• Title/Summary/Keyword: Body Condition Score

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Body weight, graph of body condition score, distribution of milk production, and use or metabolic profiles test for dairy herd health management (우군 건강관리를 위한 체중측정, 체형 그래프 산유량 분포도, 대사프로필 검색의 활용)

  • 김홍집;은길수;강병선;이재규;김정한;송희종
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.279-285
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    • 2001
  • The change of the body condition score(BCS) and milk production graph as days in milk by lactation number show that the productivity of cow is on the increase as increase the lactation number, but the health condition is much worse because of the inappropriate nutrition intake. Metabolic profiles test(MPT) results indicate that the early-lactation for directly after the parturition to the peak production of milk during the total lactation period is the time of the more likely to be exposed to lack of energy, protein, minerals. To solve this problem, the early-lactation cows should be sufficiently supplied the required nutrients and should maximum intake the supplied nutrients not to be suddenly decline body weight and BCS from postparturition to the peak production of milk. To maximize the dry matter intake of a cow, there is have got to improve the management of body weight for heifer's skeletal development and in the dry period which is carelessly deal by mostly farms. This study presents that the use of measurement of body weight, graph of body condition score, distribution of milk production, metabolic profiles test in the monitoring for dairy herd health management is very valuable.

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Phenotypic Relationship between Lactation Persistency and Change in Body Condition Score in First-lactation Holstein Cows

  • Yamazaki, Takeshi;Takeda, Hisato;Nishiura, Akiko;Sasai, Youji;Sugawara, Naoko;Togashi, Kenji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.610-615
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    • 2011
  • We examined the correlations between lactation curve shape, including persistency and changes in body condition score (BCS) during early-stage (0 to 30 days in milk (DIM)), nadir-stage (31 to 90 DIM), and late-stage (91 to 240 DIM) lactation in 191 first-lactation cows. Data used were first-parity BCS records, scored twice every month after calving, and daily milk yields. Individual lactation curves were depicted by the Wilmink function. Lactation persistency was defined as the difference in estimated milk yields between 240 DIM and 60 DIM. Changes in BCSs in the early and late stages were defined as linear regression coefficients. There were no significant correlations between traits for lactation curve shape and change in BCS in early-stage lactation. Peak yield and total milk yield were negatively correlated with BCSs in nadir- and late-stage lactation and with BCS change in late-stage lactation, suggesting that cows with high lactation yields had low body reserves and health status in mid- to late lactation and had delayed recovery of body reserves. Lactation persistency was positively correlated with change in BCS in late-stage lactation, suggesting that cows with high lactation persistency tended to be healthy and to recover their body reserves well in late lactation.

The Influence of Dam Weight, Body Condition and Udder Scores on Calf Birth Weight and Preweaning Growth Rates in Beef Cattle

  • Paputungan, U.;Makarechian, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.435-439
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    • 2000
  • Records of weight, age, body condition at calving and udder characteristics scores of 425 beef cows and birth weights and periodical weights of their offspring from birth to weaning were analyzed to study the effect of body weight, condition and udder characteristic scores of dams on birth weight and Preweaning growth of their offspring. Dam's body condition (fat reserve) at calving were scored on a scale of 1 to 5 (1=extremely thin and 5=extremely fat) and dam's udder characteristics were scored on a scale of 1 to 7 (l=udder well attached with small teats and 7=at least one quarters not functional). Dams were from three distinct breed groups and were mated in single sire mating groups within each breed group for 45 days. Within each breed group and year, the dams were classified into high, medium and low based on their weights at the time of parturition. The data were analysed using covariance analysis. In general, calves born to heavier dams were heavier at birth and had higher rate of Preweaning growth. The effect of dam's body condition score on the calf birth weight was not significant. However, cows with average body condition score of 2.5 or 3.0 gave birth to calves that had higher pre weaning growth rates up to weaning than those born to calves with higher body condition score. The udder characteristics score did not affect calf birth weight as expected; however, cows with udder score of 3 (udder well attached with large teats) produced calves with higher preweaning growth rate than those with smaller teats. Based on the results, it can be concluded that maintaining animals with average body condition and weight would result in more efficient calf production. In addition, cows with well attached udder and large teats would provide a better maternal environment for Preweaning growth rates of their calves.

Relationship between Body Condition Score and Ultrasonographic Measurement of Subcutaneous Fat in Dairy Cows

  • Zulu, Victor Chisha;Nakao, Toshihiko;Moriyoshi, Masaharu;Nakada, Ken;Sawamukai, Yutaka;Tanaka, Yoshinobu;Zhang, Wen-Chang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.816-820
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    • 2001
  • This study aimed at relating body condition score (BCS) to ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat over the areas most commonly used to BCS Holstein-Friesian cows, and determining the practicality of ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat for assessment of energy status of the cow. Twenty-eight cows were scored to the nearest quarter point on a scale of 1-5 (1=thin and 5=fat) using both visual and tactile techniques. On the same day, ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat were obtained at the lumbar transverse process, thurl and near the tailhead areas on both sides of the cow making six locations. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the six ultrasound locations ranged from 0.72-0.93 and were all significantly different from zero (p<0.01). Correlation coefficients between BCS and the mean lumbar, thurl and tailhead ultrasound measurements ranged between 0.67-0.72 and were also significantly different from zero (p<0.01). BCS was highly and significantly correlated to ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat. Ultrasound can be used independently or in conjunction with BCS to estimate the nutrition and energy status of cows.

Relationships of Body Composition and Fat Partition with Body Condition Score in Serra da Estrela Ewes

  • Caldeira, R.M.;Portugal, A.V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1108-1114
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    • 2007
  • Twenty eight non-lactating and non-pregnant adult Serra da Estrela ewes, ranging in body condition score (BCS) from 1 to 4 were used to study the relationships between BCS, live weight (LW), body composition and fat partition. Ewes were slaughtered and their kidney knob and channel fat (KKCF), sternal fat (STF) and omental plus mesenteric fat (OMF) were separated and weighed. Left sides of carcasses as well as the respective lumbar joints were then dissected into muscle, bone and subcutaneous (SCF) and intermuscular fat (IMF). The relationship between LW and BCS was studied using data from 1,396 observations on 63 ewes from the same flock and it was found to be linear. Regression analysis was also used to describe the relationships among BCS and/or LW and weights (kg) and percentages in empty body weight (EBW) of dissected tissues. The prediction of weights and percentages in EBW of total fat (TF) and of all fat depots afforded by BCS was better than that provided by LW. Only the weight of muscle and the percentage of bone in the EBW were more efficiently predicted by LW than by BCS. IMF represented the largest fat depot with a BCS of 1 and 2, whereas SCF was the most important site of fat deposition with a BCS of 3 and 4. Allometric coefficients for each fat depot in TF suggest that the fat deposition order in ewes from this breed is: IMF, OMF, SCF and KKCF. Results demonstrate that BCS is a better predictor than LW of body reserves in this breed and that LJ is a suitable anatomical region to evaluate BCS.

A simple method to evaluate body condition score to maintain the optimal body weight in dogs

  • Chun, Ju Lan;Bang, Han Tae;Ji, Sang Yun;Jeong, Jin Young;Kim, Minji;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Lee, Sung Dae;Lee, Yoo Kyung;Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Kim, Ki Hyun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.366-370
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    • 2019
  • Overweight and obesity induce serious health problems that exert negative effects on dog's welfare. Body condition score (BCS) is a common method to evaluate the body fat mass in animals. By palpating and observing fats under the skin it is possible to predict animal's body fat accumulation condition. BCS is also a useful tool to estimate body fat composition in dogs. However, BCS can be subjective when it was performed by non-professionals like pet's owners. To develop a method to avoid the misevaluation of BCS twenty-four Beagles were enrolled and performed BCS evaluation. In addition, the length of chest and abdominal girths were measured. In correlation analysis, the sizes of chest and abdominal girth were significantly correlated with BCS. Especially, the difference and ratio of the chest and abdominal length were highly correlated with the BCS. With that, we suggested that this simple measurement of chest and abdominal girths by a measuring tape would be an effective method to estimate BCS scores in dogs that helps non-professionals to manage their own dog's nutritional condition by monitoring body fat accumulation condition.

Estimates of Parameters for Genetic Relationship between Reproductive Performances and Body Condition Score of Hanwoo Cows

  • Choi, S.B.;Lee, J.W.;Choy, Y.H.;Na, K.J.;Kim, N.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.909-914
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters of body condition score (BCS) and reproductive traits in Hanwoo cows. DFREML procedures were applied to obtain variance-covariance components and heritability estimates with single or two-trait models. Estimates of phenotypic correlations of BCS at service with BCS at calving was 0.16 and 0.26 with calving interval, 0.08 with gestation length, and 0.06 with number of services per conception, respectively. Estimates of phenotypic correlation of BCS at calving was 0.10 with calving interval, 0.13 with gestation length, and 0.10 with number of services per conception, respectively. Estimates of phenotypic correlation were low and negative, -0.11 between calving interval and gestation length and -0.13 between gestation length and number of services per conception. Estimates of direct genetic correlation were -0.06, between BCS at service and BCS at calving, 0.37 between BCS at service and BCS at weaning, and -0.18 between BCS at calving and BCS at weaning. Estimates of direct genetic correlation of days from calving to the 1st service were 0.17 with number of services per conception and -0.21 with BCS at service. Estimates of direct genetic correlation for BCS at calving were -0.02 with number of services per conception and -0.08 with BCS at service. Estimates of direct genetic correlation for BCS at weaning were 0.02 with number of services per conception and -0.07 with BCS at service. Estimates of direct heritability from single trait analyses were 0.13 for BCS at service, 0.20 for BCS at calving, 0.02 for BCS at weaning, and 0.20 for number of service per conception, respectively. Estimates of direct heritability were 0.20 for birth weight and 0.10 for weaning weight.

Blood Urea Nitrogen and Body Condition Score on Reproductive Efficiency in Korean Cattle (한우 번식효율에 대한 Blood Urea Nitrogen과 Body Condition Score의 영향)

  • 정영훈;이명식;전기준;장선식;서국현;박정준;이창우;나기준;노규진
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2004
  • The environmental impact of nutrient waste from agriculture has become an area of concern as ways to produce more food and of offspring. In dairy cattle, as the genetic capacity for milk production has increased, decreased fertility has become a severe problem by feeding high dietary protein, resulting in high concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN). There are numerous reports on BUN which is associated with reduced conception rates and closely related to body condition score (BCS) in lactating cattle, but not in Korean native cattle. This study was therefore performed to investigate the relation of BUN to both BCS and conception rates in Korean cattle. A total of 400 female Korean cattle (2∼5 years) in Daewanryong were used for this experiment. Feeding condition divided into two groups depending on grazing and darn feeding period. In grazing period, the mixture of Timothy, Orchard grass and Tall fescue, and concentrates (2.5 kg/day) was fed whereas hay (6.5 kg/day) and corn silage (20 kg/day) were fed while barn feeding period. Average BUN concentration at grazing and barn feeding were 7.39$\pm$2.65 mg/㎗ and 12.36$\pm$2.92 mg/㎗, respectively. During grazing period, high rates of pregnancy showed at 4∼8 mg/㎗ BUN concentration. In barn feeding period, 66%, of cattle were in pregnant at 8∼l4 mg/㎗ BUN concentration. The BCS for obtaining high rate of pregnancy raged at 2.5∼3.5. However, BUN did not directly relate to BCS in Korean cattle.

Influence of body condition score at calving on the metabolic status and production performance of Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during the transition period

  • Delfino, Nelson Carvalho;de Aragao Bulcao, Lucas Fialho;Alba, Henry Daniel Ruiz;da Silva Oliveira, Mauricio Xavier;de Queiroz, Filipe Pinheiro Soares;de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto;Renno, Francisco Palma;de Freitas, Jose Esler Junior
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1756-1765
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition score (BCS) at calving on the metabolic status of female Murrah buffaloes in the transition period. Methods: Thirty-seven pregnant buffaloes (multiparous) were selected and monitored during the transition period based on their body condition score and on the estimated calving date. Two groups were formed: i) buffaloes with a BCS>3.5 (n = 17); this group was classified and named 'high BCS at calving' (HBCS); and ii) buffaloes with a $BCS{\leq}3.5$ (n = 20); this group was classified and named 'low BCS at calving' (LBCS). All animals were monitored during the last 30 days of pregnancy and the first 70 days post-calving and kept in the same environment and under the same feeding and management conditions. Mean values for BCS at calving were $2.98{\pm}0.9$ (mean${\pm}$standard error of the mean [SEM]) and $4.21{\pm}0.9$ (mean${\pm}$SEM) for the HBCS and LBCS groups, respectively. Results: The HBCS group showed higher milk fat content (p = 0.007) and milk fat yield (p = 0.027) and a higher concentration of milk urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) than LBCS buffaloes, which in turn had a lower urine pH value (p = 0.033) than HBCS buffaloes in the pre-calving period (7.86 for HBCS vs 7.76 for LBCS). The HBCS animals had a higher concentration of erythrocytes (p = 0.001) and hematocrit (p = 0.012) post-calving and a higher hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.004) pre-calving. Conclusion: Buffaloes during the transition period exhibited some variations in the oxidative stress related to their metabolic status. After calving, buffaloes with a high BCS at calving and greater lipid mobilization have a more marked alteration in oxidative status, but improved production performance.