• Title/Summary/Keyword: Bisphenol A

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Part-Per-Trillion Level Determination of Alkylphenols, Chlorophenols and Bisphenol A using GC/MS-SIM in Tap Water Samples (GC/MS-SIM 방법에 의한 수돗물 중 알킬페놀, 플로로페놀과 비스페놀 A의 ppt 정량)

  • Kim, Hyub
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.199-208
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    • 2003
  • A new technique was proposed for the determination of alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol A in tap water samples. The sample preparation consists of a solid phase extraction (SPE) of alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol A from a water sample with XAD-4 and subsequent conversion to isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives or tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives for sensitive analysis with the CC/MS SIM mode. The recoveries were 86.6 ∼ 105.2% (isoBOC derivatization) and 97.6∼484.5% (TBDMS derivatization), respectively. The limit of quantitation of alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol h for SIM were 0.001∼0.050 $\mu\textrm{g}$/1 (isoBOC derivatization) and 0.003∼0.050 $\mu\textrm{g}$/1 (TBDMS derivatization). The SIM responses were linear with the correlation coefficient varying 0.9755∼0.9981 (isoBOC derivatization), and 0.9908∼0.9996 (TBDMS derivatization). When these methods were applied to tap water samples, the range of concentrations were 22.8∼31.3 ng/1 in 2,4-dichlorophenol, 28.6∼70.3 ng/1 in pentachlorophenol, 15.2∼17.4 ng/1 in t-butylphenol, 10.8∼13.2 ng/1 in t-octylphenol and 17.6∼36.3 ng/l in bisphenol A, respectively.

Adsorption characteristics of Amitrol, Nonylphenol, Bisphenol-A with GACs (흡착특성이 다른 내분비계 장애물질 3종, Amitrol, Nonylphenol, Bisphenol-A의 GACs에서의 흡착 특성)

  • Choi, Keun-Joo;Kim, Sang-Goo;Kwon, Ki-Won;Ji, Yong-dae;Kim, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.256-264
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    • 2004
  • Adsorption characteristics of three endocrine disruptors, amitrol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol-A, were evaluated depending on the type and service duration of activated carbon (AC). Bituminous coal-, wood-, and coconut-based coals were tested. Bituminous coal-based AC (BCAC) had the greatest sorption capacity for the three chemicals tested, followed by wood-based AC (WAC) for nonylphenol and coconut palm-based AC (CAC) for bisphenol-A. During the column test, amitrol removal efficiency increased over time, indicating that hydrophilic endocrine disruptors are biodegraded in the AC column. Removal efficiencies of hydrophobic compounds such as nonylphenol and bisphenol-A decreased over time since the main removal mechanism was adsorption. The order of the amitrol removal was: BCAC-5.9 yr, CAC-3.l yr > BCAC-2.2 yr > BCAC-virgin > CAC-virgin > WAC-virgin > WAC-3.l yr. In general, used AC had greater removals than virgin AC. The order of the bisphenol-A removal was: CAC-virgin > BCAC-2.2 yr > CAC-3.l yr > WAC-virgin > BCAC-5.9 yr > WAC-3.l yr. The order of the nonylphenol removal was: BCAC-virgin > WAC-virgin > CAC-3.1 yr, WAC-3.1yr> BCAC-2.2 yr > BCAC-5.9 yr > CAC-3.1 yr. Bituminous coal AC performed the best over time. Endocrine disruptors such as these three compounds appear to be removed effectively by activated carbon through biodegradation and adsorption. Wood and coal based among the virgin ACs and 3.1 years used wood base among the used ACs appeared the lowest carbon usage rate(CUR) for nonylphenol removal by prediction model. Virgin and used coconut base ACs except BCAC had the lowest CUR for removal Bisphenol-A. Biodegradation of nonylphenol and Bisphenol-A did not occurred during the 9,800 bed volume experiment period. BCAC had the highest biodegradation capacity of 46% for amitrol among virgin ACs and the used coal based ACs had 33-44% higher biodegradation capacity than virgin's for amitrol so biodegradation is the effective removal technology for hydrophilic material such as amitrol.

Immunopathological studies in mice exposed to bisphenol A (마우스에서 bisphenol A 노출로 인한 면역병리학적 연구)

  • 변정아;표명운
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.324-330
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    • 2002
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer widely used in the manufacturing polycarbonate plastics or epoxy resin, and xenobiotics recently known as endocrine disrupting chemical. In this paper, to assess the effects of bisphenol A on immunopathological parameters (body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, cellularity and surface marker) in mice, ICR female mice were orally exposed to BPA dissolved in olive oil as concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 ㎎/㎏/day b.w. 5 days a week for 30 days (subacute exposure). Liver - and kidney weight was significantly increased as dose-dependent manner, but body- , spleen- and thymus- weight didn't changed. In hematological parameters, WBC and MCHC were lowered but HCT and MCV were siginificantly enhanced. There was no significant differences in peritoneal macrophages number of the mice exposed to BPA. However, number of splenocytes of spleen, CD3/sup +/ and CD4/sup +/ cell in splenocytes, CD4/sup +/ and CD8/sup +/ cell in thymocytes were decreased at the mice subacutely exposed to BPA. In addition, BPA decreased expression of B7-1 and B7-2 on macrophages. Therefore, these results showed BPA may affect hematological parameters, cellularity and surface marker of immunocytes.

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Cross-generational Effect of Bisphenol A on the Harpacticoid Copepod Tigriopus west: A Full Life Cycle Toxicity Test

  • Bang, Hyun Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.456-462
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to assess cross-generational effects of bisphenol A exposure in benthic copepods, Tigriopus west. Nauplii (<24 hours old) were exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol A, and toxicity end-points such as survival, development, sex ratio, and fecundity were measured. $F_1$ generations were grown under innoxious conditions, and similarly assessed. Significant differences were observed in development of nauplii and copepodites, between exposed and non-exposed copepods; however, there were no differences in survival of nauplii or copepodites, sex ratio, or brooding rate in parental generation. In contrast, in the $F_1$ generation, there were significant differences between the control group and exposed group in survival and development of nauplii. Length, width, and biomass of parental and $F_1$ generations were reduced in the exposed group compared to the control group. In addition, some deformities, such as swelling of the prosome, abnormally shaped egg sac, and dwarfism were observed after exposure to bisphenol A. So, our study demonstrates that a cross-generation toxicity test and monitoring of morphological deformities in harpacticoid copepods, can be useful for development of potential bioindicators for environmental monitoring, and assessment of chemical impact.

Part-Per-Trillion level determination of Alkylphenols, Chlorophenols and Bisphenol A using GC/MS-SIM in Tap Water

  • Kim, Hyub
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.149-149
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    • 2003
  • A new technique is proposed for the determination of alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol A in tap water. The sample preparation consists of a solid phase extraction (SPE) of alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol A from a water sample with XAD-4 and subsequent conversion to isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives or tert.-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives for sensitive analysis with the GC/MS-SIM mode. The recoveries were 86.6∼105.2 % (isoBOC derivatization) and 97.6∼484.5 % (TBDMS derivatization), respectively. The limit of quantitation of alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol A for SIM were 0.001∼0.050 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l (isoBOC derivatization) and 0.003∼0.050 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l (TBDMS derivatization). The SIM responses were linear with the correlation coefficient varying 0.9755∼0.9981 (isoBOC derivatization), and 0.9908∼0.9996 (TBDMS derivatization). The derivative methods and their application to tap water samples will be disscussed.

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Synthesis and Cure Behaviors of Diglycidylether of Bisphenol-S Epoxy Resins (Diglycidylether of Bisphenol-S 에폭시 수지의 합성 및 경화거동에 관한 연구)

  • 박수진;김범용;이재락;신재섭
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.501-507
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    • 2002
  • In this work, diglycidylether of bisphenol-S (DGEBS) epoxy resin was prepared by alkaline condensation of bisphenol-S (BPS) with epichlorohydrin (ECH) in the presence of NaOH catalyst. The structure of the synthesized DGEBS epoxy resin was confirmed by IR, NMR spectra, and elemental analysis. The curing reaction and glass transition temperature ($T_g$) of DGEBS epoxy resin cured with phthalic anhydride (PA) and tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA) at curing agents were studied by dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal stability of the cured specimen was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). As a result, the activation energy ($E_a$) of DGEBS/PA system was higher than that of DGEBS/THPA system, whereas $T_g$, initial decomposed temperature (IDT), and decomposition activation energy ($E_t$) of DGEBS/PA were lower than those of DGEBS/THPA. This was probably due to the fact that the crosslinking density of DGEBS/THPA was increased by ring strain of curing agent.

Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(ether Sulfone)s Containing Bisphenol-TP for PEMFC (고분자 전해질 막 연료전지를 위한 Bisphenol-TP를 포함한 Poly(ether sulfone)s 고분자 막의 합성과 특성)

  • Lim, Young-Don;Seo, Dong-Wan;Lee, Soon-Ho;Islam, Monirul;Kang, Da-Lib;Kim, Whan-Gi
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.307-312
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    • 2010
  • Poly (ether sulfone)s with Bisphenol-TP and Bisphenol-AF were prepared with Bisphenol-TP <4,4-dihydroxy tetraphenyl methane>, 4-Fluorophenyl sulfone, and Bisphenol-AF <4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphenol> using Potassium carbonate in Sulfolane at $210^{\circ}C$. Sulfonated PBTP-AF were obtained by reaction of Chlorosulfuric acid with copolymers. A series of copolymers were studied by $^1H$-NMR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of polymers with water and methanol.

SBA-15 Supported Fe, Ni, Fe-Ni Bimetallic Catalysts for Wet Oxidation of Bisphenol-A

  • Mayani, Suranjana V.;Mayani, Vishal J.;Kim, Sang Wook
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.3535-3541
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    • 2014
  • Bisphenol A is considered as pollutant, because it is toxic and hazardous to living organisms even at very low concentrations. Biological oxidation used for removing this organic from waste water is not suitable and consequently application of catalytic wet oxidation has been considered as one of the best options for treating bisphenol A. We have developed Fe/SBA-15, Ni/SBA-15 and Fe-Ni/SBA-15 as heterogeneous catalysts using the advanced impregnation method for oxidation of bisphenol A in water. The catalysts were characterized with physico-chemical characterization methods such as, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), FT-IR measurements, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis. This work illustrates activity of the catalysts for heterogeneous catalytic degradation reaction revealed with excellent conversion and recyclability. The degradation products identified were not persistent pollutants. GC-MS analysis identified the products: 2,4-hexadienedioic acid, 2,4-pentadienic acid and isopropanol or acetic acid. The leachability study indicated that the catalysts release very little metals to water. Therefore, the possibility of water contamination through metal leaching was almost negligible.

Characteristics of Surface Modified Activated Carbons Prepared Using P2O5 and Their Adsorptivity of Bisphenol A (P2O5로 표면 개질한 활성탄의 특성 및 Bisphenol A의 흡착능)

  • Lee, Min-Gyu;Kim, Myeong-Chan;Kam, Sang-Kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1463-1471
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    • 2015
  • The surface modified activated carbons (SMACs) were prepared with various $P_2O_5$ concentrations using two activated carbons (ACs: waste citrus peel-based activated carbon and coconut-based activated carbon). The characteristics and adsorptivity of bisphenol A (one of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals) were compared between ACs and SMACs. The contents of C, H and N of SMACs were similar to those of ACs, but the content of $P_2O_5$ for the former increased greatly than for the latter, due to the impregnation of $P_2O_5$ into the pores. The specific surface area, total pore volume, average pore diameter and iodine adsorptivity for the former decreased due to the impregnation of $P_2O_5$ into the pores, compared to those for the latter. The adsorptivity of bisphenol A for the former were higher than that for the latter, although specific surface area, total pore volume, average pore diameter and iodine adsorptivity for the former were lower than those for the latter.

GC/MS-SIM for the Determination of Alkylphenols, Chlorophenols and Bisphenol A in Paper Materials

  • Kim, Hyub
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.145-145
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    • 2003
  • A method for the determination of alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol A in paper materials using GC/MS-SIM has been developed. Eleven endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) of phenols in paper samples were extracted with acetonitrile. Also, solid-phase extraction (SPE) with XAD-4 and subsequent conversion to isobutoxycarbonyl derivatives or tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for sensitive analysis with the selected ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. The recoveries were 82.4∼108.8 % by area ratio of pheranthrene-d$\sub$10/ vs bisphenol A d$\sub$l6/. (isoBOC derivatization and TBDMS derivatization) The SIM responses were linear with the correlation coefficient varying 0.9717∼0.9995 (isoBOC derivatization), and 0.9842∼0.9980 (TBDMS derivatization). The range of concentrations was respectively, 0.95∼l.44 ng/g in 2,4-dichlorophenol, 1.01∼1.17 ng/g in t-butylphenol, 2.17∼5.84 ng/g in pentachlorophenol, 12.68∼14.88 ng/g in nonylphenol and 30.84∼153.72 ng/g in bisphenol A.

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