• Title/Summary/Keyword: Brain plasticity

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Brain Plasticity and Stroke Rehabilitation (뇌가소성과 뇌졸중 재활)

  • Kim, Sik-Hyun
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This article reviewed the advances in the understanding of the effect of motor rehabilitation and brain plasticity on functional recovery after CNS damage. Methods : This is literature study with Pubmed, Medline and Science journal. Results : The inability of CNS neurons to regenerate is largely associated with nonneuronal aspects of the CNS environment. Especially, this neuronal growth inhibition is mediated by myelin associated glycoprotein, olygodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein, and NOGO. Enriched environment, motor learning, forced limb use have been utilized in scientific studies to promote functional reorganization and brain plasticity. Especially, enriched environment and motor enrichment may prime the brain to respond more adaptively to injury, in part by expressed neurotrophic factors. Conclusions : These reviews suggest that activity-induced neural plasticity occur in damaged brain areas in order to functional reorganization, where it could contribute to motor recovery, and represent a target for stroke rehabilitation.

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Memory Rehabilitation in the Elderly: A Theoretical Review (노인의 기억 재활: 이론적 개관)

  • Park, Min
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.925-940
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    • 2008
  • As the proportion of old people in contemporary societies steadily increases, the influence on cognitive rehabilitation strategy of the memory deficit associated with normal and pathological aging grows greater as well. This paper reviewed the current memory rehabilitation techniques for older adults. In the first part of this article, human memory systems as a framework for understanding memory aging were considered. In the second part, research findings concerning memory performance in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease were reviewed. Finally, recent evidence for the kinds of memory rehabilitation procedures with proven efficacy were offered. The existent memory rehabilitation technique have focused on prompt of residual explicit memory, use of preserved implicit memory, utilization of memory external memory aids. A suggestion of memory training based on brain plasticity as a novel approach is offered.

Development of training-education system for early childhood and adolescence (청소년의 인지능력 훈련을 위한 운동-학습 시스템의 개발)

  • Choi, Jung-Hyeon;Park, Jun-Ho;Yoon, Ji-Sook;Seo, Jae-Yong;Pakr, Chan-Hong
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 2020
  • With the importance of creative learning highly valued, the demand for education in early childhood and adolescence has been increasing in recent years, but simple memorization-oriented and classical teaching methods tend not to prove high effectiveness in terms of learner-centeredness. Students who study static at their desks for a long time do not prefer boring classical learning methods, and there is also a lack of educational methods and educational content that conforms to the convergence education trend in the actual educational field. Therefore, this study has created a system that allows students to exercise and learn at the same time through a fun and familiar approach, and implement educational content through activation of brain plasticity.

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Feasibility of Virtual Reality for Enhancement of Upper Extremity Function Post Stroke (작업치료 임상에서 뇌졸중 환자의 상지기능 향상을 위한 가상현실 치료의 유용성에 관한 고찰)

  • Kwon, Jae-Sung;Yang, No-Yul
    • Therapeutic Science for Rehabilitation
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this review was to investigate feasibility of intensive virtual reality training to improve upper extremity function with brain plasticity of individuals with stroke through the literature. The recovery of the paretic upper extremity depends on regularity and intensity of training as use-dependent plasticity. In resent, virtual reality program has been widely used in the occupational therapy field of augmented stroke rehabilitation. There is a growing body of evidence that virtual reality training of the paretic extremity induces brain plasticity associated with motor improvement. In terms of therapeutic feasibility to improve paretic upper extremity, recent research has explored several important factors of virtual reality training for recovery of upper extremity motor function. These factors include high repetition intensity, high motivation like type of game, enhanced multisensory feedback regarding performance, and interactive task-oriented training. Therefore, occupational therapy combined with intensive and repetitive virtual reality training will enhance recovery of upper extremity motor function after stroke.

Functional Reorganization Associated with Semantic Language Processing in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients after Anterior Temporal Lobectomy: A Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Image Study

  • Kim, Jae-Hun;Lee, Jong-Min;Kang, Eun-Joo;Kim, June-Sic;Song, In-Chan;Chung, Chun-Kee
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2010
  • Objective: The focus of this study is brain plasticity associated with semantic aspects of language function in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) Methods: Using longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), patterns of brain activation were observed in twelve left and seven right unilateral mTLE patients during a word-generation task relative to a pseudo-word reading task before and after anterior temporal section surgery. Results: No differences were observed in precentral activations in patients relative to normal controls (n = 12), and surgery did not alter the phonological-associated activations. The two mTLE patient groups showed left inferior prefrontal activations associated with semantic processing (word-generation>pseudo-word reading), as did control subjects. The amount of semantic-associated activation in the left inferior prefrontal region was negatively correlated with epilepsy duration in both patient groups. Following temporal resection, semantic-specific activations in inferior prefrontal region became more bilateral in left mTLE patients, but more left-lateralized in right mTLE patients. The longer the duration of epilepsy in the patients, the larger the increase in the left inferior prefrontal semantic-associated activation after surgery in both patient groups. Semantic activation of the intact hippocampus, which had been negatively correlated with seizure frequency, normalized after the epileptic side was removed. Conclusion: These results indicate alternation of semantic language network related to recruitment of left inferior prefrontal cortex and functional recovery of the hippocampus contralateral to the epileptogenic side, suggesting an intra- and inter-hemispheric reorganization following surgery.

An Integrational Approach for Culinary Education based on Brain-based Teaching Principle (뇌학습 원리에 기초한 조리교육을 위한 통합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Jeong-Ae
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.144-155
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to explore the direction of culinary education based brain-based education with analysis of comprehensive research. Questionnaire was completed by frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis and regression analysis by using SPSS 21. The purpose of this study was to investigate the educational system for creative development through cooking sources and to develop brain-based learning theory, and thus to generate the characteristics and effects of the practice in culinary educational context. The basic principles of brain- based learning are brain plasticity, emotional brain, and ecological brain. Students need to be able to enrich their understanding of social interaction so that social brain's function will be activated through consistent and high-quality feedback. Likewise, students should be capable of collecting everything what they have learned. Defining main ideas and goal of the lesson, four factors were derived from development of competency, personality, application, and diversity. Regarding to the result of this study, the implications for the development of a brain-base program were suggested.

Emerging roles of 14-3-3γ in the brain disorder

  • Cho, Eunsil;Park, Jae-Yong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.53 no.10
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    • pp.500-511
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    • 2020
  • 14-3-3 proteins are mostly expressed in the brain and are closely involved in numerous brain functions and various brain disorders. Among the isotypes of the 14-3-3 proteins, 14-3-3γ is mainly expressed in neurons and is highly produced during brain development, which could indicate that it has a significance in neural development. Furthermore, the distinctive levels of temporally and locally regulated 14-3-3γ expression in various brain disorders suggest that it could play a substantial role in brain plasticity of the diseased states. In this review, we introduce the various brain disorders reported to be involved with 14-3-3γ, and summarize the changes of 14-3-3γ expression in each brain disease. We also discuss the potential of 14-3-3γ for treatment and the importance of research on specific 14-3-3 isotypes for an effective therapeutic approach.

Evolutionary Developmental Perspectives on Child Development (아동발달에 대한 진화 발달적 관점)

  • Shin, HyeEun;Choi, Kyoung-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.185-204
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    • 2005
  • This paper demonstrated how application of evolutionary knowledge to developmental perspectives enhances understanding of human ontogeny. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology (EDP) explains human behavior through evolutionary principles and focuses on ontogeny rather than phylogeny. In this paper, the authors review concepts of evolution, adaptations, and the processes of evolution from EDP perspectives. The definition and basic assumptions of EDP are introduced, followed by explanations of how evolution happens in ontogeny by looking at developmental systems approaches, concepts of ontogenetic and deferred adaptations, evolution of childhood, and brain plasticity. Possible pathways of evolution in ontogeny are also discussed. Finally, some research methodology for applying EDP to child development is suggested with specific hypotheses and studies.

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Medial Reorganization of Primary Motor Cortex in Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury: a fMRI Case Study (외상성 뇌손상 환자에서 대뇌피질의 재조직화: 사례보고)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Kwon, Yong-Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.421-428
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    • 2005
  • The tenn 'Brain plasticity' has been identified that our central nervous system is continuously being adapted and modulated according to environmental needs and demands, and has been used to encompass the multifarious mechanisms related to learning, development, and recovery from damage to the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate cortical reorganization in a 26-year-old right-handed hemiparetic patient with traumatic primary motor cortex (M1) injury, using functional MRI (fMRI). The unaffected (left) primary sensori-motor cortex centered on the precentral knob was activated during unaffected (right) hand movements. However, the medial area of the injured M1 was activated during affected (left) hand movements. It seems that the motor function of the affected hand in this patient was reorganized into the medial area of the injured precentral knob. These investigations provide a great useful information and clinical evidences with the specialized clinician in stroke physical therapy about patient's prognosis and therapeutic guidelines.

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