Chungcheong-Do revealed the highest sodium intake with kimchi and of Jeolla-Do the higher sodium intake with main dish (meat, fish and beans). The highest salt percentage of kimchi ($3.0{\pm}0.8%$) and soybean paste ($14.5{\pm}5.1%$) were observed in Gueongsang-Do, whereas individuals of the metropolitan area were observed as having kimchi ($1.6{\pm}0.5%$) and soybean paste ($7.4{\pm}1.6%$) with the lowest salt percenage. Men were observed as having more salty kimchi ($2.4{\pm}0.1%$) than women ($2.1{\pm}0.1%$).

Interpersonal and Community Factors Related to Food Sufficiency and Variety: Analysis of Data from the 2017 Community Health Survey (식품충분성과 다양성의 개인간 및 지역사회 관련 요인: 2017년 지역사회건강조사 자료 분석)

  • Hong, Jiyoun;Hyun, Taisun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.416-429
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study examined the personal, interpersonal and community factors related to food sufficiency and variety among Korean adults using data from the 2017 Community Health Survey. Methods: A total of 228,310 adults aged ≥ 19 years were classified into three groups: food sufficiency with variety, food sufficiency without variety and food insufficiency. Personal factors included sociodemographic characteristics, health behavior and health status. Interpersonal factors included social networking and social activities, and community factors included safety, natural environment, living environment, availability of public transportation and health care services. The association of food sufficiency and variety with interpersonal and community factors was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the total sample, the food-sufficiency-without-variety group and food insufficiency group accounted for 31.5% and 3.2%, respectively. The sociodemographic factors associated with food insufficiency and non-variety were women, ≥ 65 years of age, with low education level, low household income, unemployed, single, and living in areas of small population sizes. There were significant differences in health behavior and health status, interpersonal and community factors among the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses conducted after adjusting for confounding factors showed that lack of social networking and social activities and lower satisfaction derived from community environments were associated with the risk of food insufficiency and non-variety. Conclusions: Our results showed that interpersonal and community factors as well as personal factors were related to food sufficiency and variety. Therefore, public policies to help build social networks and participation in social activities, and improve community environment are needed together with food assistance to overcome the problems of food insufficiency and non-variety.

A Study on Correlation among Length Changes of Body Surface Total lines and Segment Lines -Changed Amount Caused by the Lower Limb Movements- (체표(體表)길이 변화(變化)의 상관성(相關性) 연구(硏究) - 다리(下肢) 동작(動作)에 따른 변화량(變化量)을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Cho, Sung Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.622-637
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    • 1993
  • The Purposes of this study were to investigate the significant correlation among the length changes of body surface total lines and between the length changes of body surface total lines and those of component body surface segment lines, and to reveal anticipated relation among body surface length changes by the lower limb movement including all movement direction of hip joint, knee joint & ankle joint for the more functional clothing making & designing. 10 Crosswise & 5 lengthwise body surface total lines and 48 crosswise & 39 lengthwise body surface segment lines of 26 female college students aged from 18 to 24 years were measured directly on the body surface and analyzed by ANOYA & Multiple Comparison Test(Tukey), and the length changes of them were calculated as the difference of the mean length at Fl movement from the mean length at each movement and were analyzed by PEARSON CORRELATION. The results were as following : 1. Correlation among the length changes of body surface total lines (1) Correlation among the length changes of body surface total lines significantly changed by the movement ; 1) The more GA5 expanded, the more GA6 & GA7 each expanded, and the more GA18 expanded, the more GA1 & GA3 each expanded. 2) The more GA15 expanded, the less GA14 each contracted. 3) The more GA7 expanded, the larger GA17 contracted. 4) The more GA1 & GA18 expanded, the larger GA16 contracted, and the larger GM contracted, the less GA16 contracted. (2) Only GA7 and GA17(at F4) showed high (over r=0.7) correlation coefficient, But others' correlation coefficients were r=0.4~0.7. (3) Correlation coefficients among & between girth items and length items 1) Correlation coefficients among girth items were shown + ; between GA3 and GA4, GA5, GA8, between GA5 and GA6, GA7, GA9 each, between GA1 and GA6 and between GA4 and GA7. 2) Correlation coefficients among length items were shown + or - ; shown + between GA14 and GA15 and between GA17 and GA16 ; but Shown - Between GAlS and GA16. 3) Correlation coefficients between girth items and length items were mainly shown - : shown-between GA1 and GA16, GA17, between, GA4 and GA16, between GA6, GA7 each and GA17, between GA8 and GA18 ; but shown + between GA1, GA3 each and GA18 and between GA8 and GA14 were shown +. 2. Correlation between the length changes of body surface total lines and those of component body surface segment lines. (1) All correlation coefficients were + except A147 of GA14. (2) Correlation coefficient over r=0.7 was shown ; between GA3 and CB3, A35 each, between GA5 and A054, between GA6 and A63, between GA7 and A72, A74 each, between GA8 and A83, A84 each, between GA15 and A153, between GA16 and Al64, Al65 each, between GA18 and A189 : but was not shown between GA4, GA17 and it's component body surface segment lines each. (3) Characteristics of correlation between the length changes of body surface total lines and those of body surface segment lines ; 1) If significant correlation of body surface total lines were expansion parts, it's component body surface segment lines was also expansion segment and the otherwise were the same. But exception was shown between expansion line GA3 and A031 (at F4), between GA18 and AlS9 (at F6) and between GA14 and A147, so to speak GA3 & lines and GA14 was contraction total line oppositely A147 was expansion. 2) The more GA3, GAlS expanded, the less A031, A189 contracted. 3) The more GA14 contracted, the more A147 expanded. 4) All correlation except the above 2), 3), the more total lines (GA1, GA3, GA5, GA15, GA16, GA18) expanded, the more segment lines (A15, CB1, A31, A34, CB3, A52, A54, A153, A169, A181) expanded, or the larger total lines (GA14, GA16, GA17) contracted, the larger segment lines (A141, A142, A161, A164, A165, A172) contracted.

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Difference in Health-related Quality of Life among Social Classes and Related Factors in Korea (우리나라 사회계층별 건강관련 삶의 질의 차이와 관련요인)

  • Lim, Gyeong-Tae;Kwon, In-Sun;Kim, Soon-Young;Cho, Young-Chae;Nam, Hea-Sung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2189-2198
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to measure the difference in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among social classes and explore the factors that may explain it. Study subjects were 7,992 Korean adults aged 20-69 from the 4th (2007-2009) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data. We described mean value of EQ-5D index as a HRQOL by class and performed hierarchical multiple regression analysis to find the factors. The result was as follows. In the distribution of EQ-5D index level among social classes, new middle class (class II) had the highest score (0.966 in men and 0.955 in women); upper and middle-upper class (class I) 0.965 in men and 0.936 in women; working class (class IV) 0.958 in men and 0.936 in women; old middle class (class III) 0.955 in men and 0.932 in women; low class (class VI) 0.941 in men and 0.908 in women; and rural self-management class (class V) the lowest score (0.918 in men and 0.866 in women). In men, chronic disease, job stress, education and income level were found to make the difference in the health-related quality of life among social classes; in women, those factors and health behavior explained the difference. In conclusion, the lower social class has lower HRQOL. Except for education and income level, chronic disease may be the major factor to explain the difference in the health-related quality of life among social classes.

Analysis of the medication compliance of hypertensives and its influential factors (고혈압 환자의 투약순응도와 영향 요인 분석)

  • Son, Kyung-Ae;Kim, Yoon-Shin;Hong, Min-Hee;Jeong, Mi-Ae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.1897-1904
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    • 2010
  • The administration data of the national health insurance and health insurance bills were utilized in this study. The data of 432,915 patients who were at the age of 30 and up and used the out-patient departments of every medical institution located in some regions involving two southern and northern provinces once or more during a 184-day period from July to December. As a result of analyzing their prescription compliance and factors affecting it, the following findings were given: The average rate of the prescription compliance of the patients stood at 61.5 percent. It denoted that they were prescribed to take medicine for approximately 113 days during the six-month(184 days) period of time, and the rate of the patients who complied with the prescriptions just stood at 13.0 percent. They used out-patient department for 4.3 days on the average due to hypertension and they visited 1.1 medical institutions on the average. 94.9 percent just used a medical institution. The largest group (11.6%) suffered from diabetes as co-morbidity, and 23.3 percent of the hypertensives had co-morbidity. Concerning the relationship between their characteristics and prescription compliance, those who were male, who were beneficiaries of the national health insurance, who mainly used general hospitals and who suffered from co-morbidity complied better with the prescription they got. Their prescription compliance got better at the age of 65 to 74 and got worse afterwards. As for factors affecting their prescription compliance, the patients who were male, who were aged between 55 and 64 and who were beneficiaries of the national health insurance, who mainly used specialized general hospitals, general hospitals and public health centers and who had heart diseases and diabetes as co-morbidity complied better with the prescriptions. The above-mentioned findings of the study suggested that it's needed to make a factor analysis of the poor prescription compliance of patients from diverse angles, and that existing hypertension care plans should carefully be reviewed to improve the prescription compliance of patients and to find a feasible alternative. As hypertensives are easily likely to develop co-morbidity like diabetes, systematic health education should be provided for them to get into the right life habits such as taking low-salt meals or quitting smoking. In addition, the development of health care programs is required.

A STUDY ON IN VIVO AND IN VITRO AMALGAM CORROSION (아말감의 구강내 부식 및 인공 부식에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Byong-Mok;Kwon, Hyuk-Choon;Um, Chung-Moon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-33
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    • 1997
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the in vitro and in vivo corrosion products of low and high copper amalgams. The four different types of amalgam alloy used in this study were Fine cut, Caulk spherical, Dispersalloy, and Tytin. After each amalgam alloy and Hg were triturated according to the directions of the manufacturer by means of the mechanical amalgamator(Amalgam mixer. Shinhung Co. Korea), the triturated mass was inserted into a cylindrical metal mold which was 12mm in diameter and 10mm in height. The mass was condensed by 150Kg/cm compressive force. The specimen was removed from the mold and aged at room temperature for about seven days. The standard surface preparation was routinely carried out by emery paper polishing under running water. In vitro amalgam specimens were potentiostatically polarized ten times in a normal saline solution at $37^{\circ}C$(potentiostat : HA-301. Hukuto Denko Corp. Japan). Each specimen was subjected to anodic polarization scan within the potential range -1700mV to+400mV(SCE). After corrosion tests, anodic polarization curves and corrosion potentials were obtained. The amount of component elements dissolved from amalgams into solution was measured three times by ICP AES(Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry: Plasma 40. Perkim Elmer Co. U.S.A.). The four different types of amalgam were filled in occlusal and buccal class I cavities of four human 3rd molars. After about five years the restorations were carefully removed after tooth extraction to preserve the structural details including the deteriorated margins. The occlusal surface, amalgam-tooth interface and the fractured surface of in vivo amalgam corrosion products were analyzed. In vivo and in vitro amalgam specimens were examined and analyzed metallographically by SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope: JSM 840. Jeol Co. Japan) and EDAX(Energy Dispersive Micro X-ray Analyser: JSM 840. Jeol Co. Japan). 1. The following results are obtained from in vitro corrosion tests. 1) Corrosion potentials of all amalgams became more noble after ten times passing through the in vitro corrosion test compared to first time. 2) After times through the test, released Cu concentration in saline solution was almost equal but highest in Fine cut. Ag and Hg ion concentration was highest in Caulk spherical and Sn was highest in Dispersalloy. 3) Analyses of surface corrosion products in vitro reveal the following results. a)The corroded surface of Caulk spherical has Na-Sn-Cl containing clusters of $5{\mu}m$ needle-like crystals and oval shapes of Sn-Cl phase, polyhedral Sn oxide phase. b)In Fine cut, there appeared to be a large Sn containing phase, surrounded by many Cu-Sn phases of $1{\mu}m$ granular shapes. c)Dispersalloy was covered by a thick reticular layer which contained Zn-Cl phase. d)In Tytin, a very thin, corroded layer had formed with irregularly growing Sn-Cl phases that looked like a stack of plates. 2. The following results are obtained by an analysis of in vivo amalgam corrosion products. 1) Occlusal surfaces of all amalgams were covered by thick amorphous layers containing Ca-P elements which were abraded by occlusal force. 2) In tooth-amalgam interface, Ca-P containing products were examined in all amalgams but were most clearly seen in low copper amalgams. 3) Sn oxide appeared as a polyhedral shape in internal space in Caulk spherical and Fine cut. 4) Apical pyramidal shaped Sn oxide and curved plate-like Sn-Cl phases resulted in Dispersalloy. 5) In Tytin, Sn oxide and Sn hydroxide were not seen but polyhedral Ag-Hg phase crystal appeared in internal space which assumed a ${\beta}_l$ phase.

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Dietary Behavioral Correlates of Nutrition Label Use in Korean Women (한국 성인 여성에서 영양표시 사용과 식행동 요인과의 관계)

  • Lee, Hye-Young;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.839-850
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    • 2008
  • This study describes the demographic and diet-related psychosocial correlates of nutrition label use, and examines the relationship between label use and diet. Self-reported dada from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 2073 Korean women aged 20 to 60 years were collected to identify demographic and health-related characteristics, belief on diet-disease relationship, awareness on importance of healthy eating practice and diet quality associated with label use. Label users, who are in the stage of action and maintenance (31.6%), were more likely to have belief on nutrient-disease relationship (in sodium, cholesterol, sugar and trans fat) and were more likely to have higher awareness of the importance of healthy eating practice compared with label nonusers, who are in the stage of precontemplation, contemplation and preparation. Label users were more likely to have higher dietary quality compared with label nonusers [odds ratio (OR) = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66, 2.44](P < 0.001). Also, label use appeared to be associated with the consumption of diets that were higher vegetables and fruits, and lower in cholesterol. The findings of this study suggests that reading nutrition labels on food packages may improve food choices and enable healthful dietary practices.

The Risk Factors of the Pre-hypertension and Hypertension of Rural Inhabitants in Chungnam-do (충남 농촌 지역 주민의 고혈압 전단계와 고혈압의 위험요인)

  • Eom, Ji-Sook;Lee, Tae-Ryong;Park, Seon-Joo;Ahn, Youn-Jin;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.742-753
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate risk factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in rural residents. Nine hundred and ninety four subjects aged 40-70 yrs in Chungnam-do participated in this study. The subjects (n = 824) were classified into three groups of hypertensive, pre-hypertensive, and normotensive according to the Joint National Committee (JNC)-7 criteria. The weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and serum total protein, albumin, BUN, and triglyceride (TG) were positively correlated with SBP and DBP. After adjusted by age, sex and BMI, the total protein, albumin and TG were significantly correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in eating habits according to the level of blood pressure. The serum albumin, creatinine, Glu-FBS, Glu-PP l20, and triglyceride were higher in both prehypertensive and hypertensive group than in the normotensive group. However, mean serum cholesterol was not different among three blood pressure groups. In this study, the common risk factors of pre-hypertension and hyper-tension were male, age of fifties, lower education level, ex-smoking, higher drinking frequency, higher BMI, body fat %, waist circumference, WHR, serum albumin and diabetes, even though the degree of risks in these variables were higher in the hypertensive group. The higher BUN was a risk factor of prehypertension, while the family history, prediabetes, serum total protein, Glu-PP l20 and higher alcohol drinking amount were the risk factors of hypertension. This result suggests that maintaining good health habit and normal range of blood parameters as well as controlling body weight have to be paid attention in order to prevent hypertention, and further reseasch on the relationship of blood pressure and BUN are needed.

Relationship among practicing healthy diet and metabolic syndrome indicators in adults - From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013~2014 (성인 남녀에서 건강식생활 실천 여부와 대사증후군 지표와의 관련성 연구 : 2013~2014 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Bae, Yun-Jung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.459-470
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between practicing healthy diet and metabolic syndrome indicators in Koreans. Methods: This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2013~2014 Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. This study investigated 6,748 adults aged 19 to 64 yr (19~49 yr: n = 4,230, 50~64 yr: n = 2,518) to examine practice of healthy diet and metabolic syndrome indicators. In this study, according to practicing healthy diet, we classified subjects into the "Practicing healthy diet (PHD)" group (19~49 yr: n = 1,782, 50~64 yr: n = 937) and "Non-practicing healthy diet (NPHD)" group (19~49 yr: n = 2,448, 50~64 yr: n = 1,581). PHD score was determined by adding the number of practicing factors: adequate fat intake, sodium intake ${\leq}2,000mg/day$, fruit & vegetable intake ${\geq}500g/day$, and using nutrition label information in food selection. Results: Female adults had a larger proportion of subjects who practiced a healthy diet compared to male adults (p < 0.001), and the percentages of 19~49 yr and 50~64 yr were 40.46% and 37.07%, respectively. The PHD group consumed significantly more calcium, vitamin $B_1$, $B_2$, and vitamin C density compared to the NPHD group. In 50~64 yr females, the subjects practicing healthy diet (PHD score ${\geq}2$) was inversely associated with risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54~0.93, p value = 0.0131) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52~0.94, p value = 0.0166) after adjustments for multiple confounding factors, compared with the lower PHD score (PHD score ${\leq}1$). Conclusion: Good dietary practice such as adequate fat intake, sodium intake ${\leq}2,000mg/day$, sufficient fruit & vegetable intake, and using nutrition label information in food selection could be useful in decreasing metabolic syndrome risk of Korean adults.

Characteristics of the Health Factors in 45~60 Year Old Korean Women related to Menopausal Stages - Based on 2008~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - (2008~2009년 국민건강영양조사를 활용한 45~60세 한국여성의 폐경 여부에 따른 건강인자 특성)

  • Lee, Hye-Jin;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Hea
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.450-462
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    • 2012
  • We analyzed data from the combined 2008~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to compare the health factors related to menopausal stages in 45~60 year old Korean women. In this study, we classified the subjects into a premenopausal group (n = 439) and a postmenopausal group (n = 683). In the postmenopausal group, age was higher (p < 0.001), monthly income (p < 0.01) and education levels (p < 0.001) were significantly lower than in the premenopausal group. Body fat % and waist circumferences were also higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. The serum glucose (p < 0.05), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p < 0.001), GOT (p < 0.001), GPT (p < 0.001) in the postmenopausal group were higher than in the premenopausal group. The postmenopausal group showed a significantly lower quality of life compared to the premenopausal group (p < 0.01). With regard to dietary quality, nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) of vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$ and niacin in the postmenopausal group were significantly lower than in the premenopausal group. The levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride showed a significantly positive correlation with age, waist circumferences, body fat % and BMI. The 45~60 year old Korean women in this study showed high levels of obesity and serum lipids. Also, intakes of the vitamins and minerals of the women did not meet the level of Dietary reference intakes for Koreans. Therefore, nutritional risk may be high in the women, especially in postmenopausal women. In order to prevent the health risk, women's health care including the quality of the meal should be considered.