• Title, Summary, Keyword: Agricultural products

Search Result 3,808, Processing Time 0.045 seconds

Effect of Cyantraniliprole against of Bemisia tabaci and Prevention of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) (Cyantraniliprole의 담배가루이에 대한 살충활성과 이를 통한 토마토황화잎말림바이러스 예방)

  • Lee, Mun-Haeng;Lee, Hee-Kyoung;Lee, Hwan-Gu;Lee, Sun-Gye;Kim, Jeom-Soon;Kim, Sung-Eun;Kim, Young-Shik;Suh, Jeung-Keun;Youn, Young-Nam
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.33-40
    • /
    • 2014
  • To control Bemisia tabaci on tomato, we applied five different combinations of chemical treatments as below: 1) treatment of combinations of cyantraniliprole on the root area and leaf with the existing registered chemicals three times; 2) treatment of combinations of cyantraniliprole on the root area and dinotefuran + emamectin benzoate on the leaf with the existing registered chemicals three times; 3) treatment of combinations of dinotefuran on the root area and cyantraniliprole on the leaf with the existing registered chemicals three times; 4) treatment of combinations of dinotefuran on the root area and dinotefuran + emamectin benzoate on the leaf with the existing registered chemicals three times; 5) untreated control plot (Table 1). Twenty days after treatment ($17^{th}$ Aug.), the number of population of B. tabaci was zero on the 1, 2, 3, 4 treatments of combinations, and only 2 individuals were found on the 5 treatment of combination per each 20 plant. On $17^{th}$ Sep., in the last observation, the average number of population of B. tabaci was 10.3, 10.3, 10.6 on the 1, 2, 3 treatments of combinations on the 20 plants per each combination, however, the average number of 23.3 and 37.6 were examined on the 4 and 5 treatments of combinations, respectively. TYLCV was not occurring on the 1 and 2 treatments of combinations, and presented only 3% and 17% on the 3 and 4 treatments of combinations, respectively, which indicates that the treatments (1-4) should be effective on TYLCV control as considering that 33% of TYLCV occurred on the untreated control plot. However, after the third flowering period, there is no difference among the five combinations. The amount of products was 9,148g and 9,698g on the 1 and 2 treatments of combinations, respectively, which was the most among the 5 combinations. The number of fallen fruits and the average weight of fruits showed the similar tendency.

Residual Characteristics of Insecticide Acetamiprid in Asparagus under Greenhouse Condition (시설재배 아스파라거스 중 살충제 acetamiprid의 잔류특성)

  • Kim, Jiwon;Lee, Jungmin;Lee, Doseung;Kang, Seungtae;Kim, Dae-Woon;Lee, Dong-Sun;Riu, Key-Zung;Boo, Kyung Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.204-209
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to investigate residual characteristics of insecticide acetamiprid in asparagus under greenhouse condition from July to August and consequentially to obtain basic data for guideline on safe use of this pesticide in asparagus. Residues of acetamiprid in young stem of asparagus before and after removing foliage were analyzed from samples harvested at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after single application before harvest. As a result, residues of acetamiprid in young stem of asparagus before and after removing foliage at 0 day were 0.27 mg/kg and 0.14 mg/kg, respectively, which were higher than tentative limit (0.1 mg/kg). However, 3 days later residues of acetamiprid were lower than the tentative limit, representing 0.08 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg in the asparagus before and after removing foliage, respectively. Acetamiprid was undetectable in both samples at 5 days since the concentrations were less than detection limit (0.02 mg/kg) in this study. In summary, the half-life of acetamiprid in asparagus regardless of removing foliage was quite short under greenhouse condition from July to August, in the range of 1-3 days, and single application of acetamiprid water dispersible granule in/on asparagus at 7 days before harvest would have no problem on safety issues about pesticide residue. This result might be basic information to construct guideline for safe use of acetamiprid in asparagus.

Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Residues in Environmental Samples in Korea (국내 PAHs 오염 우려지역의 환경 시료 중 PAHs 잔류량 모니터링)

  • Lim, Jong-Soo;Kim, Seong-Soo;Park, Dong-Sik;Joo, Jin-Ho;Lim, Chun-Keun;Hur, Jang-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.95-105
    • /
    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to determine the residual amounts of PAHs in environmental samples such as crop, soil and water collected from paddy, upland fields and forestlands near industrial zone and/or a thermal power plant in South Korea. All of the samples were analyzed by GC-mass spectrometer. The average contents of total PAHs in soil samples were 140.2 ${\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$ and the range was from 4.3 to $662.9{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$. The detection of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h) anthracene which have strong carcinogenecity was ranged from 14.2 to 167.8 ${\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$. The residual amounts and detection frequency of PAHs in soil samples from the iron and heavy industrial areas near Pohang and Busan were 3-folds more than those of the other areas. Amounts of PAHs in upland soil samples was 1.5 folds higher than those of paddy soil samples, suggesting that it may be related to the content of organic matter in soil. The average contents of total PAHs in crop samples were 9.7 ${\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$ which ranged from 4.5 to 52.2 ${\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$. However, the residual amounts of PAHs in water samples were not detected. These results showed that soils and crops were slightly contaminated with PAHs. Therefore, the investigation should be continued for evaluating a safety or risk assessment through expansion of regions and crops.

Parameterization of the Temperature-Dependent Development of Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and a Matrix Model for Population Projection (귤응애 온도발육 매개변수 추정 및 개체군 추정 행렬모형)

  • Yang, Jin-Young;Choi, Kyung-San;Kim, Dong-Soon
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.50 no.3
    • /
    • pp.235-245
    • /
    • 2011
  • Temperature-related parameters of Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acarina: Tetranychidae) development were estimated and a stage-structured matrix model was developed. The lower threshold temperatures were estimated as $8.4^{\circ}C$ for eggs, $9.9^{\circ}C$ for larvae, $9.2^{\circ}C$ for protonymphs, and $10.9^{\circ}C$ for deutonymphs. Thermal constants were 113.6, 29.1, 29.8, and 33.4 degree days for eggs, larvae, protonymphs, and deutonymphs, respectively. Non-linear development models were established for each stage of P. citri. In addition, temperature-dependent total fecundity, age-specific oviposition rate, and age-specific survival rate models were developed for the construction of an oviposition model. P. citri age was categorized into five stages to construct a matrix model: eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults. For the elements in the projection matrix, transition probabilities from an age class to the next age class or the probabilities of remaining in an age class were obtained from development rate function of each stage (age classes). Also, the fecundity coefficients of adult population were expressed as the products of adult longevity completion rate (1/longevity) by temperature-dependent total fecundity. To evaluate the predictability of the matrix model, model outputs were compared with actual field data in a cool early season and hot mid to late season in 2004. The model outputs closely matched the actual field patterns within 30 d after the model was run in both the early and mid to late seasons. Therefore, the developed matrix model can be used to estimate the population density of P. citri for a period of 30 d in citrus orchards.

Identification and Characterization of Three Isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Weed Hosts (잡초에서 분리한 3종 Cucumber mosaic virus의 동정과 특성)

  • Lee, Hyeok-Geun;Kim, Sung-Ryul;Jeon, Yong-Woon;Kwon, Soon-Bae;Ryu, Ki-Hyun;Choi, Jang-Kyung
    • Research in Plant Disease
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.15-20
    • /
    • 2008
  • Three isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) were isolated from weed hosts showing typical mosaic symptoms, and some properties of the viruses were investigated. CMV isolates, designated as Is-CMV, Jd-CMV and Pla-CMV from Isodon inflexus, Jeffersonia dubia and Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica, respectively, were identified and characterized by biological reaction in several host plants, serological property, dsRNA analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP). All isolates systemically infected in Nicotiana benthamiana, Cucurbita pepo cv. Black beauty and Cucumis sativus, and did not reveal any differences in these host plants between the isolates. However, remarkable difference in the symptoms was found between the CMVs in Capsicum annuum. Is-CMV induced an asymptomatic symptoms, while Jd-CMV and Pla-CMV produced severe mosaic symptoms in C. annuum plants. In dsRNA analysis, all isolates revealed four major bands with estimated molecular size of 3.4, 3.2, 2.1 and 1.0 kbp. The cDNAs of coat protein gene of the isolates were amplified by RT-PCR using a genus-specific single pair primers that designed to amplify a DNA fragment of approximately ranging from 938 to 966 bp. By restriction mapping analysis using RFLP of the RT-PCR products as well as by serological properties of gel diffusion test, the CMV isolates belong to a typical members of CMV subgroup IA. This is the first report on the occurrence of CMV in the three weed hosts.

Microbiological Hazard Analysis for HACCP System Application to Vinegared Pickle Radishes (식초절임 무의 HACCP 시스템 적용을 위한 미생물학적 위해 분석)

  • Kwon, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.69-74
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study has been performed for 150 days from February 1 - June 31, 2012 aiming at analyzing biologically hazardous factors in order to develop HACCP system for the vinegared pickle radishes. A process chart was prepared as shown on Fig. 1 by referring to manufacturing process of manufacturer of general vinegared pickle radishes regarding process of raw agricultural products of vinegared pickle radishes, used water, warehousing of additives and packing material, storage, careful selection, washing, peeling off, cutting, sorting out, stuffing (filling), internal packing, metal detection, external packing, storage and consignment (delivery). As a result of measuring Coliform group, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Listeria Monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, Clostridium perfringens, Yeast and Mold before and after washing raw radishes, Bacillus cereus was $5.00{\times}10$ CFU/g before washing but it was not detected after washing and Yeast and Mold was $3.80{\times}10^2$ CFU/g before washing but it was reduced to 10 CFU/g after washing and other pathogenic bacteria was not detected. As a result of testing microorganism variation depending on pH (2-5) of seasoning fluid (condiment), pH 3-4 was determined as pH of seasoning fluid as all the bacteria was not detected in pH3-4. As a result of testing air-borne bacteria (number of general bacteria, colon bacillus, fungus) depending on each workplace, number of microorganism of internal packing room, seasoning fluid processing room, washing room and storage room was detected to be 10 CFU/Plate, 2 CFU/Plate, 60 CFU/Plate and 20 CFU/Plate, respectively. As a result of testing palm condition of workers, as number of general bacteria and colon bacillus was represented to be high as 346 $CFU/Cm^2$ and 23 $CFU/Cm^2$, respectively, an education and training for individual sanitation control was considered to be required. As a result of inspecting surface pollution level of manufacturing facility and devices, colon bacillus was not detected in all the specimen but general bacteria was most dominantly detected in PP Packing machine and Siuping machine (PE Bulk) as $4.2{\times}10^3CFU/Cm^2$, $2.6{\times}10^3CFU/Cm^2$, respectively. As a result of analyzing above hazardous factors, processing process of seasoning fluid where pathogenic bacteria may be prevented, reduced or removed is required to be controlled by CCP-B (Biological) and threshold level (critical control point) was set at pH 3-4. Therefore, it is considered that thorough HACCP control plan including control criteria (point) of seasoning fluid processing process, countermeasures in case of its deviation, its verification method, education/training and record control would be required.

Bacterial contamination levels in strawberry parts according to their cultivation methods (재배방식에 따른 딸기의 부위별 세균 오염도 분석)

  • Yu, Yong-Man;Kim, Jin-Won;Choi, In-Wook;Youn, Young-Nam;Lee, Young-Ha
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.323-329
    • /
    • 2013
  • Strawberries are among the leading ready-to-eat agricultural products that have superior taste and nutrition. Thus, consumer concerns about the safety of eating strawberries are growing. To evaluate the contamination levels of strawberries according to their cultivation methods (nutriculture, pesticide-free culture and organic farming) and parts [fruit (flesh), stalk (pedunle) and leaf (calyx)], 1,020 parts of strawberry samples were collected at 12 farms in Nonsan-si and quantitatively or qualitatively examined for the indicators of food safety and food poisoning bacteria. The total aerobic bacteria count in the whole samples was 2.3~6.8 ${\log}_{10}$ CFU/g, and coliform bacteria were detected in 14.2% of the whole samples with a contamination level range of 2.1~4.5 log CFU/g. E. coli were detected in 0.9% of the whole samples with a contamination level range of 2.1~2.8 log CFU/g. The analysis of the bacterial levels according to the cultivation methods showed that the total aerobic bacteria and coliform counts were higher in the strawberries that were grown via organic farming than in those that were grown via nutriculture and pesticide-free culture. However, the E. coli counts of the strawberries that were grown via organic farming and via pesticide-free culture were similar and differed from that of the strawberries that were grown via nutriculture. The analysis of the contamination levels according to the parts of the strawberries showed that the total aerobic bacteria, coliform and E. coli counts of the fruits, stalks and leaves of the strawberries did not significantly differ. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in two organically grown strawberries, but Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected in the whole samples. These results show that the bacterial contamination levels of the strawberries differed based on their cultivation methods. Thus, a suitable method of reducing the bacterial contamination levels of strawberries according to their farming methods is needed.

Removal Effects of Bifenthrin and Metalaxyl Pesticides during Preparation and Fermentation of Baechu Kimchi (배추김치의 제조 및 발효과정 중 Bifenthrin과 Metalaxyl 농약의 제거 효과)

  • Jung, Ji-Kang;Park, So-Yeon;Kim, So-Hee;Kang, Jeong-Mi;Yang, Ji-Young;Kang, Soon-Ah;Chun, Hae-Kyoung;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.38 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1258-1264
    • /
    • 2009
  • The removal effects of two commonly used pesticides of Bifenthrin and Metalaxyl during preparation and fermentation of kimchi were studied. The two pesticides were applied to Baechu cabbages intentionally for 20 seconds; the applied amounts of Bifenthrin and Metalaxyl were 3.02$\pm$0.09 ppm and 6.79$\pm$0.17 ppm, respectively. The Baechu cabbages were washed by water 3 times. Then the residual amounts of the two pesticides of Bifenthrin and Metalaxyl were measured and the removal rates were 21.7% and 16.1%, respectively. When Baechu cabbages were brined with 10% salt solution for 12 hours after the application of the two pesticides, the removal rates significantly increased to 98.7% and 60.8%, and when brined and washed 3 times by water, the removal rates even more increased to 99.7% and 73.4% respectively. Then we made kimchi and investigated the quantities of the residual pesticides during the fermentation at $4^{\circ}C$ for 3 weeks. The residual amounts of the pesticides in kimchi decreased in a time dependent manner, finally the amounts of the pesticides to 0.35$\pm$0.04 ppm and 0.48$\pm$0.06 ppm while the removal rates of the two pesticides were 57.8% and 81.0%, respectively. When the kimchi was fermented at $4^{\circ}C$ and $10^{\circ}C$ for 3 weeks, the removal rates of Bifenthrin were 57.8% and 72.2% and those of Metalaxyl were 81.0% and 85.6%, respectively. Consequently, it appeared that the residual pesticides can be removed during preparation, especially brining; the fermentation process of kimchi also removed the residual pesticides effectively, especially at higher temperature and long period.

Analysis Study on the use of Frequency and the Cooking Method of Leaf and Stem Vegetables in High School Foodservice (고등학교 급식식단의 엽경채류 식재료 사용 빈도 및 조리방법 분석 연구)

  • Min, Ji-Hyeon;Lee, Jong-Kyung;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Yoon, Ki-Sun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.250-257
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to extract the factors affecting the microbial safety of leaf and stem vegetables in the high school foodservice and to provide information for supplying the safe foodservice menu. The lunch and dinner menu (1,945 data) of the total 6 high schools at the Central and the South Region in March, June, September, and December were collected. The frequency analysis and the multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) based on the 3 factors (potentially hazardous food (PHF), leafy and stem vegetables in the menu, the cooking methods) were conducted. The most frequent PHF was the menu of blanched vegetables, salads, seaweeds and fried chicken. The most frequent consumed leaf and stem vegetables were spinach, chive, lettuce, Western cabbage, perilla leaf, iceberg lettuce, chicory, leek and broccoli. MCA based on the leaf and stem vegetables, the region, and the cooking method (cooked/non-cooked) showed that garlic stem and spinach were more used in the Central Region, while water drop-wort were more used in the South Region. Iceberg lettuce, Bok choy and leek were included frequently in the PHF menu. Plant products frequently used in PHF menu requires the food safety system such as Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) to reduce the microbial risk. The menu database according to raw materials based on cooking methods (heating or mixing) as well as the development and verification of menu based on the microbial safety will be contributed to provide the safer foodservice menu.

Microbiological Hazard Analysis for HACCP System Application to Non Heat-Frozen Carrot Juice (비가열냉동 당근주스의 HACCP 시스템 적용을 위한 미생물학적 위해 분석)

  • Lee, Ung-Soo;Kwon, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.79-84
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study has been performed for about 270 days at analyzing biologically hazardous factors in order to develop HACCP system for the non heat-frozen carrot juice. A process chart was prepared by manufacturing process of raw agricultural products of non heat-frozen carrot juice, which was contained water and packing material, storage, washing, cutting, extraction of the juice, internal packing, metal detection, external packing, storage and consignment (delivery). As a result of measuring Coliform group, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Listeria Monocytogenes, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli before and after washing raw carrot, Standard plate count was $4.7{\times}10^4CFU/g$ before washing but it was $1.2{\times}10^2CFU/g$ detected after washing. As a result of testing airborne bacteria (Standard plate count, Coliform group, Yeast and Fungal) depending on each workplace, number of microorganism of in packaging room, shower room and juice extraction room was detected to be 10 CFU/Plate, 60 CFU/Plate, 20 CFU/Plate, respectively. As a result of testing palm condition of workers, as number of Standard plate count, Coliform group and Staphylococcus aureus was represented to be high as $6{\times}10^4CFU/cm^2$, $0CFU/cm^2$ and $0CFU/cm^2$, respectively, an education and training for individual sanitation control was considered to be required. As a result of inspecting surface pollution level of manufacturing facility and devices, Coliform group was not detected in all the specimen but Standard plate count was most dominantly detected in scouring kier, scouring kier tray, cooling tank, grinding extractor, storage tank and packaging machine-nozzle as $8.00{\times}10CFU/cm^2$, $3.0{\times}10CFU/cm^2$, $4.3{\times}10^2CFU/cm^2$, $7.5{\times}10^2CFU/cm^2$, $6.0{\times}10CFU/cm^2$, $8.5{\times}10^2CFU/cm^2$ respectively. As a result of analyzing above hazardous factors, processing process of ultraviolet ray sterilizing where pathogenic bacteria may be prevented, reduced or removed is required to be controlled by CCP-B (Biological) and critical level (critical control point) was set at flow speed is 4L/min. Therefore, it is considered that thorough HACCP control plan including control criteria (point) of seasoning fluid processing process, countermeasures in case of its deviation, its verification method, education/training and record control would be required.