• Title, Summary, Keyword: Association rules

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A Study on the Advanced Association Rules Algorithm of n-Items (개선된 n-항목 연관 규칙 알고리즘 연구)

  • 황현숙;어윤양
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 2002
  • The transaction tables of the existing association algorithms have two column attributes : It is composed of transaction identifier (Transaction_id) and an item identifier (item). In this kind of structure, as the volume of data becomes larger, the performance for the SQL query statements came applicable decreases. Therefore, we propose advanced association rules algorithm of n-items which can transact multiple items (Transaction_id, Item 1, Item 2…, Item n). In this structure, performance hours can be contracted more than the single item structures, because count can be computed by query of the input transaction tables. Our experimental results indicate that performance of the n items structure is up to 2 times better than the single item. As a result of this paper, the proposed algorithm can be applied to internet shopping, searching engine and etc.

An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Frequent Closed Itemsets Using Transaction Link Structure (트랜잭션 연결 구조를 이용한 빈발 Closed 항목집합 마이닝 알고리즘)

  • Han, Kyong Rok;Kim, Jae Yearn
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.242-252
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    • 2006
  • Data mining is the exploration and analysis of huge amounts of data to discover meaningful patterns. One of the most important data mining problems is association rule mining. Recent studies of mining association rules have proposed a closure mechanism. It is no longer necessary to mine the set of all of the frequent itemsets and their association rules. Rather, it is sufficient to mine the frequent closed itemsets and their corresponding rules. In the past, a number of algorithms for mining frequent closed itemsets have been based on items. In this paper, we use the transaction itself for mining frequent closed itemsets. An efficient algorithm is proposed that is based on a link structure between transactions. Our experimental results show that our algorithm is faster than previously proposed methods. Furthermore, our approach is significantly more efficient for dense databases.

An Efficient Search Method for High Confidence Association Rules Using CP(Confidence Pattern)-Tree Structure (CP-Tree구조를 이용한 높은 신뢰도를 갖는 연관 규칙의 효율적 탐색 방법)

  • 송한규;김재련
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2002
  • The traditional approaches of association rule mining have relied on high support condition to find interesting rules. However, in some application such as analyzing the web page link and discovering some unusual combinations of some factors that have always caused some disease, we are interested in rules with high confidence that have very low support or need not have high support. In these cases, the traditional algorithms are not suitable since it relies on first satisfying high support. In this paper, we propose a new model, CP(Confidence Pattern)-Tree, to identify high confidence rule between 2-items without support constraint. constraint. In addition, we discuss confidence association rule between two more items without support constraint.

Analysis of Deliberations by UNCITRAL Working Group on the Draft Revised Version of UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (UNCITRAL 중재규칙(仲裁規則) 개정초안(改正草案) 내용(內容)의 분석(分析)과 방향검토(方向檢討))

  • Kang, Pyoung-Keun
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.3-31
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    • 2008
  • At its thirty-ninth session(New York, 19 June - 7 July 2006), United Nations Commission on International Trade Law(hereinafter referred to as the Commission) agreed to give priority to the topic of revising the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. From the forty-fifth through the forty-seventh session, the Working Group checked various issues based on the draft revised version of the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules prepared by the Secretariat. At its forty-eighth session, the Working Group is going to finish its first reading of articles 38 to 41 of the draft revised version of the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules, and to commence its second reading of the draft revised version of UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. Korea is keen on enticing foreign direct investment into its territory. From the 1960s, Korea has concluded more than 80 BITs. Korea is making efforts to conclude FTAs with its trading partners. As of January, 2008, 3 FTAs have taken into effect with respect to Korea. According to provisions on dispute settlement found in such BITs and FTAs involving Korea, the Rules can be chosen for Investor-State Arbitration. Furthermore, the Rules is followed by the arbitration rules for domestic and international arbitrations administered by the Korean Commercial Arbitration Board. If the Commission adopts the revised version of UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules, the Rules will be able to give impact on the arbitration law and practice around the world of arbitration. That is the reason why we should keep attention to the development of the deliberations of the Working Group.

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Applicability of Overriding Mandatory Rules in International Arbitration (국제중재에서 국제적 강행법규의 적용가능성)

  • Chung, Hong-Sik
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.3-27
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    • 2013
  • Overriding Mandatory rules are laws that purport to apply irrespective of the law chosen by the parties to govern their contractual relations. This article examines their role and applicability in international arbitration. The overriding mandatory rules pose a complex and continuing problem for arbitrators because they put the interests of states and parties in direct competition. When a law says that arbitrators must apply it, yet the parties' contract excludes it, what should the arbitrators do? Where should their allegiance lie? The answer depends on the underlying nature of arbitration - and since that can be legitimately conceptualized in different ways, a principled approach to overriding mandatory rules seems to be impossible to provide. Nevertheless, a practical solution is required, because there were European cases in which courts voided valid arbitration agreements made, reasoning that arbitrators certainly would not apply and/or take into account its overriding mandatory rules of indemnity right granted to commercial agent and distributor in Europe. Therefore, this paper first examines status of overriding mandatory rules of another law in international litigation and then explores any possibility of application of overriding mandatory rules of another law in international commercial arbitration. With this analysis, the author reaches into a conclusion that the arbitrator should and/or take into account overriding mandatory rules of another law, yet should limit to them of the country where characteristic performance is made under the contract.

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Product Recommender Systems using Multi-Model Ensemble Techniques (다중모형조합기법을 이용한 상품추천시스템)

  • Lee, Yeonjeong;Kim, Kyoung-Jae
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.39-54
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    • 2013
  • Recent explosive increase of electronic commerce provides many advantageous purchase opportunities to customers. In this situation, customers who do not have enough knowledge about their purchases, may accept product recommendations. Product recommender systems automatically reflect user's preference and provide recommendation list to the users. Thus, product recommender system in online shopping store has been known as one of the most popular tools for one-to-one marketing. However, recommender systems which do not properly reflect user's preference cause user's disappointment and waste of time. In this study, we propose a novel recommender system which uses data mining and multi-model ensemble techniques to enhance the recommendation performance through reflecting the precise user's preference. The research data is collected from the real-world online shopping store, which deals products from famous art galleries and museums in Korea. The data initially contain 5759 transaction data, but finally remain 3167 transaction data after deletion of null data. In this study, we transform the categorical variables into dummy variables and exclude outlier data. The proposed model consists of two steps. The first step predicts customers who have high likelihood to purchase products in the online shopping store. In this step, we first use logistic regression, decision trees, and artificial neural networks to predict customers who have high likelihood to purchase products in each product group. We perform above data mining techniques using SAS E-Miner software. In this study, we partition datasets into two sets as modeling and validation sets for the logistic regression and decision trees. We also partition datasets into three sets as training, test, and validation sets for the artificial neural network model. The validation dataset is equal for the all experiments. Then we composite the results of each predictor using the multi-model ensemble techniques such as bagging and bumping. Bagging is the abbreviation of "Bootstrap Aggregation" and it composite outputs from several machine learning techniques for raising the performance and stability of prediction or classification. This technique is special form of the averaging method. Bumping is the abbreviation of "Bootstrap Umbrella of Model Parameter," and it only considers the model which has the lowest error value. The results show that bumping outperforms bagging and the other predictors except for "Poster" product group. For the "Poster" product group, artificial neural network model performs better than the other models. In the second step, we use the market basket analysis to extract association rules for co-purchased products. We can extract thirty one association rules according to values of Lift, Support, and Confidence measure. We set the minimum transaction frequency to support associations as 5%, maximum number of items in an association as 4, and minimum confidence for rule generation as 10%. This study also excludes the extracted association rules below 1 of lift value. We finally get fifteen association rules by excluding duplicate rules. Among the fifteen association rules, eleven rules contain association between products in "Office Supplies" product group, one rules include the association between "Office Supplies" and "Fashion" product groups, and other three rules contain association between "Office Supplies" and "Home Decoration" product groups. Finally, the proposed product recommender systems provides list of recommendations to the proper customers. We test the usability of the proposed system by using prototype and real-world transaction and profile data. For this end, we construct the prototype system by using the ASP, Java Script and Microsoft Access. In addition, we survey about user satisfaction for the recommended product list from the proposed system and the randomly selected product lists. The participants for the survey are 173 persons who use MSN Messenger, Daum Caf$\acute{e}$, and P2P services. We evaluate the user satisfaction using five-scale Likert measure. This study also performs "Paired Sample T-test" for the results of the survey. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the random selection model with 1% statistical significance level. It means that the users satisfied the recommended product list significantly. The results also show that the proposed system may be useful in real-world online shopping store.

Target Marketing using Inverse Association Rule (역 연관규칙을 이용한 타겟 마케팅)

  • 황준현;김재련
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.195-209
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    • 2003
  • Making traditional plan of target marketing based on association rule has brought restriction to obtain the target of marketing. This paper is to present inverse association rule as a new association rule for target marketing. Inverse association rule does not use information about relation between items that customers purchase, but use information about relation between items that customers do not purchase. By adding inverse association rule to target marketing, we generate new marketing strategy to look for new target of marketing. There are three steps to apply the marketing strategy proposed by this Paper to target marketing. Firstly, a database is converted to an inverse database. Although inverse association rules can be generated from a database, it is easier to explain inverse association rule in an inverse database than in a database. Secondly, association rules and inverse association rules are generated from inverse database. Finally, two types of rules which are created in the previous steps are applied to target marketing. From new marketing rule, this paper is to show direct marketing about target item and indirect marketing about another item associated with target item to sell target item. The reason is that sales of the item associated with target item have an influence on sales of target item.

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Children's Ideas about Self-Regulation by Situational Characteristics (상황의 특성에 따른 아동의 자기 규제에 대한 판단)

  • Cho, Sung Min;Yi, Soon Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.147-157
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate children's ideas about self-regulation in such situational variables as the presence of explicit rules and the domains of social rules. The subjects were 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old children (344). To assess children's ideas about self-regulation, a procedure was devised in which children were presented with stories portraying a protagonist in a conflict between an implicit or an explicit rule and a personal desire. The children were asked to make a choice for the protagonist and to give reasons for their choice. Major findings as follows: (1) There was significant difference in children's self-regulation depending on the presence of explicit rules. (2) There was significant difference in children's self-regulation depending on the domains of social rules. In situations that involved no explicit rules for behaviors, there were significant differences depending on the domains. In situations that involved explicit rules for behaviors, for 6- and 9-year-old children, there was no significant difference depending on the domains. (3) Children's use of justifications for their choice of action varied as a function of the characteristics of the social rules.

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Comparative Evaluation of Multipurpose Reservoir Operating Rules Using Multicriterion Decision Analysis Techniques

  • Ko, Seok-Ku;Lee, Kwang-Man;Ko, luk-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Hydrosciences
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    • v.4
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    • pp.65-79
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    • 1993
  • Selection of the best operating rule among a set of alternatives for a multipurpose reservoir system operation requires to evaluate many minor criteria in addition to the major objectives assessed to the system. These problems are sufficiently complex and difficult that they are beyond heuristic decision rules and experiences in case several noncommensurable multiple criteria are included in the evaluation. With the assistance of multicriterion decision analysis techniques, it is possible to select the best one among various alternatives by systematically comparing and ranking the alternatives with respect to the criteria of choice. Evaluation criteria for multipurpose reservoir system operating rules were identified and defined, and the multicriterion decision analysis techniques were applied to evaluate the four existing operating rules of the Chungju multipurpose project according to the identified nine multiple criteria. The application results show that the methodology is very efficient to select the best operation alternative among a finite number of operating rules with many evaluation criteria for a large-scale reservoir system operation.

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A Study on the Rules for Resolving Documentary Credits Disputes (화환신용상(貨換信用狀) 분쟁해결(紛爭解決) 규칙(規則)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Seok-Jae
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.353-375
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    • 1998
  • This study is focused on the rules for resolving documentary credits disputes. First, International Chamber of Commerce published Documentary Credit Dispute Expertise Rules on October 1, 1997. The DOCDEX Rules are the International Chamber of Commerce(ICC) response to a clear call from the international banking community for a rapid, cost effective, expert-based dispute resolution mechanism for documentary credit practice, including bank-to-bank reimbursement issues. Next, The International Center for Letter of Credit Arbitration was established in September 1996. The Center was founded as a result of an initiative from within the letter of credit community and has been co-sponsored by the United States Council on International Banking(USCIB) and the Institute of International Banking Law and Practice Inc. In September, ICLOCA adopted its "Rules of Arbitration for Letter of Credit Disputes." Therefore, parties to letter of credit disputes should choose a appropriate dispute resolution mechanism under the circumstances in the future.

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