• Title/Summary/Keyword: Batch Experiment

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Adverse Effect of the Methanotroph Methylocystis sp. M6 on the Non-Methylotroph Microbacterium sp. NM2

  • Jeong, So-Yeon;Cho, Kyung-Suk;Kim, Tae Gwan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1706-1715
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    • 2018
  • Several non-methylotrophic bacteria have been reported to improve the growth and activity of methanotrophs; however, their interactions remain to be elucidated. We investigated the interaction between Methylocystis sp. M6 and Microbacterium sp. NM2. A batch co-culture experiment showed that NM2 markedly increased the biomass and methane removal of M6. qPCR analysis revealed that NM2 enhanced both the growth and methane-monooxygenase gene expression of M6. A fed-batch experiment showed that co-culture was more efficient in removing methane than M6 alone (28.4 vs. $18.8{\mu}mol{\cdot}l^{-1}{\cdot}d^{-1}$), although the biomass levels were similar. A starvation experiment for 21 days showed that M6 population remained stable while NM2 population decreased by 66% in co-culture, but the results were opposite in pure cultures, indicating that M6 may cross-feed growth substrates from NM2. These results indicate that M6 apparently had no negative effect on NM2 when M6 actively proliferated with methane. Interestingly, a batch experiment involving a dialysis membrane indicates that physical proximity between NM2 and M6 is required for such biomass and methane removal enhancement. Collectively, the observed interaction is beneficial to the methanotroph but adversely affects the non-methylotroph; moreover, it requires physical proximity, suggesting a tight association between methanotrophs and non-methylotrophs in natural environments.

Preliminary Experimental Result for Clarifying Sr Isotope Behaviour of Water due to Water-Rock Interaction (물-암석반응에 따른 물에서의 Sr동위원소의 거동에 대한 예비실험결과)

  • Lee, Seung-Gu;Kim, Jeong-Chan
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.211-222
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    • 2010
  • A batch experiment was carried out to investigate a variation of Sr concentration and $^{87}Sr/^{86}Sr$ ratio in the solution by water-rock interaction. The experiments were conducted at room temperature using two kinds of granites (biotite granite and garnet-bearing granite), de-ionized water. surface water. Water/rock ratio was 1:1. For comparison, we also performed another experiment under water/rock condition of 10:1. Then, the concentration of the cations and anions in the solutions showed severe variation during water/rock interaction. However, after sometime, the $^{87}Sr/^{86}Sr$ ratio of the solution moved to the $^{87}Sr/^{86}Sr$ ratio of the rocks and showed relatively constant value. This suggests that the $^{87}Sr/^{86}Sr$ ratio between water and rock becomes to be stable faster than the elemental equilibration of the element in the solution, and is not affected by interaction condition. Therefore, $^{87}Sr/^{86}Sr$ ratio of the groundwater may be useful in calculating the mixing ratio between different aquifer.

Effect of Food Waste Mixing on Hydrogen Gas Production in Anaerobic Digestion of Brown Water from Urine Diversion Toilet (소변분리변기오수(Brown water)의 혐기성 처리 시 음식물 쓰레기 혼합에 따른 수소생산 특성)

  • Seong, Chung-Yeol;Yoon, Cho-Hee;Seo, Gyu-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.865-872
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    • 2014
  • The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of food waste in brown water for anaerobic hydrogen production. Batch experiment was carried out to determine appropriate food waste to brown water mixing ratio. Maximum hydrogen yield of $6.92mmol\;H_2/g\;COD_{removed}$ was obtained at 70% food waste and 30% brown water. Semi-pilot scale reactor was operated based on result of batch experiment. Semi-pilot reactor operated, mixing 70% food waste and 30% brown water showed significant increment in butyric acid concentration. B/P (Butyric to propionic acid ratio) which is considered as governing factor for hydrogen production was found high (52.64). Maximum hydrogen yield of $25.03mmol\;H_2/g\;COD_{removed}$ was obtained. Result of this study concluded that mixing of food waste to brown water at appropriate ratio assists in enhanced hydrogen fermentation.

A Study on the Characteristics of Physical and the Adsorption of Heavy Metals (갯벌의 물리적 특성과 중금속 흡착에 관한 연구)

  • Na, Young;Lee, Seong-Baeg
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 2001
  • The study was performed to examine the influence of sea tide on a tideland composition by Saemankeum reclamation and to evaluate a correlation between the characteristics of physical and the pollution level of heavy metals. Also, it was investigated the characteristics of heavy metal adsorption through a batch experiment and applied to adsorption isotherm equations. In the results, the flow of sea tide occurred to accumulation action and had an effect on the content of heavy metals. It suggests that influence factors for the content of heavy metals in the tidal flat be grain size, cation exchange capacity and organic matter content. Adsorption capacity of heavy metals occurs to 90% adsorption rate for injection concentration within 30 minutes. The flow patterns in Saemankeum area will undergo a change for soil size distribution. In result, this soil size changed will effect the adsorption capacity of heavy metals.

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Adsorption of Amine and Sulfur Compounds by Iron Phthalocyanine Derivatives (철 프탈로시아닌 유도체에 의한 아민 및 황 화합물의 흡착)

  • Lee, Jeong-Se;Park, Jin-Do;Lee, Hak-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.575-584
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    • 2007
  • The adsorption capability of iron phthalocyanine derivatives were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometor (XRD), IR (infrared) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). According to TPD results, iron phthalocyanine derivatives showed two desorption peaks at low temperature ($100{\sim}150^{\circ}C$) and high temperature ($350{\sim}400^{\circ}C$) indicating that there were two kinds of acidities. Tetracarboxylic iron phthalocyanine (Fe-TCPC) have a stronger desorption peak (chemical adsorption) at the high temperature and a weaker desorption peak (physical adsorption) at the low temperature than iron phthalocyanine (Fe-PC). The specific surface areas of Fe-TCPC and Fe-PC were $26.46\;m^2/g\;and\;11.77\;m^2/g$, respectively. The pore volumes of Fe-TCPC and Fe-PC were $0.14\;cm^3/g\;and\;0.06\;cm^3/g$, respectively. The adsorption capability of triethyl amine calculated by breakthrough curve at 220 ppm of equilibrium concentration was 29.2 mmoL/g for Fe-TCPC and 0.8 mmoL/g for Fe-PC. The removal efficiency of dimethyl sulfide of Fe-TCPC and Fe-PC in batch experiment of 225 ppm of initial concentration were 44.9% and 28.9%, respectively. The removal efficiency of trimethyl amine of Fe-TCPC and Fe-PC in batch experiment of 118 ppm of initial concentration were approximately 100.0% and 33.9%, respectively.

Phosphate Removal from Aqueous Solution by Aluminum (Hydr)oxide-coated Sand

  • Han, Yong-Un;Park, Seong-Jik;Park, Jeong-Ann;Choi, Nag-Choul;Kim, Song-Bae
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2009
  • A powder form of aluminum (hydr)oxides is not suitable in wastewater treatment/filtration systems because of low hydraulic conductivity and large sludge production. In this study, aluminum (hydr)oxide-coated sand (AOCS) was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. The properties of AOCS were analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Kinetic batch, equilibrium batch, and closed-loop column experiments were performed to examine the adsorption of phosphate to AOCS. The XRD pattern indicated that the powder form of aluminum (hydr)oxides coated on AOCS was similar to a low crystalline boehmite. Kinetic batch experiments demonstrated that P adsorption to AOCS reached equilibrium after 24 h of reaction time. The kinetic sorption data were described well by the pseudo second-order kinetic sorption model, which determined the amount of P adsorbed at equilibrium ($q_e$ = 0.118 mg/g) and the pseudo second-order velocity constant (k = 0.0036 g/mg/h) at initial P concentration of 25 mg/L. The equilibrium batch data were fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model, which quantified the distribution coefficient ($K_F$ = 0.083 L/g), and the Freundlich constant (1/n = 0.339). The closed-loop column experiments showed that the phosphate removal percent decreased from 89.1 to 41.9% with increasing initial pH from 4.82 to 9.53. The adsorption capacity determined from the closed-loop experiment was 0.239 mg/g at initial pH 7.0, which is about two times greater than that ($q_e$ = 0.118 mg/g) from the kinetic batch experiment at the same condition.

Investigation on the biodegradation of VOCs in soil, sewage sludge, and food waste compost (토양.하수 슬러지.음식물 쓰레기 퇴비내에서의 휘발성 유기화합물(VOCs)의 기체상 생분해에 관한 연구)

  • 김혜진;이은영;박재우
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.11-14
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    • 2000
  • Wastewater sludge and composted food wastes were examined as the alternatives of a landfill cover for soils to eliminate the emission of VOCs. The benefit of these alternatives is in their high sorption capacity, which is 5 to 50 times higher than natural soils. After sorption is finished, biodegradation is an important mechanism in decrease of VOCs concentration. In order to investigate appropriate VOCs degradation condition, biodegradation batch experiment is being conducted with isolated strain X9-c. Both benzene and TCE were degraded only in soil with 12%(water volume/sorbent volumn) water condition. When the water condition varied from 12 to 48% in compost, optimum water conditions of composted food waste was 36%.

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Recovery of Cobalt from the Wastewater produced during Malonate Process by Solvent Extraction (말로네이트 제조 공정 폐수로부터 코발트 회수: 용매추출법 적용)

  • 문영환
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 1997
  • The solvent extraction method was applied on the wastewater produced during malonate(malonic acid esters) process to recover cobalt. DEHPA and PC88A were used as organic solvent From separation funnel experiment(batch experiment), the effects of vari- ous parameters (pH, cobalt concentration, reaction rate, and stripping temperature) on solvent extraction were examined and these data were used to derive equilibrium curve. A mixer-settler experiment (continuous experiment) of bench scale was also carried out for the plant construction and a Mccabe-Thiele diagram was obtained. The results of these experiments indicate that cobalt is recoverable above 99 oyo and that its purity as cobalt sulfate Is higher than 99.9 wt%.

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A Study of Protein Ion Exchange Chromatography based on Plate Theory (단이론에 따른 단백질 이온교환 크로마토그라피의 연구)

  • 김인호;김진태
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.485-491
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    • 1995
  • Protein ion exchange chromatography was studied experimentally in order to prove the theoretical prediction from the linear model of Yamamoto, S. et al (1). Adsorption isotherms were measured as a function of ionic strength in a batch experiment. The relationship between the characteristics of chromatogram and the operating conditions of ionic strength, flow rate, length of column, concentration and amount of protein sample were studied. At the higher ionic strength, the lower flow rate and the longer column conditions, the higher number of plate was obtained. Satisfactory agreement was observed between the experimental and the calculated chromatograms except for the case of high protein concentration.

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A study on recycling of cast as adsorbent (흡착제로서 분변토 재활용에 관한 연구)

  • 손희정;전성균;하상안
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.44-49
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this research is to evaluate the adsorption capacity of casts for heavy metals. The casts were excreted by earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, after having eaten the paper sludge. Various batch experiments on adsorption were performed to compare cast and activated carbon. The pH increase in solution due to extractives from cast was 1.3 and the cation exchange capacity which implies adsorption capacity for solubles is greater on activated carbon than on cast. According to the results of batch experiment, the removal rates of Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn using the activated carbon and casts as adsorbent were 98%, 93%, 94%, 89%, 82% and 95%, 90%, 88%,80%, 66%, respectivity, and this removal were achived less than 90 minutes. It can be said that casts is so good adsorbent as activated carbon is, although adsorption carbon was found to be some large than those of casts through Freundlich isotherm applied for adsorption of soluble. As a result on the experiment of isothermic adsorption from the mixed component solution in the batch, the order of preferable elements in heavy metal adsorption was found to be Pb>Cd>Cu>Cr>Zn on activated carbon, respectively.

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