• Title, Summary, Keyword: Brain mapping

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Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Drug Resistant Depressed Patients (치료 저항성 우울증 환자에서 반복적 경두개 자기자극후 국소뇌혈류 변화)

  • Chung, Yong-An;Yoo, Ie-Ryung;Kang, Bong-Joo;Chae, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Hye-Won;Moon, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Sohn, Hyung-Sun;Chung, Soo-Kyo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has recently been clinically applied in the treatment of drug resistant depressed patients. There are mixed findings about the efficacy of rTMS on depression. Furthermore, the influence of rTMS on the physiology of the brain is not clear. We prospectively evaluated changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between pre- and post-rTMS treatment in patients with drug resistant depression. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with drug-resistant depression (7 male, 5 female; age range: $19{\sim}52$ years; mean age: $29.3{\pm}9.3$ years) were given rTMS on right prefrontal lobe with low frequency (1 Hz) and on left prefrontal lobe with high frequency (20 Hz), with 20-minute-duration each day for 3 weeks. Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT was obtained before and after rTMS treatment. The changes of cerebral perfusion were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM; t=3.14, uncorrected p<0.01, voxel=100). Results: Following areas showed significant increase in rCBF after 3 weeks rTMS treatment: the cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus of right temporal lobe, precuneus, and left lateral globus pallidus. Significant decrement was noted in: the precental and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, and fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe. Conclusion: Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased and decreased rCBF in the specific brain regions in drug-resistant depressed patients. Further analyses correlating clinical characteristics and treatment paradigm with functional imaging data may be helpful in clarifying the pathophysiology of drug-resistant depressed patients.

Evidence of Cortical Reorganization in a Monoparetic Patient with Cerebral Palsy Detected by Combined Functional MRI and TMS

  • Kwon, Yong-Hyun;Jang, Sung-Ho;Lee, Mi-Young;Byun, Woo-Mok;Cho, Yoon-Woo;Ahn, Sang-Ho
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.96-103
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    • 2005
  • The motor recovery mechanism of a 21-year-old male monoparetic patient with cerebral palsy, who had complained of a mild weakness on his right hand since infancy, was examined using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). The patient showed mild motor impairment on the right hand. MRI located the main lesion on the left precentral knob of the brain. fMRI was performed on this patient as well as 8 control subjects using the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent technique at 1.5 T with a standard head coil. The motor activation task consisted of finger flexionextension exercises at 1 Hz cycles. TMS was carried out using a round coil. The anterior portion of the coil was applied tangentially to the scalp at a 1.0 cm separation. Magnetic stimulation was carried out with the maximal output. The Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) from both Abductor Pollicis Brevis muscles (APB) were obtained simultaneously. fMRI revealed that the unaffected (right) primary sensori-motor cortex (SM1), which was centered on precentral knob, was activated by the hand movements of the control subjects as well as by the unaffected (left) hand movements of the patient. However, the affected(right) hand movements of the patient activated the medial portion of the injured precentral knob of the left SM1. The optimal scalp site for the affected (right) APB was located at 1 cm medial to that of the unaffected (left) APB. When the optimal scalp site was stimulated, the MEP characteristics from the affected (right) APB showed a delayed latency, lower amplitude, and a distorted figure compared with that of the unaffected (left) APB. Therefore, the motor function of the affected (right) hand was shown to be reorganized in the medial portion of the injured precentral knob.

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