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Effect of Obesity and Diabetes on Alzheimer's APP Gene Expression in Mouse Adipose Tissues (비만 및 당뇨가 생쥐 지방조직에서의 Alzheimer's APP 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Woo;Lee, Yong-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1012-1018
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) is dysregulated in adipose tissues of C57BL/6 male mice by high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity, aging, or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. APP mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) in subcutaneous (SAT) and epididymal adipose tissues (EAT) from mice in 8 different condition groups. By combining conditions of age (16 weeks/26 weeks of age), diet (normal diet (ND)/high-fat diet), and induction of diabetes (non-diabetic/diabetic), 88 mice were divided into 8 different groups. QPCR demonstrated that APP expression in SAT was significantly increased by about two-fold in HFD-induced obese mice compared to both 16 week-old and 26 week-old mice in the ND group (16 weeks p=0.001; 26 weeks p<0.0001), but no changes in EAT was found. Particular effects of aging on APP gene expression were not observed in either adipose tissue depots. Significantly decreased APP expression was found in SAT in STZ-induced diabetic mice fed on ND or HFD at 16 weeks of age (ND p<0.05; HFD p<0.01). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that APP expression levels correlated with body weight in both the non-diabetic group (R=0.657, p<0.0001, n=39) and the diabetic group (R=0.508, p=<0.0001, n=49), but did not correlate with plasma glucose levels, which suggests that decreased APP expression in STZ-induced diabetic mice is most likely due to weight loss rather than hyperglycemia. These data confirm APP dysregulation by weight changes in humans and suggest a possible role linking midlife obesity with the later development of amyloidogenesis in the brain of older patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Effects of Amino Acids on the Activities of Alcohol Metabolizing Enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) and Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) (알코올 대사 효소 alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 및 acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 활성에 미치는 아미노산의 영향)

  • Cha, Jae-Young;Jung, Hae-Jung;Jeong, Jae-Jun;Yang, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Yong-Taek;Lee, Yong-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1321-1327
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    • 2009
  • The present study examined the comparative effects of various amino acids on the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities of yeast Saccharomyces cereviciae and rat liver homogenate in vitro. Methionine showed the highest activity in yeast ADH among the amino acids used in this study, but this was not higher than that of the hangover product, Condition-Power (CP) used as positive control. Methionine was also found to be the best amino acid in terms of the ALDH activity in rat liver homogenate among the treatment amino acids, which was comparatively higher than that of positive control CP. It was chosen for further experiments and yeast ADH activity increased in parallel with increased methionine concentration, but not rat liver ALDH activity, and it was comparatively higher than those of the positive control. Arginine showed the highest values in yeast ALDH and rat liver ADH activities among amino acids, and it was chosen for further experiments. Yeast ALDH activity increased in parallel with increased arginine concentration, which was higher than that of positive control CP, and rat liver ADH activity was also comparatively higher in all treatment concentrations of arginine than that of positive control CP. The native electrophoresis of ADH and ALDH from cell-free extracts of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured in the growth medium containing various arginine concentrations by $0{\sim}0.1%$ showed two active bands upon zymogram staining analysis, and the straining intensity of ADH and ALDH active bands in arginine treatment yeast was stronger than that of non-yeast or low treatment yeast. These results indicate that alcohol metabolizing enzyme activities can be enhanced by arginine and methionine, suggesting that arginine and methionine have potent ethanol-metabolizing activities.

Optimization of Genetic Transformation Conditions for Korean Soybean Cultivars (국내 콩(Glycine max) 품종 형질전환 초기조건 확립)

  • Lee Ki-Jung;Seo Jen-Kyung;Lee Hye-Young;Jeon Eun-Hee;Shin Sang-Hyun;Lee Jai-Heon;Kim Doh-Hoon;Ko Jong-Min;Hahn Won Young;Baek In-Youl;Oh Boung-Jun;Chung Young-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.289-296
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    • 2006
  • In order to establish highly efficient gene transfer condition at early stage of soybean transformation, various experiments were performed and compared their efficiencies by transient GUS analysis; those conditions are genotype determination of Korean soybean cultivars for amenability to Agro-infection, appropriate agar and selective agent concentration, orientation of explant placement, hormone pre-culture, and liquid selection condition. In the genotype screen of Korean soybean varieties, 14 amenable genotypes were selected. For efficient Agrobacterium washing, cefotaxime was chosen and hygromycin at the concentration of 10 and 15 ppm was used as selection agent in the media. Agar concentration was slightly better in 0.6% and 0.8% for both shoot and callus formation, and explant placement with adaxial side down showed high frequency of GUS expression. For wounding treatment, oriental needle was efficient than scalpel for shoot formation and gene transfer. To increase the frequency of gene transfer, hormone pre-treatment was applied. BA at the concentration of 5 and 10 ppm resulted in better survival at the late stage of selection in shoot elongation media. Selection in liquid media after hormone pre-treatment seemed to be effective to remove the escaped non-transformants at early stage of procedure. Considering the results obtained, Eunhakong could be the first choice as a material for soybean transformation among Korean soybean genotypes.

An Analysis of Consumer's Taste on Environment-Friendly Agricultural Products in Korea (우리나라 친환경 농산물에 대한 소비자 의향분석)

  • 이종성;오주성;손흥대;양원진;정원복;정순재;김도훈
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.433-441
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    • 2002
  • There has been an increasing public concern about environmental safety and human health of field crops while customer consumes more and more field crops, to which overdose and residual chemicals were applied. As a solution for the problems, construction of sustainable agroecosystem is spreading out to pursuit the economic value of agricultural management as well as to meet environment concern. Public has extended their understanding on the preservation of environment and safeness of agricultural products, and governmental policy toward sustainable agriculture drives rapid increase of the production of sustainable agricultural products. Under this circumstances, it is time to encourage more consumption and to activate market system for the sustainable agricultural products. This study was initiated to diagnose the problems and future direction of domestic sustainable agriculture by analyzing the overall opinions of consumer on the sustainable agriculture. The results are as follows: The pursuit of low input management is a prerequisite to creat high valued agricultural products, and serious consideration should be taken to produce clean crops using natural products. Consummers are willing to pay 10∼50% more prices if the products get certified by official eco-label programs. It is believed that practice of sustainable agriculture using biopesticide and natural pesticide would accelerate the rapid extension of this pro-environmental agricultural management. To activate production and consumption of sustainable agricultural products correct informations on safety should be addressed to customer, and confidence has to be brought about from customer. This could be done by obtaining various and efficient distribution route, product competency for quality, upgraded sales strategy, maximum utilization of certificate system, and practice of recall system, so on.

Analysis of Physicochemical Characterization and Volatiles in Pure or Refined Olive Oils (국내 유통되는 퓨어 및 정제 올리브유의 이화학적 특성 및 향기 분석)

  • Nam, Ha-Young;Lee, Ju-Woon;Hong, Jang-Hwan;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.11
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    • pp.1409-1416
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    • 2007
  • Seven selected commercial pure or refined olive oils were obtained from the market, and their physicochemical properties and volatile characterizations were investigated. Fatty acid profiles of the analyzed olive oils showed oleic $(61.2{\sim}74.7mole%)$, palmitic $(10.2{\sim}16.8mole%)$, linoleic $(9.4{\sim}18.0mole%)$, stearic $(1.9{\sim}3.0mole%)$, palmitoleic $(0.7{\sim}2.4mole%)$ and linolenic acid $(0.5{\sim}0.9mole%)$. According to Hunter#s color measurement, pure or refined olive oils showed $L^*$ value of $92.2{\sim}99.0$, $a^*$ value of $-22.2{\sim}-3.2$, and $b^*$ value of $18.5{\sim}55.0$. Their total phenol contents ranged from 1.9 to $13.3mg/100g$ while ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ content showed $7.91{\sim}13.88mg/100g$. Oxidation stability of the pure or refined olive oils were observed by Rancimat. The induction period ranged from 17.37 to 34.72 hr while their POV were $6.83{\sim}20.31meq/kg$ oil. Electronic nose and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry with head-space solid phase microextraction were applied to identify and discriminate the volatile compounds and flavors in pure or refined olive oils, respectively.

Moderating Effect of Health Motivation, Health Concern and Food Involvement on the Relationship between Consumption Value and Purchasing Intentions of Healthy Functional Food (건강기능식품 소비가치와 구매의도의 관계에 대한 건강동기, 건강염려, 식품몰입의 조절효과)

  • Cha, Myeong-Hwa;Kim, Yoo-Kyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.1435-1442
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of consumption value on healthy functional food choice. Also, this study explored the role of health motivation, health concern, and food involvement as a moderating variable in the relationship between consumption value and healthy functional food choice. A total of 281 responses were collected using on-site survey (response rate 96.0%) from college students in Daegu, Gyeoungbuk Province. The questionnaire contained questions on consumption value, health motivation, health concern, food involvement, and purchasing intention of healthy functional food. The respondents rated the items using a 5-point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). According to the confirmatory factor analysis, item evaluating using factor loading resulted in the retention of 25 consumption value items loading on seven factors, four health motivation items loading one factor, six health concern items loading on one factor, and four food involvement items loading on one factor with an internal consistency. Results of stepwise regression found that social value-I, emotional, functional, epistemic, and conditional values among consumption value determined the purchasing intention of healthy functional food. Results of hierarchical regression showed that health concern had a positive effect on the relationship between social value-I and purchasing intention of healthy functional food.

Quality Evaluation of Take-out Services at Restaurants in Chungbuk Province (충청북도지역 외식업체의 테이크아웃서비스 품질특성 분석)

  • Lee, Young-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.942-952
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this research was to evaluate the quality of take-out services at restaurants in Chungbuk Province. A questionnaire survey by 450 customers who had experience in take-out service at the restaurants was conducted and 378 completed questionnaires were available for statistical evaluation. Statistical analyses were made of raw data by SAS V8.2. The scale for analyzing the importance and performance of the service quality was composed of 5-point Likert scales. The main results of this study are as follow: The quality attributes of take-out service were rearranged into four factors in terms of food, sanitation, access and service. The importance score was higher than performance score. IPA showed that 'freshness of food material', 'cleanliness and hygiene in food', 'sanitation of facilities', 'neatness of employees' and 'price in food' was included in 'focus here' area. There was significantly positive correlation between factors such as food, sanitation, access, service and overall customer satisfaction (p<.001); between factors and repurchasing intentions (p<.001); and between customer satisfaction and repurchasing intentions (p<.001). According to multiple regression analysis, 26.27% of the variance in respondents' overall satisfaction score and 9.21% of the variance in respondents' repurchasing intention score could be explained by factors such as food, sanitation, access and service.

Perceptions on Environment and Environment-Friendly Agricultural Products of College Students in Seoul and Incheon Area (경인지역 대학생의 환경과 친환경농산물에 대한 인식)

  • Sung, Min-Jung;Choi, Hyo-Seon;Chang, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed in order to investigate perceptions on environment and environment-friendly agricultural products, knowledge level and opinion about these products. The subjects were 387 college students in Seoul and Incheon area. This survey was conducted by self-administered questionnaire. The statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS 12.0 program. Male subjects were 53.2% and female subjects were 46.8%. 52.9% of the subjects have knowledge about environment-friendly agricultural products. Also 50.9% of the subjects knew certification label of environment-friendly agricultural products whereas 13.4% knew certification authority of environment-friendly agricultural products. The average scores of 'image of environment-friendly agricultural products', 'attitude towards environment', 'attitude towards agrichemical' were $3.84{\pm}0.68,\;3.51{\pm}0.73\;and\;3.58{\pm}0.87$, respectively. In regard to 'image of environment- friendly agricultural products', the scores were significantly affected by gender (p<0.05), self-recognition of health status (p<0.05) and self-knowledge about environment-friendly agricultural products (p<0.001). In regard to 'attitude towards environment', the scores were significantly affected by self-recognition of health status (p<0.05), self-knowledge about environment-friendly agricultural products (p<0.001), and information about environment friendly agricultural products certificate authority (p<0.01). In regard to 'attitude towards agrichemical', the scores were significantly affected by gender (p<0.001), self-recognition of health status (p<0.05), supplements for health (p<0.05) and self-knowledge about environment-friendly agricultural products (p<0.001). Therefore, various education programs on environment-friendly agricultural products are necessary for college students to make right food choices.

Preparation of Korean Traditional Alcoholic Beverage (Yakju) by a Protoplast Fusion Yeast Strain Utilizing Starch and its Quality Characteristics (전분분해 효모융합체를 이용한 전통 발효주의 제조와 품질특성)

  • Ju, Min-No;Hong, Sung-Wook;Kim, Kwan-Tae;Yum, Sung-Kwan;Kim, Gye-Won;Chung, Kun-Sub
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.541-546
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Korean traditional alcoholic beverage (yakju) prepared using different nuruk (Korean-style koji) concentrations and yeasts such as the fusant FA776 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae KOY-1, respectively. The fusant FA776, which has alcohol-fermenting and starch-utilizing properties, was formed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae KOY-1 and Saccharomyces diastaticus KCTC1804. The fermentation trial was conducted in a 5 L lab-scale jar at $25^{\circ}C$. The maximum alcohol production of the K-100 and F-50 reached levels of 135.0 mg/mL and 119.4 mg/mL, respectively. The pH values were in a range of 4.3-4.5. Total acidity was in a range of 0.47-0.60%. Organic acids and amino acids were analyzed in order to evaluate variations in its composition and content via HPLC analysis. Organic acids including lactic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and pyruvic acid, and 16 kinds of amino acids, including aspartic acid, were detected in all treatments. K-100 showed the highest amino acid contents, whereas F-50 exhibited the lowest amino acid contents. Volatile flavor components such as phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-methylthiophane, isobutyl alcohol, and ethyl succinate were detected as a major component in all treatments, as determined via gas chromatography. The results of our sensory evaluation demonstrated that Yakju fermented by the FA776 fusant yielded more favorable results than S. cerevisiae KOY-1.

Determination of Heterocyclic Amines in Roasted Fish and Shellfish by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization/Mass Spectrometry (Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry를 이용한 가열 조리된 어패류에서의 heterocyclic amines 함량 분석)

  • Lee, Jae-Hwan;Back, Yoo-Mi;Lee, Kwang-Geun;Shin, Han-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.326-333
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    • 2009
  • Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic substances that are formed during the heating of protein-rich foods. HCAs are generally found at low amounts in a complex matrix, which requires sophisticated analysis. In this study, HCAs were extracted from lyophilized fish and shellfish samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The HCA recoveries in the fish and shellfish ranged from 15.7 to 74.7% with standard deviations from 0.2 to 7.63%. And HCA concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 1,117.7 $ng/g^{-1}$ in cooked food samples. 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were the most abundant HCAs formed in the muscle of fried mackerel, at levels of 1,117.7, 926.6, and 133.7 ng/g, respectively. 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-aminodipiryrido[1,2-a:3,2-d]imidazole(Glu-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole(A${\alpha}$C), 2-amino-3methyl-9H-pyrido [1,2-a:3,2-d]imidazole(MeA${\alpha}$C), 2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (TriMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline(7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were only detected by small quantities ranged from 1.5 to 98.6 ng/g. Overall, this study provides useful information on HCA levels in fish and shellfish products consumed in Korea.