This study focuses on the internal structures and multi-stage deformation history of the Yangsan Fault Zone based on the newly exposed outcrops in Gyeongju-Eonyang area during the widening construction of Seoul-Busan highway. The fault zone is divided into fault core/mixed and damage zones of several tens of meters and of a few hundred meters in width, respectively. The fault rocks, juxtaposed along the NNE-striking fault, are derived from the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks (dark gray shale, purple mudstone, white sandstone) and andesitic rocks, each of which shows different deformation pattern. Bedding attitudes of the sedimentary rocks within the fault zone tend to be more parallel to the attitude of main fault surface close to the fault core, and interlayer shearing of them was developed as several centimeters to a few meters-thick clay-rich gouge zones, which anastomose and link up with each other. They also contain lenses of fractured sandstone protoliths. The size of breccia derived from the sedimentary rocks alludes that laminated and fine-grained sedimentary rocks are more easily crushed rather than massive and coarse-grained sedimentary rocks. Whereas andesitic rock-derived fault core is characterized by cataclasitic rocks as well as individual, narrow localized faults (<2 cm-thick). Slickenline, S-C fabric, Z-shaped protolith, clockwise rotation of particle, en-echelon fold with NW-trending axis, and magnetic fabric on gouge zone consistently suggest that the dextral strike-slip faulting overwhelmingly overprinted preexisting sinistral deformations such as NW-striking conjugate normal faults. We compare the deformation features and their relative chronologies in this study with those of previous studies, and elucidate two main events of the Yangsan Fault; (1) sinistral strike-slip faulting during the Late Cretaceous under NW-SE compression, and then (2) dextral strike-slip faulting between ca. 43 and 25 Ma under NE-SW compression, although relatively weak deformations along the Yangsan Fault with different senses might occur after or between the events.
Purpose: Fire-fighting organizations are the very first agencies that take actions at a disaster scene, and emergency rescue training is carried out for prompt and systematic response. However, there is a need for a change due to the limitations in emergency rescue trainings such as perfunctory trainings or trainings without considering regional or environmental characteristics. Method: This study is to conduct theoretical review with regard to emergency rescue training and present a measure to improve the emergency rescue training through attitude survey targeting fire-fighting organizations in Gangwon area. Result: Facilities that cause difficulties when doing emergency rescue activity were mostly hazardous material storage and processing facilities. In terms of the level of emergency rescue and response task, most respondents answered that the emergency rescue was insufficient. The respondents answered that the effectiveness of emergency rescue training was helpful, but some responses showed that the training was not helpful because of scenario-based training, seeming training, similar training carried out every year, unrealistic training, and lack of competent authorities' interest and perfunctory participations. Most respondents answered for the appropriateness of emergency rescue training and evaluation that they were satisfied, however, they were not satisfied with the evaluation methods irrelevant to the type of training, evaluation methods requiring unnecessary training scale, and evaluation methods leading perfunctory participations of competent authorities. Lastly, respondents mostly answered that training reflecting various damage situations are necessary regarding the demand on the improvement of emergency rescue training. Conclusion: The improvement measures for emergency rescue training are as follows. First, it is necessary to set and prepare various training contents in accordance with regional characteristics by reviewing major disasters occurred in the region. Second, it is necessary to revise the emergency rescue training guidelines and manuals for appropriate training plan for each fire station, provide education and training for working-level staff members, and establish training in a way that types, tactics, and strategies of emergency rescue training could be utilized practically. Third, it is necessary to prepare a scheme that can lead participation and provide incentive or penalty from the planning stage of training in order to increase the participation of supporting and competent authorities when an actual disaster occurs. Fourth, it is necessary to establish support arrangements and cooperative systems by authority through training by fire stations or zones in preparation for disaster situations that may occur simultaneously. Fifth, it is necessary to put emphasis on the training process rather than the result for emergency rescue training and evaluation, pay attention to the identification of supplement points for each disaster situation and make improvements. Especially, type or form of training should be considered rather than evaluating the execution status of detailed processes, and the evaluation measure that can consider the completeness (proficiency) of training and the status of role performance rather than the scale of training should be prepared. Sixth, type and method of training should be improved in accordance with the characteristics of each fire station by identifying the demand of working-level staff members for an efficient emergency rescue training.
The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
From the cosmopolitan superiority of the as the first world map completed in 1402 with surprisingly detailed images and contents on the Africa Continent it is reasonable to think that the Koreans in early fifteen century were already with highly up-to-date perspectives on the universe and world history and cultures. However, some 490 year later the first phytohydrographic plankton investigation in the neritic seas of Korea was performed by a Japanese company with sampling points covering from Tokyo Bay through Jeju neritic waters to Shanghai estuary, which was in turn preceded by the first oceanographic investigation other than the simple mapping Koreans seas by using two French sailboats. The first phytohydrographic plankton investigation in Korean seas were behind the world first oceanic plankton exploration, the German Plankton Expedition, by 25 years. Starting from the oceanographic investigation including phytohydrographic samplings in the whole Yellow Sea in 1915 the full-scale phytohydrographic plankton studies were tried in Korean seas which is well represented by the 1921 oceanographic investigation on the whole East Sea with 80 sampling stations. In 1932 two separate oceanographic investigations followed, one in the East Sea where 78 stations from Busan to southern Sakhalin Island were simultaneously visited by 50 research vessels for the physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic studies, and the other one in southern coast and western East Sea of Korea where ocean current observation as well as plankton sampling were made in 120 stations to understand the relationship between the ocean current and plankton distribution in the region. In 1933-1934 more intensified investigations on phytohydrography were carried out particularly in the East Sea as an integral part of the basic marine ecosystem studies for the Myeong-Tae (Alaska Pollock) resources estimation. Scientists' attitude for the marine investigation and research activities seemed to be almost unchanging even to the year 1943, which could be reflected by the fact that publication of the results from the investigations performed in 1945 were finally done in 1967 at Tokyo. Some 70 years later from the mid-twenty century we might be standing on the turning-point of "need to be prepared" for the new era of changing paradigm by reviewing, archiving, and analyzing the prior information big data from the previous ocean observation and biohydrographic investigations. At the same time each professional societies for the above mentioned sciences might trigger a continuous project to reorganize and update the records on related bibliography and its history every 30 years.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
When asked about the success factors of successful entrepreneurs and celebrities, he says he was lucky. The remarkable fact is that the attitude about luck is different. However, despite the fact that the belief that we believe is lucky is actually a dominant concept, there has not been much scientific verification of luck. In this study, we saw good luck not being determined randomly by the external environment, but by being able to control luck through the internal attributes of individuals. This study is significant that we have empirically elucidated what kind of efforts have gained good luck, whereas previous research has largely ended in vague logic where luck ends up with an internal locus of control among internal entrepreneurial qualities and efforts can make a successful entrepreneur. We introduced the concept of good luck belief to avoid confirmation bias, which is, to interpret my experience in a direction that matches what I want to believe, and used a good luck belief questionnaire in previous studies and tried to verify that those who have a good belief can increase entrepreneurial opportunity capability through planned happenstance skills. The reason for choosing the entrepreneurial opportunity capacity as a dependent variable was based on the conventional research, that is, the process of recognizing and exploiting the entrepreneurial opportunity is an important part of the entrepreneurship research For empirical research, we conducted a questionnaire survey of a total of 332 people, and the results of the analysis turned out that the belief of good luck has all the positive impacts of planned happenstance skills' sub-factors: curiosity, patience, flexibility, optimism and risk tolerance. Second, we have shown that only the perseverance, optimism, and risk tolerance of planned happenstance skills' sub-factors have a positive impact on this opportunity capability. Thirdly, it was possible to judge that the sub-factors of planned happenstance skills, patience, optimism, and risk tolerance, had a meditating effect between belief in luck and entrepreneurial opportunity capability. This study is highly significant in logically elucidating that people in charge of business incubation and education can get the specific direction when planning a training program for successful entrepreneur to further enhance the entrepreneurial opportunity ability, which is an important ability for the entrepreneur's success.
Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
The Purpose of this study is to present the basic data for selecting and improving the safety education contents which help practically middle school students through analysis of contents of safety education in 'field of home life' of 2009 revised middle school textbooks. The subjects of analysis are 12 types of middle school textbooks: in total 24 books written by 12 publishers in terms of the revised curriculum in 2009. The analysis criteria is developed by the researcher referring to preceding studies regarding safety education based on the seventh safety education standard presented by the Ministry of Education (2015). With such analysis criteria, all words related to the contents of the safety education of analysis criteria were extracted from each textbook, such as words directly mentioned as 'safety', words mean as 'psychological safety' and 'happy life', words related to 'attention', 'note', 'stability' etc. Under the analytic frame of safety education contents according to a home economics textbook, content analysis method was used for producing the frequency and percent of those words. The textbook analysis shows that the number of pages regarding safety education is 336.3 pages, as 9.8% in total 3,412 pages of 12 types of technology and home economics textbooks. As following the analysis of each textbook volume of the proportion in the contents related to safety education, 224.9 pages are on the first volume and 111.9 pages are on the second volume. As grades increase from year one to year three, the proportion of safety education in home economics textbooks is decreased. The highest number of safety education contents unit is 'Self-management of youth' which includes three parts of safety education. In the case of a unit for emphasizing practice, experience and practical exercise such as 'Life of youth' and 'Practice of eco-living', safety education content in the area of 'life safety' are mostly contained. Safety accidents related to the most student experienced, Household accidents (1.4%) and experiment or practice accidents (0.3%) are presented in a low figure. The contents of universal housing and school violence are duplicated on first and second volume of text. The most presented safety education content in the 12 types of textbooks are proper sexual attitude, dietary problems, family conflict and food choice. The least common contents are dangerous drugs, family welfare, internet addiction and industrial accident compensation insurance. As this study is to analyze 12 textbooks developed in 2009 revision curriculum, it is necessary to compare it with the textbook written by the revised curriculum in 2015 and to clarify the contents system of safety education and to avoid duplication of contents. In addition, it is necessary to develop and distribute a safety education program that can support textbooks.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
The purpose of this study is to examine the actual cases of crane breeding at private homes in the Joseon Dynasty period, thereby identifying the universal meaning and characteristics of this act reflected in these cases. This study is likely to help understand the true nature of garden culture during the period. The study' temporal and spatial scope was limited to the Joseon Dynasty and private homes. As references for the study, translated versions of classical literature were selected from the Database of Korean Classics(http://db.itkc.or.kr). To complement for the data, related researchers' translated materials were also used in part. The study's results are summed up as follows: First, Individuals from various social classes including royal families, noblemen, noble families in countryside, and commoners kept cranes at their homes. These crane breeders included those who left a significant mark in the Joseon Dynasty politically and academically as well as 'cheosa(處士)' that refers to scholars living in seclusion without entering the government throughout their lifetime. Second, Crane breeders were spread all over the country. Notably, various cases of crane breeding were found within the Hanyang Wall and its vicinity. Third, The act of crane breeding was highly associated with blood ties and academic lineages such as friendships and teacher-student relations. In this regard, crane breeding was not just a simple taste or appreciation for the arts, but rather reflective of a person's life attitude and orientation. Forth, The consciousness of Confucian origins based on an ancient story of Limpo (林逋) appears to have a large impact on the act of crane breeding. In addition, some cases exhibited the reflection of Taoistic tastes. Fifth, Some individuals tamed cranes for a living. This proves the presence of steady demand for cranes in this period. The present study's limitation is its reliance on translated materials, which hindered research into various cases. Therefore, the future discovery of additional data and the accumulation of their translations will enable the investigation of a wealth of cases.
The purpose of this study is to define the key competency as Christian(in another word: Christian key competency) and to interpret the six key competencies of the 2015 revised curriculum in a Christian educational way. Also as an alternative to the key competencies model of the 2015 revised curriculum, this study aims to materialize the formation of a Christian key competencies model based on Christian faith. This study derived 'faith' from the key competencies as Christian throughout preceding research analysis. The 'faith' of the key competencies as Christian means the ability to know oneself, and to know the world and God within the knowledge of the Bible (knowledge of God) in the personal relationship with God, and also it is the ability to think, judge, and act with biblical values, Christian world view, and Christian self-identity. The key competency 'faith' could be the basis (standard) of motivation, attitude and the value of all competencies in cultivation and exercise. The model of Christian key competencies has the structure in which each six key competencies become to be cultivated based on the Christian key competency called "faith." Based on the structure, the six key competencies of the 2015 revised curriculum were interpreted and explained from the perspective of Christian education. In the self-management competency, self-identity can be correctly formed in relations with transcendent God. In aesthetic emotional competency, the empathic understanding of human beings comes from the understanding of the image of God, the supreme beauty, the source of beauty. About the community competency, human community is the source of God who created the universe, human and all of things. It is because a Christian community is a community within the relationship of Trinity God, Nature and others. Therefore regions, countries, and the world become one community. Communication competency first stem from good attitudes toward yourself and others with respectful mind. It comes from an understanding of Christian human beings. Also, there is a need of having a common language for communications. The common language is the Bible that given to us for our communicative companionship. Through the language of the Bible, God made us to know about God, human being and the creative world, and also made us to continue to communicate with God, others and the world. For having the knowledge-information processing competency, a standard of value for the processing and utilization of knowledge and information is required. The standard should be the basis of moral and ethical values for human respect. About creative thinking competency, the source of creativity is God who created the world. Human beings who have the image of God own creative potential. As well as, creativity has different expression forms depending on individual preferences and interests, and different approaches will be made depending on each individual's importance and achievement. Individual creativity can be found through education, and it can be embodied by converging knowledge, skills and experience.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of beginning teachers in elementary school as they experience the lifecycle of teachers, to analyze and comprehend the difficulties of these teachers based on their characteristics, and to propose a resolution strategy. The study is intended to assist beginning teachers in adapting well to their work and profession as teachers in order to contribute to the growth in quality of education; it is also intended to prepare beginning teachers to utilize their time in elementary school as a period of self-improvement to become proficient teachers. The difficulties in human relations that beginning teachers experience in school can be divided into three major categories: relations with administrators and fellow teachers, relations with parents of students, and relations with students. The standardized and uniform culture of a school and the administrators and fellow workers imposing such a culture are the reason for the difficulties that beginning teachers face, and the question of what kind of fellow teachers the beginning teachers will encounter in their first school exerts a serious influence on the growth of these teachers, who have just begun their career in education. Furthermore, the lack of skills to discipline students eventually leads beginning teachers to face difficulties in controlling students in the classroom, and the process of encountering and resolving various classroom problems contributes to the growth of teachers' proficiency. Moreover, the attitude of students' parents who behave toward them as novice teachers serves as the reason for beginning teachers to lose their confidence or face difficulties in their careers, and exerts an influence on student counseling and guidance. The resolution strategy that beginning teachers apply as they encounter such problems with the entities in the educational field is as follows: imitation, listening, and accepting the thoughts and to renounce. To resolve the difficulties that beginning teachers experience, it is necessary to allocate space and time to discuss their difficulties and possible plans for resolution during the beginning teachers' training period and initiate a mentoring system in schools. Lastly, it is necessary that the offices of education continuously conduct qualitative research on beginning teachers and publish casebooks on such studies.
The objective of this study is to examine the effects of servant leadership of security martial arts instructors on the exercise commitment and training satisfaction of trainees. To achieve the objective of this study, the data was collected from 300 trainees of security martial arts gyms located in Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do regions by using the convenience sampling method. Total 281 questionnaires were used for the analysis after excluding 19 questionnaires. Using the SPSS 23.0 for data-process, this study conducted the frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. First, all the variables showed positive(+) correlations. Second, the presentation of vision of instructors' servant leadership had positive(+) effects on the behavioral commitment while the devoted attitude of instructors' servant leadership had positive(+) effects on the cognitive commitment. Third, the presentation of vision, formation of community, and support for growth of instructors' servant leadership had positive(+) effects on the psychological elements while the presentation of vision and support for growth had positive(+) effects on the environmental elements. The presentation of vision and formation of community had positive(+) effects on the physical elements while the presentation of vision and formation of community had positive(+) effects on the educational elements. The presentation of vision, formation of community, and support for growth had positive(+) effects on the social elements. Fourth, both cognitive commitment and behavioral commitment out of trainees' exercise commitment had positive(+) effects on the psychological elements, environmental elements, physical elements, and educational elements of training satisfaction while only the cognitive commitment had positive(+) effects on the social elements. In summary, the security martial arts instructors should show the leadership like presentation of vision and devotion, and also try hard to satisfy the expectation in many areas to raise the exercise commitment.
This study is to find the key factors of the Internet of Things for development in public sector. In previous studies, it is said that Internet of Things can work digital system without human operation and gives a lot of outputs(information) users. Generally, people are a subject of operating digital system in traditional way, while people are an object on the internet of things. In other words, it is possible to work digital system with only networking from things to things. After all, it is reported that these advantages of the Internet of Things make possible to reduce social costs significantly in public sector. However, despite the strengths of the Internet of Things, there is a specific user acceptance of the technology factor for the Internet of Things rarely. It means that developing of the Internet of Things only focuses on the final purpose. If the focus on development meet this purpose, the user is ignored for the specific reason that using a technique. As a result of this, many users gradually decrease the continuous using of the Internet of Things. Thus, in this study, we need to find what critical factors should reflect to the Internet of Things in public sector. To find this result, there is no choice to use Technology Acceptance Model(TAM). Many researchers have proved that Technology Acceptance Model is valid through the four process in model introduction, confirmation, expansion and refinement from 1986 to 2003. The results of this study showed that the result explanatory power of Internet of Things in public sector is the most important factor affecting only perceived social usefulness and ease of use. Finally, it can be seen that the user has a positive attitude toward use, which has a positive effect on the intention to use continuously. The implications of this study are summarized as follows: When the public Internet of Things service is provided, it means that the user can easily understand the result, and when the person and the object communicate the result to each other, they should be able to communicate with each other. This means that a lot of user effort is needed to understand the outcome of the public Internet of Things being provided.
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