• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bacillus subtilis

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Allergenicity Change of Soybean Proteins by Thermal Treatment Methods (열처리 방법에 따른 품종별 콩 단백질의 항원성 변화)

  • Seol, Hui-Gyeong;Ko, Yu-Jin;Kim, Eun-Jung;Lee, Gyeong-Lan;Kim, Do-Gyeong;Lee, Jeong-Ok;Ahn, Kang-Mo;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.524-531
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    • 2012
  • Soybean is one of the most common food materials causing food hypersensitivity reactions in Korea. In this study, we have investigated the effect of roasting and fermentation on the allergenicity of soybean. Three kinds of soybean ($Daepung$, $Daewon$, and $Taegwang$) were prepared as raw, roasted, and fermented by $Bacillus$ $subtilis$ GSK 3580, and then their proteins were extracted. The proteins were separated using SDS-PAGE, and the detection of IgE specific to soybean proteins was performed by immunoblotting using 7 sera of soybean allergy patients and non-allergic control individuals. Serum specific IgE to soybean was measured by ELISA. The SDS-PAGE of raw soybean proteins showed various-sized bands ranging from 9 to 76 kDa, which are known as major allergens. In particular, 9, 21, 34, 52, 72, and 76 kDa proteins are known as LTP, Kunits trypsin inhibitor, $Gly$ m Bd 30K, ${\beta}$-subunit, ${\alpha}$-subunit, and ${\alpha}$'-subunit of ${\beta}$-conglycinin, respectively; these are major allergens in soybean. In contrast, only peptides of less than 35 kDa were found in roasted and fermented soybeans. IgE immunoblot analysis of three roasted species of soybeans commonly detected at 38-40 kDa and 10-15 kDa. The protein bands in fermented soybean showed very weak signals or were not detected. In addition, the reactivity of most patients' sera to soybean was decreased after roasting and fermentation. With these results, it may be concluded that the allergenicity of soybeans is reduced by the roasting and fermentation processes. It is supposed that allergenic proteins in soybean were degraded by heat treatment methods and proteolytic enzymes were secreted from fermenting microorganisms.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Poly-${\gamma}$-Glutamic Acid on DNCB-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Dogs (개에서 DNCB에 의해 유발된 알레르기성 접촉피부염에 대한 폴리감마글루탐산의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun-Gon;Kim, Kil-Soo;Oh, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.283-296
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    • 2012
  • Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an inflammatory skin disease and regarded as a prototype of T-cell mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Poly-${\gamma}$-glutamic acid (PGA) is a biodegradable polymer that is produced by Bacillus subtilis. This study was performed to assess the effects of PGA in a canine model of ACD. ACD was induced on the back of dogs induced by sensitization and repeated application by 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB). Topical treatment of PGA was applied once a day for 12 days and skin biophysical parameters including transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, skin pH, skin thickness and erythema index, were measured every two days during experimental periods. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect. In skin biophysical parameters, TEWL, skin hydration, skin thickness and erythema index were significantly increased, with a maximum increase appeared on day 2 (p < 0.05). On the other hand, skin pH was significantly decreased, with a maximum decrease appeared on day 2 (p < 0.01). After the completion of PGA treatment, skin biophysical parameters were significantly reached those of baseline in a time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In histopathology, marked increases of epidermal thicknesses were induced after DNCB challenge with numerous inflammatory cell infiltrations and edematous changes, decreases of connective tissue occupied regions in dermis. In addition, marked increases of cytokine - tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) and interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$)-immunoreactivities in the dermis and of apoptotic markers - caspase-3 and PARP-immunoreactivities in the epidermis were observed in DNCB-PBS control as compared with intact control, respectively (p < 0.01). It means, the ACD and related apoptotic changes were induced by DNCB in the present study. However, these ACD induced by DNCB and related apoptosis in epidermis were significantly inhibited by treatment of PGA treated skin, the decreases of infiltrated inflammatory cells and related decreases of pro-inflammatory cytokine immunoreactivities were also observed (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, PGA may have anti-inflammatory and alleviatory effects in the allergic contact dermatitis.

Calcium Bioavailability and Antiosteoporotic Effects of Cheonggukjang Containing High Poly-Gamma Glutamate Contents (고함량 폴리감마글루탐산(PGA) 청국장에 대한 칼슘 생체이용률 및 골다공증에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Mu-Jin;Jung, Ho-Kyung;Sim, Mi-Ok;Jang, Ji-Hun;Kim, Tae-Mook;Lee, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Ki-Ho;An, Byeong-Kwan;Cho, Jung-Hee;Jang, Min-Cheol;Yong, Ju-Hyun;Kim, Jong-Choon;Cho, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.11
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    • pp.1544-1551
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    • 2016
  • Various types of fermented soybean foods are consumed in various Asian countries, including China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Cheonggukjang is a Korean whole soybean paste fermented by Bacillus subtilis and regarded as a healthy food. The objective of this study was to investigate the Ca-bioavailability and anti-osteoporotic effects of cheonggukjang (CGJ) containing high poly-gamma glutamate (PGA) contents in an animal model. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h after a single oral dose in male rats. Ca-bioavailability in CGJ containing high PGA contents was approximately 3~5 times higher than that of natural CGJ. Female rats were either sham-operated (sham; n=5) or surgically ovariectomized (OVX; five animals per group) and then administered to OVX control, raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) 1 mg/kg/d, or CGJ containing high contents of PGA (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 12 weeks. Serum osteocalcin concentration was significantly lower in the CGJ 200 mg/kg/d group compared with the OVX control group. Serum progesterone concentration was significantly higher in the CGJ 200 mg/kg/d group compared with the OVX control group. Reduction grade of the trabecular bone decreased in the RLX 1 and CGJ 200 mg/kg/d group compared with that of the OVX control group. In conclusion, CGJ 200 mg/kg/d may have inhibitory effects on osteoporosis in OVX rats, and Ca-bioavailability was improved in CGJ containing high PGA contents.

Antimicrobial and Hemolytic Activity of Oriental Medicinal Herbs (한약재의 항균 활성 및 인간 적혈구 용혈 활성)

  • Ryu, Hee-Young;Ahn, Seon-Mi;Shin, Yong-Kyu;Sohn, Ho-Yong
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2010
  • To develop the safe and natural antimicrobial agents, the 68 ethanol extracts from the 61 different kinds of oriental herbal medicine were prepared and their antimicrobial activities were evaluated. The herbal medicine used were from China (46 kinds), South Korea (14 kinds), North Korea (5 kinds) and Vietnam (3 kinds), respectively, and the root (27 species) was popular part in this study. The average water content and extraction ratio for ethanol were 7.10% and 6.75%, respectively. Determination of antimicrobial activity by disc-diffusion assay at 0.5 mg/disc concentration showed that the extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai (china), Illicium verum, Junci medulla, Rhus javanica L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Syzygium aromaticum has strong antimicrobial activities against different food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Determination of MIC and MBC/MFC further showed that the extract of Syzygium aromaticum has MIC of 1.25 mg/mL and MBC/MFC of 1.25~5.00 mg/mL against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. And, the extract of Junci medulla, Rhus javanica L. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge showed strong antibacterial activities with MIC of 0.08~0.63 mg/mL and MBC/MFC of 0.08~2.50 mg/mL against the tested bacteria except E. coli and P. aeruginosa. In a while, the results of hemolytic activity of 68 different herbal extracts against human red blood cells showed that the extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai has hemolytic activity at 0.5 mg/mL concentration. Therefore, Illicium verum, Junci medulla, Rhus javanica L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Syzygium aromaticum were finally selected for natural antimicrobial resources. Further research on active substances and the mode of action of the selected herbal medicine is necessary.

Effects of PGA-LM on CD4+CD25+foxp3+ Treg Cell Activation in Isolated CD4+ T Cells in NC/Nga Mice (NC/Nga 생쥐에서 분리한 T 세포에서 foxp3+ 세포 활성화에 대한 PGA-LM의 효과)

  • Jang, Soon-Nam;Kim, Kum-Lan;Kang, Sang-Mo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.160-169
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    • 2009
  • Poly-$\gamma$-glutamic acid ($\gamma$-PGA) was mixed natural flora of Bacillus subtilis, contaminated from cooked soybeans. Also, it was performed to find out the antiallergic activity by using NC/Nga mice, in vitro. The $\gamma$-PGA (PGA-HM : PGA-high molecular weight), Molecular weight 300 kDa, was decomposed and made PGA-LM (PGA-low molecular weight) which has molecular weight below 30 kDa by sonication. Therefore, it was same result between PGA-HM and PGA-LM, and reported PGA-LM as basic result. We found that PGA-LM contains antiallergic efficacy that inhibit B cells and Th2 cells activation from isolated CD4+T cells in NC/Nga atopic dermatitis model mice, and not show a cytotoxicity in the hFCs. To investigate the effects of these PGA-LM in vitro, isolation of splenic B cell and CD4+ T cells in atopic dermatitis mice were used. To elucidate the role of PGA-LM in anti-CD40+ interleukin-4 (IL-4)-mediated B-cell activation, showed that the capacity of B cells to expression IL-$1\beta$, IL-6, and TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA down-regulated, and IL-10 mRNA up-regulation by PGA-LM treatment, but it had no effect on TGF-$\beta$ expression. In addition to CD4+IFN-$\gamma$+ and CD4+CD25+foxp3+, the functions of PGA-LM in the development of the CD4+CD25+foxp3+ and CD4+IFN-$\gamma$+cells, the phenotype and functions of PGA-LM induced CD4+CD25+foxp3+, and CD4+IFN-$\gamma$+cells in CD4+T cells. These results suggested that PGA-LM could change cytokine production and generate CD4+CD25+foxp3+ Tregs in NC/Nga mice, and may be effective for immunotherapy in patients with AD.

Effect of Antioxidant, Antimutagenicity and Anticancer of Root Extract from Ixeris dentata Nakai (씀바귀 뿌리 추출물의 항산화성, 항돌연변이원성 및 항암활성 효과)

  • Kim, Myong-Jo;Kim, Ju-Sung;Jeong, Dong-Myong;Ham, Seung-Shi;Yu, Chang-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.222-229
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    • 2002
  • Ixeris dentata root were extracted with methanol and then fractionated with n-hexane, EtOAc and BuOH to get active fractions. and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in each fraction were determined. Ethyl acetate fraction of Ixeris dentata root showed strong antioxidant activities, but aqueous fraction did not show any activities. But in the antimicrobial test, aqueous fraction showed strong antimicrobial activities except to Escherichia coli. especially, aqueous fraction showed the strongest activities against Hypocrea nigricans. and butanol fraction showed the strongest activities against Cladosporium herbarum. This study was performed to determine the antimutagenic and cytotoxic effect of Ixeris dentata root methanol extract on Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and cancer cell lines using ames test and cytotoxicity assay, respectively. Cancer cell lines include human lung carcinoma(A549), human breast adenocarcinoma(MCF-7) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep 3B). Futher fractionations with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water from methanol extract of Ixeris dentata root were performed to obtain effective fraction, methanol extracts showed 79.94% inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by N' -methyl- N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) against TA100, while 89.99% inhibition was observed on the mutagenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide(4NQO) against TA98. In the meanwhile, butanol fraction showed 89.92% and 71.01% inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by benzo(a)pyrene(B(a)P) against TA98 and TA100, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest effect against A549, MCF-7 and Hep3B at the same concentration compared to those of other fration.

Antioxidant, Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Activities of Extracts from Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense KITAMURA (엉겅퀴 추출물의 항산화성, 항돌연변이원성 및 항암활성 효과)

  • Lee, Hui-Kyoung;Kim, Ju-Sung;Kim, Na-Young;Park, Sang-Un;Kim, Myong-Jo;Yu, Chang-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2003
  • Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense were extracted with methanol and then fractionated with nhexane, EtOAc and BuOH to get active fractions. And their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in each fraction were determined. Ethyl acetate and butanol fraction of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense showed strong antioxidant activities, but hexane fraction did not show any activities. But in the antimicrobial test, Ethyl acetate fraction showed strong antimicrobial activities except to Aspergillus awamori, Asperigillus niger. Especially, Ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest activities against Bacillus subtilis. And aqueous fraction showed the strongest activities against Cladosporium herbarum, Hypocrea nigricans. This study was performed to determine the antimutagenic and cytotoxic effect of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense methanol extract on Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and cancer cell lines using Ames test and cytotoxicity assay, respectively. Cancer cell lines include human lung carcinoma(A549), human breast adenocarcinoma(MCF-7) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B). Futher fractionations with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water from methanol extract of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense were performed to obtain effective fraction, methanol extract showed 60.14% inhibition effect on the mutagenesis induced by MNNG against TA100, while 77% and 72.5% inhibition was observed on the mutagenesis induced by 4NQO against TA98 and TA100, respectively. and methanol extract showed 82.25% and 73.7% inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by Trp-P-1 against TA98 and TA100, respectively. methanol extract showed the strongest effect against A549, MCF-7 and Hep3B at the same concentration compared to those of other fration.

Fermentation Characteristics and Increased Functionality of Doenjang Prepared with Bamboo Salt (죽염 된장의 발효 특성 및 기능성 증진 효과)

  • Jeong, Min-Woo;Jeong, Ji-Kang;Kim, Sin-Jeong;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.1915-1923
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study is carried out to evaluate the fermentation characteristics and increased functionality when doenjang was prepared with bamboo salts. Grain type mejus were fermented with mixed starter cultures of Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactococcus lactis. These mejus were mixed with different kinds of salts-purified salt (PD), sea salt (SD), one-time baked bamboo salt ($1{\times}BD$), three-time baked bamboo salt ($3{\times}BD$), and nine-time baked bamboo salt ($9{\times}BD$)- when doenjangs were prepared. For doenjang fermentation period of 8 weeks at $37^{\circ}C$, the fermentation characteristics of all the groups were compared. The amino type nitrogen content and enzyme activities (protease and ${\alpha}$-amylase) in the samples were significantly increased. In DPPH radical scavenging activities and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, $9{\times}BD$ (47% and 69%) showed the highest scavenging activities compared to PD (40% and 49%), SD (42% and 57%), $1{\times}BD$ (42% and 64%) and $3{\times}BD$ (45% and 65%) (P<0.05). The anticancer effects of doenjang in HT-29 cancer cells indicated all the groups, especially doenjang prepared with bamboo salts were higher than the others (P<0.05). Apoptosis related genes of Bax and Bcl-2, as well as inflammation related genes of iNOS and COX-2 were regulated by the treatment of doenjangs in HT-29 cancer cells. SD, $1{\times}BD$, $3{\times}BD$, and $9{\times}BD$ increased the expression level of Bax and decreased the expression level of Bcl-2, iNOS, and COX-2. These results suggest that sea salt and bamboo salt especially bamboo salt could improve fermentation characteristics and functionality of doenjang and play an important role in regulating apoptosis and inflammation related genes in cancer cells.

Microbial community analysis of an eco-friendly recirculating aquaculture system for olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using complex microbial probiotics (복합미생물 프로바이오틱을 이용한 환경친화적 넙치 순환여과양식시스템에서의 미생물군집 분석)

  • Rhee, Chaeyoung;Kim, Haham;Emmanuel, S. Aalfin;Kim, Hong-Gi;Won, Seonghun;Bae, Jinho;Bai, Sungchul C.;Koh, Sung-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary microbial probiotics on the growth and disease resistance of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), and the effects of the probiotic bioaugmentation on the microbial community structure and water quality. For the analysis, 80 juvenile fish (average weight, $25.7{\pm}7.6g$; average length, $15.2{\pm}1.7cm$) were fed a basal diet containing a commercial microbial product CES-AQ1 (CES; $1{\times}10^9\;CFU/kg$ diet) in an RAS for 8 weeks. Weight gain, the specific growth rate, feed efficiency, and protein efficiency ratio of the fish fed the CES diet in the RAS were 1.5~2.5 times higher than those of fish fed the basal diet alone, or the basal diet containing oxytetracycline (OTC), yeast plus bacterium, or Bacillus subtilis in a still water system. There was no significant difference in the pathogen challenge test between fish fed the OTC diet and fish fed the CES diet in the RAS, suggesting the CES-AQ1 probiotic used in the RAS as a potential replacement for antibiotics. The RAS biofilter maintained the highest microbial diversity and appeared to harbor microbial communities with ammonium oxidation, denitrification, and fish pathogen suppression functions. Ammonia, which is hazardous to fish, was significantly decreased to < 0.5 mg/L in 19 days, indicating the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation to maintain good water quality in RAS. These results suggest that the intestinal microbial communities of fish are stabilized by a probiotic-containing diet (CES) and that bioaugmentation with probiotics may be an eco-friendly and economical supplement for aquaculture of olive flounder, promoting both good water quality and fish health in an RAS.

Microbiological and Enzymological Studies on Takju Brewing (탁주(濁酒) 양조(釀造)에 관(關)한 미생물학적(微生物學的) 및 효소학적(酵素學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Chan-Jo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.10
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    • pp.69-100
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    • 1968
  • 1. In order to investigate on the microflora and enzyme activity of mold wheat 'Nuruk' , the major source of microorganisms for the brewing of Takju (a Korean Sake), two samples of Nuruk, one prepared at the College of Agriculture, Chung Nam University (S) and the other perchased at a market (T), were taken for the study. The molds, aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts were examined and counted. The yeasts were classified by the treatment with TTC (2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride) agar that yields a varied shade of color. The amylase and protease activities of Nuruk were measured. The results were as the followings. a) In the Nuruk S found were: Aspergillus oryzae group, $204{\times}10^5$; Black Aspergilli, $163{\times}10^5$; Rhizogus, $20{\times}10^5$; Penicillia, $134{\times}10^5$; Areobic bacteria, $9{\times}10^6-2{\times}10^7$; Lactic acid bacteria, $3{\times}10^4$ In the Nuruk T found were: Aspergillus oryzae group, $836{\times}10^5$; Black Aspergilli, $286{\times}10^5$; Rhizopus, $623{\times}10^5$; Penicillia, $264{\times}10^5$; Aerobic bacteria, $5{\times}10^6-9{\times}10^6$; Lactic acid bacteria, $3{\times}10^4$ b) Eighty to ninety percent of the aerobic bacteria in Nuruk S appeared to belong to Bacillus subtilis while about 70% of those in Nuruk T seemed to be spherical bacteria. In both Nuruks about 80% of lactic acid bacteria were observed as spherical ones. c) The population of yeasts in 1g. of Nuruk S was about $6{\times}10^5$, 56.5% of which were TTC pink yeasts, 16% of which were TTC red pink yeasts, 8% of which were TTC red yeasts, 19.5% of which were TTC white yeasts. In Nuruk T(1g) the number of yeasts accounted for $14{\times}10^4$ and constituted of 42% TTC pink. 21% TTC red pink 28% TTC red and 9% TTC white. d) The enzyme activity of 1g Nuruk S was: Liquefying type Amylase, $D^{40}/_{30},=256$ W.V. Saccharifying type Amylase, 43.32 A.U. Acid protease, 181 C.F.U. Alkaline protease, 240C.F.U. The enzyme activity of 1g Nuruk T was: Liquefying type Amylase $D^{40}/_{30},=32$ W.V. Saccharifying type amylase $^{30}34.92$ A.U. Acid protease, 138 C.F.U. Alkaline protease 31 C.F.U. 2. During the fermentation of 'Takju' employing the Nuruks S and T the microflora and enzyme activity throughout the brewing were observed in 12 hour intervals. TTC pink and red yeasts considered to be the major yeasts were isolated and cultured. The strains ($1{\times}10^6/ml$) were added to the mashes S and T in which pH was adjusted to 4.2 and the change of microflora was examined during the fermentation. The results were: a) The molds disappeared from each sample plot since 2 to 3 days after mashing while the population of aerobic bacteria was found to be $10{\times}10^7-35{\times}10^7/ml$ inS plots and $8.2{\times}10^7-12{\times}10^7$ in plots. Among them the coccus propagated substantially until some 30 hours elasped in the S and T plots treated with lactic acid but decreased abruptly thereafter. In the plots of SP. SR. TP. and TR the coccus had not appeared from the beginning while the bacillus showed up and down changes in number and diminished by 1/5-1/10 the original at the end stage. b) The lactic acid bacteria observed in the S plot were about $7.4{\times}10^7$ in number per ml of the mash in 24 hours and increased up to around $2{\times}10^8$ until 3-4 days since. After this period the population decreased rapidly and reached about $4{\times}10^5$ at the end, In the plot T the lactic acid becteria found were about $3{\times}10^8$ at the period of 24 fours, about $3{\times}10$ in 3 days and about $2{\times}10^5$ at the end in number. In the plots SP. SR. TP, and TR the lactic acid bacteria observed were as less as $4{\times}10^5$ at the stage of 24 hours and after this period the organisms either remained unchanged in population or ceased to exist. c) The maiority of lactic acid bacteria found in each mash were spherical and the change in number displayed a tendency in accordance with the amount of lactic acid and alcohol produced in the mash. d) The yeasts had showed a marked propagation since the period of 24 hours when the number was about $2{\times}10^8$ ㎖ mash in the plot S. $4{\times}10^8$ in 48 hours and $5-7{\times}10^8$ in the end period were observed. In the plot T the number was $4{\times}10^8$ in 24 hours and thereafter changed up and down maintaining $2-5{\times}10^8$ in the range. e) Over 90% of the yeasts found in the mashes of S and T plots were TTC pink type while both TTC red pink and TTC red types held range of $2{\times}10-3{\times}10^7$ throughout the entire fermentation. f) The population of TTC pink yeasts in the plot SP was as $5{\times}10^8$ much as that is, twice of that of S plot at the period of 24 hours. The predominance in number continued until the middle and later stages but the order of number became about the same at the end. g) Total number of the yeasts observed in the plot SR showed little difference from that of the plot SP. The TTC red yeasts added appeared considerably in the early stage but days after the change in number was about the same as that of the plot S. In the plot TR the population of TTC red yeasts was predominant over the T plot in the early stage which there was no difference between two plots there after. For this reason even in the plot w hers TTC red yeasts were added TTC pink yeasts were predominant. TTC red yeasts observed in the present experiment showed continuing growth until the later stage but the rate was low. h) In the plot TP TTC pink yeasts were found to be about $5{\times}10^8$ in number at the period of 2 days and inclined to decrease thereafter. Compared with the plot T the number of TTC pink yeasts in the plot TP was predominant until the middle stage but became at the later stage. i) The productivity of alcohol in the mash was measured. The plot where TTC pink yeasts were added showed somewhat better yield in the earely stage but at and after the middle stage the difference between the yeast-added and the intact mashes was not recognizable. And the production of alcohol was not proportional to the total number of yeasts present. j) Activity of the liquefying amylase was the highest until 12 hours after mashing, somewhat lowered once after that, and again increased around 36-48 hours after mashing. Then the activity had decreased continuously. Activity of saccharifying amylase also decreased at the period of 24 hours and then increased until 48 hours when it reached the maximum. Since, the activity had gradually decreased until 72 hours and rapidly so did thereafter. k) Activity of alkaline protease during the fermentation of mash showed a tendency to decrease continusously although somewhat irregular. Activity of acid protease increased until hours at the maximum, then decreased rapidly, and again increased, the vigor of acid protease showed better shape than that of alkaline protease throughout. 3. TTC pink yeasts that were predominant in number, two strains of TTC red pink yeasts that appeared throughout the brewing, and TTC red yeasts were identified and the physiological characters examined. The results were as described below. a) TTC pinkyeasts (B-50P) and two strains of TTC red pink yeasts (B-54 RP & B-60 RP) w ere identified as the type of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and TTC pink red yeasts CB-53 R) were as the type of Hansenula subpelliculosa. b) The fermentability of four strains above mentioned were measured as follows. Two strains of TTC red pink yeasts were the highest, TTC pink yeasts were the lowest in the fermantability. The former three strains were active in the early stage of fermentation and found to be suitable for manufacturing 'Takju' TTC red yeasts were found to play an important role in Takju brewing due to its strong ability to produce esters although its fermentability was low. c) The tolerance against nitrous acid of strains of yeast was marked. That against lactic acid was only 3% in Koji extract, and TTC red yeasts showed somewhat stronger resistance. The tolerance against alcohol of TTC pink and red pink yeasts in the Hayduck solution was 7% while that in the malt extract was 13%. However, that of TTC red yeasts was much weaker than others. Liguefying activity of gelatin by those four strains of yeast was not recognized even in 40 days. 4. Fermentability during Takju brewing was shown in the first two days as much as 70-80% of total fermentation and around 90% of fermentation proceeded in 3-4 days. The main fermentation appeared to be completed during :his period. Productivity of alcohol during Takju brewing was found to be apporximately 65% of the total amount of starch put in mashing. 5. The reason that Saccharomyces coreanuss found be Saito in the mash of Takju was not detected in the present experiment is considered due to the facts that Aspergillus oryzae has been inoculated in the mold wheat (Nuruk) since around 1930 and also that Koji has been used in Takju brewing, consequently causing they complete change in microflora in the Takju brewing. This consideration will be supported by the fact that the original flavor and taste have now been remarkably changed.

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