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Analysis of Contents of Food Intake of Middle School Home Economics Textbook and Food Intake Trends of Middle School Students in Korea Using 2007~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for Exploring Education Direction of Food Intake (중학생의 식품 섭취 교육방향 탐색을 위한 가정 교과서 및 2007~2015 국민건강영양조사의 식품 섭취 변화 추이 분석)

  • Kim, Sun Hyo
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.179-192
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    • 2019
  • This study was performed to analyze the contents of food intake in middle school Home Economics textbook and the trends of food intake of middle school students in Korea to figure out the education direction of food intake. The contents of food intake were analyzed in major three kinds of middle school Home Economics textbook according to 2015 curriculum and the trends of food and nutrient intake were analyzed in 2,543 subjects aged 13 to 15 years using 2007~2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination survey by logistic regression analysis or Pearson correlation coefficient. As a result, contents of food intake of textbook included food source of nutrient, food group name, necessity of eating diverse foods, recommended daily eating frequency of food group and menu planning according to meal composition guideline, however food intake trends were not included. Consumption of grains and grain products was increased until 2007 to 2010 year and was decreased after 2011 year(p=0.0012). Sugars and sweets, beverages and alcohols, and fish and shellfish consumption were increased during 2007~2015 year(p<0.0001). Carbohydrate, fat, vitamin A, thiamin and iron intakes were increased(p=0.0052), and energy ratio by carbohydrate was decreased(p=0.0009) and energy ratio by fat was increased(p<0.0001) during 2007~2015 year. Mean ratios of nutrient intake compared to the dietary reference intakes for Koreans were very low in dietary fiber(19-27%) and calcium(46-56%), but was higher in sodium(221-289%)(p<0.0001) regardless of year. There was a significant positive correlation between most food group intakes except sugars and sweets, bean and bean products, nuts and seeds, seaweeds, and beverages and alcohols and energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and iron intakes(p=0.0375). In the above, during the period from 2007 to 2015 year, intakes of sugars and sweets, beverages and alcohols, and fish and shellfish were increased, and intakes of dietary fiber and calcium were low and energy ratio by fat was increased, thus these trends are concerned to threaten nutritional balance and health of subjects. Therefore, Home Economics textbook of middle school needs to include food intake trends of adolescents with basic concepts to help them maintain balanced diet in the rapid change of food intake patterns for maintaining optimal nutrition and health.

Concerning the Constitution Court's constitutional decision and the direction of supplemental legislation concerning Article 33 paragraph 8 of the Medical Service Act - With a focus on legitimacy of a system that prohibits multiple opening of medical instituion, in the content of 2014Hun-Ba212, August 29, 2019, 2014Hun-Ga15, 2015Hun-Ma561, 2016Hun-Ba21(amalgamation), Constitutional Court of Korea - ('의료법 제33조 제8항 관련 헌법재판소의 합헌결정'에 대한 평가 및 보완 입법 방향에 대하여 -헌법재판소 2019. 8. 29. 2014헌바212, 2014헌가15, 2015헌마561, 2016헌바21(병합) 결정의 내용 중 의료기관 복수 개설금지 제도의 당위성 및 필요성을 중심으로-)

  • KIM, JOON RAE
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.143-174
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    • 2019
  • Our Constitution obliges the state to protect the health of the people, and the Medical Law, which embodied Constitution, sets out in detail the matters related to open the medical institution, and one of them is to prohibit the operation of multiple medical institutions. By the way, virtually multiple medical institutions could be opened and operated because the Supreme Court had interpreted that several medical institutions could be opened if medical activities were not performed directly at the additional medical institution which was opened under the another doctor's license. However, some health care providers opened the several medical institutions with another doctor's license for the purpose of the maximization of profit, and did illegal medical cares like the unfair luring of patients, over-treatment, and commission treatment. Also, realistic problems such as the infringed health rights have arisen. Accordingly, lawmakers had come to amend the Medical Law to readjust the system of opening for medical institution so that medical personnel could not open or operate more than one medical institution for any reason. For this reason, the Constitutional Court recently declared a constitutional decision through a long period of in-depth deliberation because the constitutional petition and the adjudication on the constitutionality of statutes had been filed on whether Article 33 paragraph 8 of the revised medical law is unconstitutional. The Constitutional Court acknowledged the "justice of purpose" in view of the importance of public medical institutions, of the prevention from seduction of for-profit patients and from over-treatment, and of the fact that health care should not be the object of commercial transactions. Given the risk that medical personnel might be subject to outside capital, the concern that the holder of the medical institution's opening certificate and the actual operator may be separated, the principle that the human body and life should not be just a means, and the current system's inability to identify over-treatment, it also acknowledged the 'minimum infringement'. Furthermore, The Constitutional Court judged it is constitutional in compliance with the principle of restricting fundamental rights, such as 'balance of legal interests'. In this regard, legislative complements are needed in order to effectively prevent the for-profit management and the over-treatment the Constitutional Court is concerned about. In this regard, consumer groups actively support the need for legislation, and health care providers groups also agree on the need for legislation. Therefore, the legislators should respect the recent Constitutional Court's decision and in the near future complete the complementary legislation to reflect the people's interests.

Food habits, health behaviors related to the personality in Korean college students (대학생의 성격요인과 식습관 및 건강관련행태)

  • Kim, Nahyeon;Kim, Jinhee;Kye, Seunghee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study identified the relationship between dietary habits and health-related behaviors depending on the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism). Methods: The NEO-II test was administered to 337 male and female college students in Seongnam City, Gyeonggi Province, and their dietary habits and health-related behaviors were surveyed. Results: The male participants showed higher scores for extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness compared to that of their female counterparts, while the female participants showed higher scores for neuroticism. As for the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis, in the case of men, higher scores for extraversion were related to a lower intake of instant/fast foods and a higher intake of vegetables; higher agreeableness scores were related to a lower intake of fruit; and higher neuroticism scores were related to a heavy intake of high-cholesterol foods. It was found that higher openness scores were associated with a higher intake of burnt fish/meat and a lower intake of animal fat, while higher agreeableness scores were related to a lower intake of burnt fish/meat in women. Also, those subjects with higher openness and agreeableness scores were found to better consider the nutritional balance when having a meal. In the case of the male participants, higher openness scores were related to increased physical activity, while higher neuroticism scores were related to increased smoking and a lack of sleep. As for the women, those with higher extraversion scores smoked more, while those who recorded higher agreeableness scores were involved in more physical activities. Conclusion: Differences were observed in dietary habits and health-related behaviors between men and women depending on personality factors, and the analysis results of some dietary habits according to personality factors were inconsistent with those of the overseas studies. Therefore, to provide customized nutritional counseling when considering each individual's personality factors, more research results from domestic samples should be collected and accumulated.

유청단백질로 만들어진 식품포장재에 관한 연구

  • Kim, Seong-Ju
    • 한국유가공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.59-60
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    • 2002
  • Edible films such as wax coatings, sugar and chocolate covers, and sausage casings, have been used in food applications for years$^{(1)}$ However, interest in edible films and biodegradable polymers has been renewed due to concerns about the environment, a need to reduce the quantity of disposable packaging, and demand by the consumer for higher quality food products. Edible films can function as secondary packaging materials to enhance food quality and reduce the amount of traditional packaging needed. For example, edible films can serve to enhance food quality by acting as moisture and gas barriers, thus, providing protection to a food product after the primary packaging is opened. Edible films are not meant to replace synthetic packaging materials; instead, they provide the potential as food packagings where traditional synthetic or biodegradable plastics cannot function. For instance, edible films can be used as convenient soluble pouches containing single-servings for products such as instant noodles and soup/seasoning combination. In the food industry, they can be used as ingredient delivery systems for delivering pre-measured ingredients during processing. Edible films also can provide the food processors with a variety of new opportunities for product development and processing. Depends on materials of edible films, they also can be sources of nutritional supplements. Especially, whey proteins have excellent amino acid balance while some edible films resources lack adequate amount of certain amino acids, for example, soy protein is low in methionine and wheat flour is low in lysine$^{(2)}$. Whey proteins have a surplus of the essential amino acid lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine. Thus, the idea of using whey protein-based films to individually pack cereal products, which often deficient in these amino acids, become very attractive$^{(3)}$. Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and much of annual production is not utilized$^{(4)}$. Development of edible films from whey protein is one of the ways to recover whey from dairy industry waste. Whey proteins as raw materials of film production can be obtained at inexpensive cost. I hypothesize that it is possible to make whey protein-based edible films with improved moisture barrier properties without significantly altering other properties by producing whey protein/lipid emulsion films and these films will be suitable far food applications. The fellowing are the specific otjectives of this research: 1. Develop whey protein/lipid emulsion edible films and determine their microstructures, barrier (moisture and oxygen) and mechanical (tensile strength and elongation) properties. 2. Study the nature of interactions involved in the formation and stability of the films. 3. Investigate thermal properties, heat sealability, and sealing properties of the films. 4. Demonstrate suitability of their application in foods as packaging materials. Methodologies were developed to produce edible films from whey protein isolate (WPI) and concentrate (WPC), and film-forming procedure was optimized. Lipids, butter fat (BF) and candelilla wax (CW), were added into film-forming solutions to produce whey protein/lipid emulsion edible films. Significant reduction in water vapor and oxygen permeabilities of the films could be achieved upon addition of BF and CW. Mechanical properties were also influenced by the lipid type. Microstructures of the films accounted for the differences in their barrier and mechanical properties. Studies with bond-dissociating agents indicated that disulfide and hydrogen bonds, cooperatively, were the primary forces involved in the formation and stability of whey protein/lipid emulsion films. Contribution of hydrophobic interactions was secondary. Thermal properties of the films were studied using differential scanning calorimetry, and the results were used to optimize heat-sealing conditions for the films. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to study the nature of the interfacial interaction of sealed films. All films were heat sealable and showed good seal strengths while the plasticizer type influenced optimum heat-sealing temperatures of the films, 130$^{\circ}$C for sorbitol-plasticized WPI films and 110$^{\circ}$C for glycerol-plasticized WPI films. ESCA spectra showed that the main interactions responsible for the heat-sealed joint of whey protein-based edible films were hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds involving C-0-H and N-C components. Finally, solubility in water, moisture contents, moisture sorption isotherms and sensory attributes (using a trained sensory panel) of the films were determined. Solubility was influenced primarily by the plasticizer in the films, and the higher the plasticizer content, the greater was the solubility of the films in water. Moisture contents of the films showed a strong relationship with moisture sorption isotherm properties of the films. Lower moisture content of the films resulted in lower equilibrium moisture contents at all aw levels. Sensory evaluation of the films revealed that no distinctive odor existed in WPI films. All films tested showed slight sweetness and adhesiveness. Films with lipids were scored as being opaque while films without lipids were scored to be clear. Whey protein/lipid emulsion edible films may be suitable for packaging of powder mix and should be suitable for packaging of non-hygroscopic foods$^{(5,6,7,8,)}$.

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Material Balance and Properties of Compost during Composting of Household Food Wastes Blended with Waste Newspapers (신문지 첨가에 의한 음식쓰레기 퇴비화 과정 중 물질수지 및 퇴비의 성분)

  • Han, Jong-Phil;Park, Ju-Won;Seo, Jeoung-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2000
  • Waste newspapers was used as an amendment to adjust the moisture of household food wastes for composting. The mixture of household food wastes and waste newspapers was composted in an especially designed small home composter, where the early fed composting materials were discharged early. The temperature inside composting materials was influenced very much by that of outside, because the composter was not insulated. Accordingly, the higher the outside temperature was, the higher the decomposition rate was. The temperature inside composting materials did not reach to optimum, because the amount of composting materials added in the composter everyday was too little, and it caused too high water content of discharged compost after 15 weeks. Therefore, it was required that the composter must be insulated to maintain the higher temperature. The inorganic compounds$(K_2O,\;CaO,\;MgO,\;P_2O_5)$ and heavy metals(Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Hg, As) were accumulated obviously in produced compost, when dry recycled compost was reused as the amendment for adjusting the moisture.

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THE EFFECT OF FGF-MEDIATED FGFR SIGNALING ON THE EARLY MORPHOGENESIS AND MAINTENANCE OF THE CRANIAL SUTURE (FGF-mediated FGFR signaling이 두개봉합부의 초기형태발생 및 유지기전에 미치는 영향)

  • Sue, Kyung-Hwan;Park, Mi-Hyun;Ryoo, Hyun-Mo;Nam, Soon-Hyeun;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.652-663
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    • 1999
  • Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial sutures, presumably involves disturbance of the interactions between different tissues within the cranial sutures. Interestingly, point mutaions in the genes encoding for the fibroblast growth factor receptors(FGFRs), especially FGFR2, cause various types of human craniosynostosis syndromes. To elucidate the function of these genes in the early morphogenesis of mouse cranial sutures, we first analyzed by in situ hybridization the expression of FGFR2(BEK) and osteopontin, an early marker of osteogenic differentiation, in the sagittal suture of calvaria during embryonic(E15-E18) and postnatal stage(P1-P3). FGFR2(BEK) was intensely expressed in the osteogenic fronts, whose cells undergo differentiation into osteoprogenitor cells that ultimately lay down the bone matrix. Osteopontin was expressed throughout the parietal bones excluding the osteogenic fronts, the periphery of the parietal bones. To further examine the role of FGF-mediated FGFR signaling in cranial suture, we did in vitro experiments in E15.5 mouse calvarial explants. Interestingly, implantation of FGF2 soaked beads onto both the osteogenic fronts and mid-mesenchyme of sagittal suture after 36 hours organ culture resulted in the increase of the tissue thickness and cell number around FGF2 beads, moreover FGF4-soaked beads implanted onto the osteogenic fronts stimulated suture closure due to an accelerated bone growth, compared to FGF4 beads placed onto mid-mesenchyme of sagittal suture and BSA control beads. In addition FGF2 induced the ectopic expression of osteopontin and Msx1 genes. Taken together, these data indicate that FGF-mediated FGFR signaling has a important role in regulating the cranial bone growth and maintenance of cranial suture, and suggest that FGF-mediated FGFR signaling is involved in regulating the balance between the cell proliferation and differentiation through inducing the expression of osteopontin and Msx1 genes.

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Optimizing Surfactant-Enhanced Solubilzation of LNAPL from Soil in Saturated Zone (포화지층내 저비중 비수용성 유기용매의 용해제거를 위한 계면활성제법의 최적 조작인자 도출)

  • 이재원;박규홍;박준범
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.153-164
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    • 1999
  • The solubilization of BTEX was evaluated in aqueous surfactant solutions with and without several additives. Anionic surfactant(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, SDS) and nonionic surfactants (NEODOL(equation omitted)25-3 and $SOFTANOL\circledR-90$ were used as test surfactants. The effects of surfactant HLB(Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance) Number and hydrocarbon molar volume and polarity of BTEX on the MSR(Molar Solubilization Ratio), micelle-water partition coefficient of BTEX, and CMC(C,itical Micelle Concentration) were investigated. Optimizing treatment conditions applicable to enhanced solubilization was also studied by manupulating salinity or electrolyte control with additives of ethyl alcohol, hydrotrope, and electrolyte solution. The most effective surfactant for solubilization was found $SOFTANOL\circledR-90$, since HLB number of 13.6 is similar to those values of BTEX ranging between 11.4 and 12.2, which was also proved experimentally. Ethyl alchohol of 3% was the most effective additives in reducing CMC and improving solubilization among the conditions using SDS, NEODOL(equation omitted)25-3, and $SOFTANOL\circledR-90$ with three additives. The partitioning of BTEX between surfactant micelles and aqueous solutions was characterized by a mole fraction micelle-phase/aqueous phase partion coefficient, $K_m$. Values of log $K_m$. for BTEX compounds in surfactant solutions of this study range from 2.95 to 3.76(100mM SDS) and 2.95 to 3.49(117mM $SOFTANOL\circledR-90$. Log $K_m$ appears to be a linear function of log $K_{ow}$ for SDS and $SOFTANOL\circledR-90$. A knowledge of partitioning of BTEX in aqueous surfactant system can be a prerequisite for the understanding of the behavior of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil-water systems in which surfactants play a role in remediation of contaminated soil and facilitated transport.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Museum Projects by Richard Meier (리챠드 마이어의 미술관 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김용립
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.231-241
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    • 1999
  • This study propose to analyze the design method and the form elements of museums, of works by Richard Meier, and through the analysis, spacial characteristics of museums will be understood. The museum works of Richard Meier, as an exhibition space, not only display the art works efficiently, but they also offer visitors the opportunity to experience the art of architecture, as a cultural space. Richard Meier, when working on the projects, has utilized the design methods and the architectural language, learned from Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, resourcefully. Having the structural grid as basis, the rational rectangular forms were intended for exhibition space, while the circular and partial circular forms of geometry were utilized in formative space. This was able to maintain the balance between functional and formative space. In the museums of his works, the ramp and the glass wall separated from the structure become very important means of expression. The ramps, not only make people to enjoy the interior and exterior of museum, but also able them to see the works of art from different distances and angles repeatedly and the large glass wall reveals the various shapes of interior to exterior. In comparing with the design method and language of two masters mentioned, the design principles and elements, developed by Meier were applied to the site plans, exhibition space planning and elevations to manifest its originality. The design concept, derived from the urban fabric and historical buildings around, gave harmony to the museum with its surroundings, and employing the deformed axis brought variation and the effect of diversion to the site plan. The exhibition space is much vitalized by the well arrangement of various exhibition fixtures in the museum. The exhibion fixtures, which the partitions, shelves, miches, and stages were put together in flexibility, play multiple roles as partitions dividing spaces, as furniture displaying art works, and as elements creating forms. The systematically arranged fixtures, also produce several visual axes and centers, which have visitors appreciate the works of art in various perspectives, hence create a unique environment.

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Effects of green manures in organic vegetable production (유기농 채소생산을 위한 녹비작물 도입효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Min;Lee, Y.;Yun, H.B.;Sung, J.K.;Lee, Y.H.;Lee, S.B.;Choi, K.J.;Kim, K.H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.77-101
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    • 2009
  • Organic farming in Korea has mainly focused on producing vegetables in plastic film house and cereals in paddy field. For high productivity of vegetables and cereals, most Korean farmers have not applied crop rotation in the cropping system. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of crop rotation on the yield of red pepper and green onion, the changes in soil fertility and the potential as green manure of rye and hairy vetch. Rye and hairy vetch were cultivated for winter season every year, and directly incorporated into the soil. The yield of red pepper fruits in organic farming using crop rotation (OFCR) decreased 23 to 36% compared with conventional farming system (CFS). Whereas, green onion showed the increased yield of about 13%. In OFCR, total carbon content of soil was higher, however available phosphate content lower than conventional farming. As a result of measuring the bulk density of soil, OFCR and CFS were 1.26 to $1.35Mg/m^3$ and 1.37 to $1.42Mg/m^3$, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen contents of microbial biomass in OFCR were obviously higher compared with the CFS. In the plot cultivated rye for winter season, the weed germination was strongly reduced (about 52 %). Balance of macro nutrient elements, nitrogen and phosphate, in the application of rye and hairy vetch had a minus value. For potassium, the output value was higher than the input one, therefore organic farming under red pepper-rye or hairy vetch systems requires applying additional potassium input. Also, we selected two hairy vetch varieties of cv. Hungvillosa and Ostsaat which can be adapt at Korea climate. In order to estimate a yield of green manures, the weight of shoot and root was measured. The ratio of shoot and root between rye and hairy vetch showed 0.88 and 1.91, respectively. The potential levels of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium which could be supplied from rye were 7.7, 7.8 and 21.9 kg/10a and from hairy vetch were 17.0, 8.6 and 22.9 kg/10a, respectively. So we recommend that cultivating hairy vetch, as a nutrient supplier, and rye, as an amendment to enhance the soil physical property, for winter season be practical method in Korea organic farming system.

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A Comparison between the Reference Evapotranspiration Products for Croplands in Korea: Case Study of 2016-2019 (우리나라 농지의 기준증발산 격자자료 비교평가: 2016-2019년의 사례연구)

  • Kim, Seoyeon;Jeong, Yemin;Cho, Subin;Youn, Youjeong;Kim, Nari;Lee, Yangwon
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.6_1
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    • pp.1465-1483
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    • 2020
  • Evapotranspiration is a concept that includes the evaporation from soil and the transpiration from the plant leaf. It is an essential factor for monitoring water balance, drought, crop growth, and climate change. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) corresponds to the consumption of water from the land surface and the necessary amount of water for the land surface. Because the AET is derived from multiplying the crop coefficient by the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), an accurate calculation of the ET0 is required for the AET. To date, many efforts have been made for gridded ET0 to provide multiple products now. This study presents a comparison between the ET0 products such as FAO56-PM, LDAPS, PKNU-NMSC, and MODIS to find out which one is more suitable for the local-scale hydrological and agricultural applications in Korea, where the heterogeneity of the land surface is critical. In the experiment for the period between 2016 and 2019, the daily and 8-day products were compared with the in-situ observations by KMA. The analyses according to the station, year, month, and time-series showed that the PKNU-NMSC product with a successful optimization for Korea was superior to the others, yielding stable accuracy irrespective of space and time. Also, this paper showed the intrinsic characteristics of the FAO56-PM, LDAPS, and MODIS ET0 products that could be informative for other researchers.