• Title/Summary/Keyword: Bcl-$x_L$

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Mitochondrially Targeted Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL Chimeras Elicit Different Apoptotic Responses

  • Liu, Sen;Pereira, Natasha Ann;Teo, Joong Jiat;Miller, Peter;Shah, Priya;Song, Zhiwei
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.378-387
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    • 2007
  • The Bcl-2 family of proteins interacts at the mitochondria to regulate apoptosis. However, the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and $Bcl-X_L$ are not completely localized to the mitochondria. In an attempt to generate Bcl-2 and $Bcl-X_L$ chimeras that are constitutively localized to the mitochondria, we substituted their C-terminal transmembrane tail or both the C-terminal transmembrane tail and the adjacent loop with the equivalent regions from Bak or Bax mutant (BaxS184V) as these regions determine the mitochondrial localization of Bak and Bax. The effects of these substitutions on subcellular localization and their activities were assessed following expression in HeLa and CHO K1 cells. The substitution of the C-terminal tail or the C-terminal tail and the adjacent loop of Bcl-2 with the equivalent regions from Bak or the Bax mutant resulted in its association with the mitochondria. This change in subcellular localization of Bcl-2 chimeras triggered cells to undergo apoptotic-like cell death. The localization of this Bcl-2 chimera to the mitochondria may be associated with the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Unlike Bcl-2, the loop structure adjacent to the C-terminal tail in $Bcl-X_L$ is crucial for its localization. To localize the $Bcl-X_L$ chimeras to the mitochondria, the loop structure next to the C-terminal tail in $Bcl-X_L$ protein must remain intact and cannot be substituted by the loop from Bax or Bak. The chimeric $Bcl-X_L$ with both its C-terminal tail and the loop structure replaced by the equivalent regions of Bak or Bax mutant localized throughout the entire cytosol. The $Bcl-X_L$ chimeras that are targeted to the mitochondria and the wild type $Bcl-X_L$ provided same protection against cell death under several death inducing conditions.

Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL suppresses p-fluorophenylalanine-induced apoptosis through blocking mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade in human Jurkat T cells (Jurkat T 세포에 있어서 ρ-fluorophenylalanine에 의해 유도되는 세포자살의 Bcl-2 및 Bcl-xL에 의한 저해 기전)

  • Han, Kyu-Hyun;Oh, Hyun-Ji;Jun, Do-Youn;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.118-127
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    • 2003
  • $\rho$-Fluorophenylalanine (FPA), a phenylalanine analog, is able to induce apoptotic cell death of human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells. To better understand the mechanism by which FPA induces apoptotic cell death, the effect of ectopic expression of antiapoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, on FPA-induced apoptosis was investigated by employing lurkat T cells transfected with Bcl-2 gene (JT/Bcl-2) or Bcl-xL gene (1/Bcl-xL) and Jurkat T cells transfected with vector (JT/Neo or J/Neo). When Jurkat T cells, JT/Neo or J/Neo, were exposed to FPA at concentrations ranging from 0.63 to 5.0 mM, the cell viability determined by MTT assay declined in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, apoptotic DNA fragmentation along with several apoptotic events such as caspase-8 activation, Bid cleavage, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation, caspase-3 activation, and degradation of PARP was induced. However, the FPA-induced cytotoxic effect, activation of caspase-8, and cleavage of Bid were significantly abrogated by ectopic expression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. At the same time, there was marked reduction in the level of cytochrome c release from mitorhondria, caspase-9 activation, caspase-3 activation, and degradation of PARP. These results indicate that caspase-8 activation, Bid cleavage, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release with subsequent activation of the caspase cascade are negatively regulated by Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL, and are thus required for FPA-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells

Downregulation of bcl-xL Is Relevant to UV-induced Apoptosis in Fibroblasts

  • Nakagawa, Yuki;Okada, Seiji;Hatano, Masahiko;Ebara, Masaaki;Saisho, Hiromitsu;Tokuhisa, Takeshi
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.452-458
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    • 2002
  • Exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) induces apoptosis in mammalian cells, The caspase group of proteases is required for the appotosis. This pathway is initiated by a release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Several Bcl-2 family proteins can regulate the release of cytochrome c by stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane. Here we show that expression of the endogenous bcl-xL was strongly downregulated in NIH3T3 cells within 2 h after UV-C irradiation, and that of bax was upregulated from 8 h after irradiation. Apoptosis was induced in more than 50% of the NIH3T3 cells 48 h after irradiation. Constitutive overexpression of bcl-xL in NIH3T3 cells protected the UV-induced apoptosis by preventing the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of caspase 9. There results suggest that downregulation of Bcl-xL is relevant to UV-induced apoptosis of tibroblasts.

FGF-2 inhibits TNF-α mediated apoptosis through up-regulation of Bcl2-A1 and Bcl-xL in ATDC5 cells

  • Kim, Hey-Ryun;Heo, Youn-Moo;Jeong, Kyoung-Il;Kim, Yong-Min;Jang, Hae-Lan;Lee, Kwang-Yeol;Yeo, Chang-Yeol;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Lee, Hak-Kyo;Kim, Seung-Ryul;Kim, Eung-Gook;Choi, Joong-Kook
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2012
  • FGF-2 is involved in cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in a wide variety of cells. FRGRs, PI3K and MAP kinases are well known mediators of FGF signaling. Despite its known roles during many developmental processes, including osteogenesis, there are few known targets of FGF-2. In the present study, we identified Bcl2-A1 and Bcl-xL as two prominent targets involved in promoting cell survival. Pretreatment of ATDC5 cells with FGF-2 increased cell survival, while siRNAs specific for Bcl2-A1 and Bcl-xL compromised the anti-apoptotic effect of FGF-2, sensitized the cells to apoptosis triggered by TNF-${\alpha}$. Chemical inhibition of FGFR, NFkB, and PI3K activity by PD173074, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and LY294002 respectively abrogated the FGF-2-mediated induction of Bcl2-A1 and Bcl-xL expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that a subset of Bcl2 family proteins are the targets of FGF-2 signaling that promotes the survival of ATDC5 cells.

Induction of Apoptosis by Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans in Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells through Bcl-xL Regulation (왕지네(Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans)의 Bcl-xL 조절에 의한 HL-60 세포의 아폽토시스(Apoptosis) 유도)

  • Kim, Kil-Nam;Kim, Sang-Bum;Yoon, Weon-Jong;Yang, Kyoung-Sik;Park, Soo-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.1408-1414
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    • 2008
  • The anticancer properties of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans extract were investigated. The extract from S. subspinipes mutilans by 80% EtOH was fractionated with n-hexane, dichloromethan ($CH_2Cl_2$), ethylacetate (EtOAc), and butanol (BuOH) in order. The EtOAc fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity (about 80%) against human leukemia (HL-60) cell growth at $50\;{\mu}g/mL$. To explore the mechanism of cytotoxicity, we used several measures of apoptosis to determine whether these processes were involved in EtOAc fraction-induced HL-60 cell death. Our results showed EtOAc fraction induced cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, apoptotic body, and DNA fragmentation. The EtOAc fraction gradually decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and led to the activation of caspase-3, -9 and cleavage of PARP. These findings suggest that S. subspinipes mutilans exhibits potential anticancer properties.

Effect of Apoptosis on Porcine Parthenotes Development in vitro (돼지 단위발생 배아의 발달과정에서 세포사멸에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Dal
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.3843-3849
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on blastocoel formation, total cell number, apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression of porcine diploid parthenotes developing in vitro. The addition of 0.4% BSA to the culture medium enhanced the development of 2-cell stage parthenotes to the blastocysts stage (p<0.01). Treatment of FBS reduced cell numbers of blastocysts (p<0.01) and increased the percentage of apoptosis in blastocysts (p<0.001). However, BSA increased cell numbers, only in the presence of EGF reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed that EGF enhanced the mRNA expression of Bcl-xL in the presence of 0.4% BSA but BSA and EGF alone had no effect. However, Treatment of FBS reduced Bcl-xL mRNA expression (p<0.05) and enhanced Bak expression. This result suggests that apoptosis related gene expression is significantly affected by supplements, which may result in alteration of apoptosis and embryo viability of porcine embryos developing in vitro.

Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Apoptosis Independently of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, or Bax in C6Bu-1 Cells

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Jin, Sung-Ha;Lee, You-Hui;Kim, Shin-Il;Park, Jong-Dae
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.448-453
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    • 1999
  • In ginsenoside Rh2-treated rat glioma C6Bu-1 cells, apoptotic morphological changes, such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and pyknosis were confirmed by means of electron microscopy. To evaluate whether induction of apoptosis by ginsenoside Rh2 is mediated by the members of Bcl-2 family, we first established C6Bu-1 cells overexpressing Bcl-2. It was demonstrated that the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bax was not altered in ginsenoside Rh2-treated C6Bu-1 overexpressing C6Bu-1 cells failed to prevent from ginsenoside Rh2-induced cell death. These results suggest the existence of other apoptotic pathway that requires induction of apoptosis by ginsenoside Rh2 rather than the pathway through Bcl-2, $Bcl-x_{L}$ or Bax in C6Bu-1 cells.

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Epidermal Growth Factor Induces Bcl-xL Gene Expression and Reduces Apoptosis in Porcine Diploid Parthenotes Developing in vitro

  • X. S. Cui;M. R. Shin;S. H. Jun;Kim, N. H.
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • 2003.06a
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    • pp.53-53
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study was to determine the interactive effects of BSA and EGF on the viability and development of porcine diploid parthenotes developing in vitro. The addition of 0.1 and 0.4% BSA to the culture medium enhanced the development of 4-cell parthenotes to the blastocyst stage but EGF had no effect. However, while BSA also increased cell numbers, it did so only when EGF was also present. Either agent on its own had no effect. Similarly, apoptosis in the blastocysts was not influenced by either agent on its own but was reduced when both BSA and EGF were present. Furthermore, semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that EGF enhanced the mRNA expression of BclxL in the presence of 0.4% BSA but BSA and EGF alone had no effect. EGF and/or BSA did not influence Bak gene expression in the blastocyst stage parthenotes. These results suggest that BSA has both beneficial and detrimental effects on the viability of porcine diploid parthenotes developing in vitro and that exogenous EGF may block some of the detrimental effects of BSA, possibly by inhibiting the BSA-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-xL expression. This results in a net increase in cell numbers in porcine diploid parthenotes developing in vitro.

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The Effect of Injinchunggantang-derivative on Proliferation of Hepatocyte (인진청간탕가미방(茵蔯淸肝湯加味方)이 간세포(肝細胞)의 증식능력(增殖能力)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Yong-Jin;Kim, Young-Chul;Lee, Jang-Hoon;Woo, Hong-Jung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.145-164
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Injinchunggantang-derivative on proliferation of hepatocyte in rats. Cell viability is studied by MTI assay. The gene related to cell replication such as p53, waf1, bcl-2 and $bcl-_{X_L}$ is quantitized by quantitative RT-PCR and the proteins coded by these genes are studied by Western blotting. The results are as follows. 1. The hepatocytes cultured in medium with lnjinchunggantang-derivative showed better viability compared with control grroup in MTI assay, and the hepatocytes cultured in medium with the Injinchunggantang-derivative-and-ethanol-mixed group showed better viability than the hepatocytes cultrued in 10% ethanol culture medium(control group), noting that Injinchunggantang-derivative has protective effect on hepatocyte injury. There was no dose- and time-dependence. 2. In quantitative RT-PCR, i) Bel-2 gene increased significantly both in Injinchunggantang-derivative group and in Injinchunggantang-derivative-and-ethanol-mixed group, while it showed no significant increase or decrease in other group. ii) $Bcl-_{X_L}$ gene increased significantly in Injinchunggantang-derivative group as well as in Injinchunggantang-deri vative-and-ethanol -mixed group. iii) P53 gene showed no significant increase or decrease in hepatocytes cultured in medium with 10% ethanol and in hepatocytes cultured in medium with Injinchunggantang-derivative-and-ethanol-mixed group, suggesting that 10% ethanol induced cell toxicity, thus increased p53 gene expression. iv) Wafl gene showed no significant increase or decrease in hepatocytes cutured in medium with Injinchtrnggantang-derivative, while increased in hepatocytes cultured in medium with 10% ethanol and in hepatocytes cultured in medium with Injinchtrnggantang-derivative-andethanol-mixed group, suggesting that 10% ethanol induced cell toxicity increased wafl gene expression. 3. In the study on protein by western blotting, the band of bcl-2 and $bcl-_{X_L}$ were widened in Injinchtrnggantang-derivative group. Especially the amount of $bcl-_{X_L}$ increased significantly compared with other groups. But in the study on p53 and wafl, there was no significant difference among those groups. Above study shows that Injinchunggantang-derivative has good effect on cell viability and that the genes resistant to cell death such as bcl-2 and $bcl-_{X_L}$ are induced by Injinchunggantang-derivative to resist to cell death by toxic agent And this is reconfirmed in protein study using' western blotting: These results suggest that Injinchunggantang-derivative has inhibitory effect on cell death as well as protective effect on hepatocyte. Therefore this prescription is recommended in various liver diseases such as chronic liver disease and-induced hepatic injury.

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Kaempferol Activates G2-Checkpoint of the Cell Cycle Resulting in G2-Arrest and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Acute Leukemia Jurkat T Cells

  • Kim, Ki Yun;Jang, Won Young;Lee, Ji Young;Jun, Do Youn;Ko, Jee Youn;Yun, Young Ho;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2016
  • The effect of kaempferol (3,5,7,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonoid compound that was identified in barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) grains, on G2-checkpoint and apoptotic pathways was investigated in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cell clones stably transfected with an empty vector (J/Neo) or a Bcl-xL expression vector (J/Bcl-xL). Exposure of J/Neo cells to kaempeferol caused cytotoxicity and activation of the ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2 pathway, activating the phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15), inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser-216), and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), with resultant G2-arrest of the cell cycle. Under these conditions, apoptotic events, including upregulation of Bak and PUMA levels, Bak activation, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) loss, activation of caspase-9, -8, and -3, anti-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and accumulation of apoptotic sub-G1 cells, were induced without accompanying necrosis. However, these apoptotic events, except for upregulation of Bak and PUMA levels, were completely abrogated in J/Bcl-xL cells overexpressing Bcl-xL, suggesting that the G2-arrest and the Bcl-xL-sensitive mitochondrial apoptotic events were induced, in parallel, as downstream events of the DNA-damage-mediated G2-checkpoint activation. Together these results demonstrate that kaempferol-mediated antitumor activity toward Jurkat T cells was attributable to G2-checkpoint activation, which caused not only G2-arrest of the cell cycle but also activating phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15) and subsequent induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic events, including Bak and PUMA upregulation, Bak activation, Δψm loss, and caspase cascade activation.