• Title, Summary, Keyword: CT 값

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Study for Automatic Exposure Control Technique (AEC) in SPECT/CT for Reducing Exposure Dose and Influencing Image Quality (SPECT/CT에서 자동노출제어(AEC)를 이용함으로써 얻어지는 영상의 질 평가와 피폭선량 감소에 관한 고찰)

  • Yoon, Seok-Hwan;Lee, Sung-Hwan;Cho, Seong-Wook;Kim, Jin-Eui
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2014
  • Purpose Auto exposure control (AEC) in SPECT/CT automatically controls the exposure dose (mA) according to patient's shape and size. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AEC in SPECT/CT on exposure dose reduction and image quality. Materials and Methods The model of SPECT/CT used in this study was Discovery 670 (GE, USA), Smart mA for AEC; and $^{99m}Tc$ as a radioisotope. To compare SPECT and CT images by CT exposure dose variation, we used a standard technique set at 80, 100, 120, 140 kVp, 10, 30, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mA, and AEC at 80, 100, 120, 140 kVp, 10-250 mA. To evaluate resolution and contrast of SPECT images, triple line phantom and flangeless Esser PET phantom were used. For CT images, noise and uniformity were checked by anthropomrphic chest phantom. For dose evaluation to find DLP value, anthropomorphic chest phantom was used and the CT protocol of torso was applied by standard technique (120 kVp, 100 mA) and AEC (120 kVp, 10-250 mA). Results When standard and AEC were applied, the resolutions at SPECT images with attenuation correction (AC) were the same as FWHM by center 3.65 mm, left 3.48 mm, right 3.61 mm. Contrasts of standard and AEC showed no significant difference: standard 53.5, 29.8, 22.5, 15.8, 6.0, AEC 53.5, 29.6, 22.4, 15.7, 6.1 In CT images, noise values at standard and AEC were 15.4 and 18.5 respectively. The application of AEC increases noise but the value of coefficient variation were 33.8, 24.9 respectively, obtaining uniform noise image. The values of DLP at standard and AEC were 426.78 and 352.09 each, which shows that the application of AEC decreases exposure dose more than standard by approximately 18%. Conclusion The results of our study show that there was no difference of AC in SPECT images based on the CT exposure dose variation at SPECT/CT images. It was found that the increased CT exposure dose leads to the improvement of CT image quality but also increases the exposure dose. Thus, the use of AEC in SPECT/CT contributes to obtaining equal AC SPECT images, and uniform noise in CT images while reducing exposure dose.

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A Study on the exposure dose for the computed tomography (컴퓨터 단층촬영시 환자피폭선량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Moon-Chan;Lim, Jong-Suck;Park, Hyung-Ro;Kim, You-Hyun
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to estimate absorbed radiation doses associated with CT examinations. We compared CT dose index between single detector CT and multi detector CT. To establish radiation dose criteria in CT examination in Korea, we measured radiation dose for CT examinations in Seoul and kyungki-do. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. Averaged CTDIW value per 100 mAs was $13.5{\pm}3.2\;mGy$, and ranged from 8.1 mGy to 19.1 mGy in head phantom, was $7.1{\pm}2.0\;mGy$, and ranged from 3.7 mGy to 10.9 mGy in body phantom. 2. CTDIW was 3.2 mGy(1.26 times) larger in multi detector CT than single detector CT in head phantom, and 2.1 mGy(1.34 times) larger in body phantom. 3. The dose was the highest in 4 channel multi detector CT, and followed 8 channel multi detector CT, 16 channel multi detector CT and single detector CT in head phantom. And the dose was the highest in 4 channel and 8 channel multi detector CT, and followed 16 channel multi detector CT and single detector CT in body phantom.

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Research on the Reduction of Exposure Dose of a Patient Having a PET/CT Exam (PET/CT 검사 환자의 피폭선량 경감을 위한 연구)

  • Kim, Bong-Su;Pyo, Sung-Jai;Cho, Yong-Gyi;Shin, Chai-Ho;Cho, Jin-Woo;Kim, Chang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: As the number of patients has increased since the installation of a PET/CT, we are now examining about 2500-3000 annually. We have realized that if we properly adjust a pitch under the same condition of a CT during a PET/CT exam, radiation quantity that reaches the patient can change. In order to reduce the exposure dose of a patient, the research examines a method of reducing the exposure dose of a patient by controlling the pitch during a PET/CT exam, viewing whether the adjustment of the pitch influences CT image and PET SUV. Methods: The equipment used is a Biograph Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanner (CT type: TRCT-240-130 (WCT-240-130)) of Siemens company. For the evaluation of exposure dose of a patient, we measured radiation quantities using a PTW-DIADOS 11003/1383, which is a CT radiation measurement instrument used by Siemens. We measured and analyzed the space resolutions of CT images caused by the change of pitches using an AAPM Standard Phantom in order to see how the adjustment of pitches influenced the CT images. In addition, in order to obtain SUVs caused by each change of pitches using a PET source made with a solid radioactive cylinder phantom, we confirmed whether the SUVs changed in the PET/CT images by calculating the SUVs of the fusion images caused by the change of pitches after obtaining CT and PET images and finishing the test. Results: 2slice CT scanner showed that radiation quantities largely dropped when pitches ranged from 0.7 to 1.3 and that the reduction of radiation quantities were smaller when pitches ranged from 1.5 to 1.9. That is, we found that the bigger pitch values are the smaller the radiation quantities of a patient are. Moreover, we realized that there is no change of SUVs caused by the increase of pitches and that pitch values do not influence PET SUVs and the quality of CT images. It is judged that using 1.5 as a pitch value contributes to the reduction of exposure dose of a patient as long as there is no problem in the quality of an image. Conclusions: When seeing the result of the research, hospital using a PET/CT should make an effort to reduce the exposure dose of a patient seeking pitch values appropriate for their hospital within the range in which there is no image distortion and PET SUVs are not influenced from pitches. We think that the research can apply to all multi-detectors having a CT scanner and that such a research will be needed for other equipments in the future.

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A segmentation method of abnormal liver using abdominal CT images (복부 CT 영상을 이용한 비정상 간의 세그멘테이션 기법)

  • Seong, Won;Park, Jong-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.646-648
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    • 2003
  • 일반적으로 복부 CT 영상에서 간암이나 다른 병변들을 갖고 있는 않은 정상 간은 고른 그레이값 분포 범위를 가지고 있다. 그 그레이값 범위는 대개 90 에서 92 사이의 값이다. 그러나. 복부 CT 영상에서 간암이나 여러 병변들을 가지고 있는 비정상간의 경우는 정상간의 경우와 같이 90 에서 92 사이의 일정 간격의 그레이값들만으로 구성되어 있지 않다. 비정상간의 경우는 병변들로 인하여 건강한 간의 실질 부분의 그레이값만을 나타내지는 못하기 때문이다. 이는 복부 CT 영상에서 간 부분을 세그멘테이션할 때 정상간 부분과 비정상간 부분의 세그멘테이션 방식이 다를 수 있음을 말해준다. 보통 기존에 있는 정상간의 세그멘테이션 기법은 위치 정보와 함께 일정 간격의 그레이값 분포 정보를 이용하여 수월하게 간을 세그멘테이션 했다. 그러나, 이 방식은 비정상간을 세그멘테이션하지 못하는 경우가 대부분이다. 본 연구는 간의 위치 정보, 거리 정보를 이용하고 각도선 조절 기법 등을 사용하여 비정상간을 세그멘테이션하였다. 그리하여, 본 연구는 세그멘테이션이 어려운 간암 보유 복부 CT 영상에 적용되어 효과적인 간의 세그멘테이션을 가능하게 하였다.

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Radiation Dose using Chest CT for Patients with Pneumoconiosis Complication - Comparison with International Guidelines - (진폐요양환자의 흉부 CT촬영에 사용된 선량 - 국내외 진단 참고 준위와 비교 -)

  • Lee, Won-Jeong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.206-212
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    • 2014
  • We report here on the results of evaluating the radiation doses using chest computed tomography (CT) for patients with pneumoconiosis complication. For the first time, we visited the 17 MIPs to evaluate the dose-length product (DLP, $mGy{\cdot}cm$), CT unit, and protocols of scanning and image reconstruction those is routinely used for treating patients with pneumoconiosis who have complication. All statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS ver. 19.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Mean of total DLP was $727.7mGy{\cdot}cm$, ranging from 272.0 to $1228.7mGy{\cdot}cm$. DLP from obtaining parenchymal lung images was significantly reduced than that from obtaining total lung images (555.9 vs. 707.2, p<0.001). Third quartile of total and pre-scanning DLP was 1036.1 and $504.1mGy{\cdot}cm$, respectively. Chest CT radiation doses for patients with pneumoconiosis complication are similar with korean diagnostic reference level as well as international guidelines.

The Effect of Intravenous Contrast on SUV Value in $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT using Diagnostic High Energy CT (진단용 고선량 CT를 이용한 $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT 촬영시 정맥 조영제가 SUV 값에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Young-Jin;Kang, Do-Young
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: According to the development of CT scanner in PET/CT system, the role of CT unit as a diagnostic tool has been more important. To improve the diagnostic ability of CT scanner, it is a key aspect that CT scanning has to be performed with high dose energy and intravenous (IV) contrast. So we investigated the effect of IV contrast media on the maximum SUV (maxSUV) of normal tissues and pathologic lesions using PET/CT scanner with high dose CT scanning. Materials & Methods: The study enrolled 13 patients who required PET/CT evaluation. At first, the patients were performed whole body non-contrast CT (NCCT-120 kVp, 130 mAs) scan. Then contrast enhanced CT (CECT) scan was performed immediately. Finally PET scan was followed. The PET omission data were reconstructed twice, once with the NCCT and again with the CECT. We measured the maxSUV of 10 different body regions that were considered as normal in ail patients. Also pathologic lesions were investigated. Results: There were not seen focal artifacts in PET images based on CT with IV contrast agent. Firstly, 130 normal regions in 13 patients were evaluated. The maxSUV was significantly different between two PET images (p<0.00)). The maxSUV was $1.1{\pm}0.5$ in PET images with CECT-corrected attenuation and $1.0{\pm}0.5$ in PET images with NCCI-corrected attenuation. The limit of agreement was $0.1{\pm}0.3$ in Bland-Altman analysis. Especially there were significant differences in 6 of 10 regions, apex and base of the right lung, ascending aorta, segment 6 & segment 8 of the liver and spleen (p<0.05). Secondly, 39 pathologic lesions were evaluated. The maxSUV was significantly different between two PET images (p<0.001). The maxSUV was $4.7{\pm}2.0$ in PET images with CECT-corrected attenuation and $4.4{\pm}2.0$ in PET images with NCCT-corrected attenuation. The limit of agreement was $0.4{\pm}0.8$ in Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusion: Although there were increases of maxSUVs in the PET images based on CT with IV contrast agent, it was very narrow in the range of limit of agreement. So there was no significant effect to clinical interpretation for PET images that were corrected attenuation with high dose CT using IV contrast.

The CT values Comparisons for Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Resistant Genes by Chlorination (항생제 내성균 및 유전자제거를 위한 염소 CT 값 비교)

  • Oh, Jun-Sik;Kim, Sungpyo
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.269-274
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to compare CT (disinfectant concentration * time) values in removing the antibiotic resistance bacteria, antibiotic resistance gene and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. Different concentration of chlorine(C) and contact time(T) according to the removal of antibiotic resistance was calculated for each. As a result, for the 90% removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria, around 176~353 mg min/L CT values are needed. For the removal of the antibiotic resistance gene, 195~372 mg min/L CT values are required. For the 90% reduction of antibiotic resistance gene transfer by chlorine disinfection, 187~489 mg min/L CT values are needed. Based on our results, higher CT value was required for removing antibiotic resistant genes rather than antibiotic resistance bacteria.

Changes in the Standardized Uptake Value According to the Type of Metal of Dental Prosthesis in PET-CT Fusion Image (PET-CT 융합 영상에서 치과보철물의 금속 종류에 따른 표준섭취계수 값의 변화)

  • Han, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.9 no.9
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 2018
  • In this study, HU(hounsfield unit) value of CT generated by dental prosthesis was measured according to the type of metal when PET-CT was performed, and the degree of distortion and standard deviation of SUV(standard uptake value) and to propose a method to reduce errors in image reading. PET-CT was performed using actual teeth, metal crown, gold crown, titanium, and zirconia dental prosthesis. Compared with general teeth, the SUV value increased with increasing HU value. The SUV value of metal crown, titanium, and zirconia was increased by 37% and the gold crown increased by 45.4%. In addition, image distortions were small in general teeth, metal crown, titanium, and zirconia, but hard curing of the gold crown occurred and image distortion occurred. Therefore, since the metal type of the dental prosthesis affects the SUV value, the NAC(non attenuation correction) PET image of the dental prosthesis can be helpful in the diagnosis of the patient using the gold material.

On the usefulness of RTS/CTS in wireless ad-hoc networks (무선 Ad-hoc 네트워크에서 RTS/CTS의 사용여부에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Mo-Ses;Mo, Jeong-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.310-312
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    • 2005
  • 무선 Ad-hoc 네트워크상에서 hidden node problem을 해결하기 위해 도입된 RTS/CTS의 사용여부는 네트워크의 처리량(throughput)에 영향을 미친다. 이는 RTS/CTS가 hidden node problem을 해결해주지만 거기에서 발생하는 overhead 때문에 처리량이 떨어질 수도 있기 때문이다. 기존 관련 연구에서는 RTS/CTS의 사용여부를 패킷의 크기에 따라 달리 해야 한다고 말하고 있다. 그리고 이를 구현하기 위해서 RTSThreshold라는 값을 사용하고 있다. 만약 이 값보다 패킷의 크기가 작으면 RTS/CTS는 사용 되지 않고, 만약 이 값보다 패킷의 크기가 크면 RTS/CTS가 사용된다. 이렇게 RTS/CTS의 사용여부를 결정해주는 RTSThreshold값을 결정하기 위해선 네트워크의 처리량에 영향을 줄 수 있는 모든 인자들을 고려해 보아야 할 것이다. 조사한 바에 의하면 이미 관련 연구에서 physical preamble의 크기, 노드의 수, 그리고 data rate와 RTSThreshold와의 관계를 연구 했었지만, 그밖에 네트워크의 처리량에 영향을 줄 수 있는 carrier sense range나 네트워크의 크기와의 관계는 연구가 되지 않았었다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 이 두가지 인자와 RISThreshold와의 관계를 살펴보고자 모의실험을 수행하였고 그 결과를 분석하였다. 두 인자가 어느 정도 RTSThreshold를 결정하는데 영향을 줄 것이라 예상했었지만, 실험 결과를 분석한 결과 carrier sense range나 네트워크의 크기는 RTSThreshold를 결정하는데 크게 영향을 주지 않는 것으로 나타났다.

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The Effect of Metallic Dental Implant on Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography Image (금속성 치아충전물이 PET/CT영상이 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ki-Jin;Bae, Seok-Hwan;Han, Sang-Hyun;Yu, Se-Jong;Lee, Bo-Woo
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.243-247
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    • 2012
  • Beam hardening artifact happens in the CT image. when a PET/CT is conducted while there is a metallic dental implant. The artifact appears in the CT image can affect the PET image. When the patient with head and neck cancer has a metallic dental implant, Beam hardening artifact which was taken in th CT image can change the PET image and SUV value. Therefore, by Quantitative measure of the SUV according to the change in HU by the metallic dental implant, the appropriacy in the clinical application was assessed. The records of 47 patients with PET/CT August 2011. For the analysis, 2 region of interest were defined in area where CT and PET image. As a result of the experiment, if there in an implant, the HU and the SUV increased and there existed a statistically significant difference(p<0.01). Although this level of increase was not large compared with that in the patient who have no metallic dental implant, when a person has head and neck cancer, it is even more likely to be overestimated when diagnosing the cancer. When conducting PET/CT for the patient who have head and neck cancer, the physical biological parts should be considered in order not to make an error in decoding.