• Title, Summary, Keyword: CTE

### CTE with weighted portfolios (가중 포트폴리오에서의 CTE)

• Hong, Chong Sun;Shin, Dong Sik;Kim, Jae Young
• Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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• v.28 no.1
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• pp.119-130
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• 2017
• In many literatures on VaR and CTE for multivariate distribution, these are estimated by using transformed univariate distribution with a specific ratio of many kinds of portfolios. Even though there are lots of works to define quantiles for multivariate distributions, there does not exist a quantile uniquely. Hence, it is not easy to define the VaR and CTE. In this paper, we propose the weighted CTE vectors corresponding to various ratio combinations of many kinds of portfolios by extending the researches on the alternative VaR and integrated multivariate CTE based on multivariate quantiles. We extend relation equations about univariate CTEs to multivariate CTE vectors and discuss their characteristics. The proposed weighted CTEs are explored with some data from multivariate normal distribution and illustrative examples.

### Multivariate conditional tail expectations (다변량 조건부 꼬리 기대값)

• Hong, C.S.;Kim, T.W.
• The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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• v.29 no.7
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• pp.1201-1212
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• 2016
• Value at Risk (VaR) for market risk management is a favorite method used by financial companies; however, there are some problems that cannot be explained for the amount of loss when a specific investment fails. Conditional Tail Expectation (CTE) is an alternative risk measure defined as the conditional expectation exceeded VaR. Multivariate loss rates are transformed into a univariate distribution in real financial markets in order to obtain CTE for some portfolio as well as to estimate CTE. We propose multivariate CTEs using multivariate quantile vectors. A relationship among multivariate CTEs is also derived by extending univariate CTEs. Multivariate CTEs are obtained from bivariate and trivariate normal distributions; in addition, relationships among multivariate CTEs are also explored. We then discuss the extensibility to high dimension as well as illustrate some examples. Multivariate CTEs (using variance-covariance matrix and multivariate quantile vector) are found to have smaller values than CTEs transformed to univariate. Therefore, it can be concluded that the proposed multivariate CTEs provides smaller estimates that represent less risk than others and that a drastic investment using this CTE is also possible when a diversified investment strategy includes many companies in a portfolio.

### Effects of Cudrania Tricuspidata Root Extract (CTE) on Ethanol-Induced Hangover via Modulating Alcohol Metabolizing Enzyme Activities and Blood Gas Levels in Rats (꾸지뽕나무 뿌리 추출물의 알코올 대사 효소 활성 및 혈액 산성화 기전 조절을 통한 숙취해소 효과)

• Choi, Na-Eun;Ro, Ju-Ye;Lee, Ju-Yeong;Ryu, Jin-Hyeob;Cho, Hyun-Jeong
• Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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• v.18 no.2
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• pp.218-225
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• 2017
• To investigate the anti-hangover effects of Cudrania tricuspidata root extract (CTE), the blood alcohol metabolism and blood gas imbalance of CTE in rats treated with 10 ml/kg alcohol were examined. CTE (500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg) was administrated after 30 minutes of alcohol consumption (10 ml/kg). Blood collection was implemented from the tails of the animals after 1, 3, and 5 hours post alcohol consumption. The Condition drink (a commercial anti-hangover beverage) was used as a positive control. Single administration by the oral route was performed. The consumption of CTE (500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg) decreased the serum alcohol concentration by increasing and maintaining both the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme activity levels in the blood and liver. In addition, CTE led to recovery from the imbalances in the blood gas levels, including carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) and changes in pH, bicarbonate ($HCO_3{^-}$) and lactic acid levels due to alcohol ingestion. In conclusion, CTE exerted a more pronounced anti-hangover effect than a commercial anti-hangover drink. Therefore, CTE can be a novel and safe anti-hangover natural product agent for the prevention or treatment of symptoms caused by excessive alcohol consumption.

### Cudrania Tricuspidata root extract (CTE) has an anti-platelet effect via cGMP-dependent VASP phosphorylation in human platelets (꾸지뽕나무 뿌리 추출물의 cGMP에 의한 VASP 인산화 기전을 통한 항혈소판 효과)

• Ro, Ju-Ye;Cho, Hyun-Jeong
• Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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• v.20 no.12
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• pp.298-305
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• 2019
• Cudrania tricuspidata has been reported to have many biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties. However, the effects of C. tricuspidata root extract (CTE) on human platelet aggregation induced by collagen as well as the signaling pathways involved remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CTE on human platelets. CTE inhibited platelet aggregation via down-regulation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) by blocking cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) activity and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in collagen-induced platelets. CTE also reduced the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ2 and syk. CTE regulated platelet aggregation via cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) Ser239. In addition, administration of CTE (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced hyper-aggregated platelet aggregation by collagen (5 ㎍/mL) without hepatotoxicity in HFD (high fat diet)-fed rats. Taken together, these results suggest that CTE has anti-platelet effects both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, CTE may be an effective therapeutic and preventive agent for cardiovascular disease, and is a safe and natural product.

### CT Enterography for Surveillance of Anastomotic Recurrence within 12 Months of Bowel Resection in Patients with Crohn's Disease: An Observational Study Using an 8-Year Registry

• Choi, In Young;Park, Sang Hyoung;Park, Seong Ho;Yu, Chang Sik;Yoon, Yong Sik;Lee, Jong Lyul;Ye, Byong Duk;Kim, Ah Young;Yang, Suk-Kyun
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• v.18 no.6
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• pp.906-914
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• 2017
• Objective: To investigate the diagnostic yield and accuracy of CT enterography (CTE) for early (< 12 postoperative months) surveillance of anastomotic recurrence after bowel resection for Crohn's disease (CD). Materials and Methods: We analyzed 88 adults (60 males and 28 females; mean age, $31.4{\pm}9.6$ years) who underwent bowel surgery for CD that created ileocolic anastomosis without enteric stoma, and underwent CTE for surveillance of CD recurrence/aggravation within 12 post-operative months. The CD activity index (CDAI) at the time of CTE was < 150 (i.e., clinically silent) in 51 patients, and ${\geq}150$ in 37 patients. Diagnostic yields of CTE regarding CD recurrence in the ileocolic anastomosis and extraluminal penetrating complications were determined. CTE-related step-up therapy was recorded. These outcomes were compared between the two CDAI groups after accounting for major risk factors for CD recurrence. In a subgroup of 31 patients who underwent both CTE and ileocolonoscopy within 1 month, CTE accuracy for anastomotic recurrence was assessed using the Rutgeerts scoring as the reference standard. Results: CTE diagnostic yield was 35.2% (31/88) for the anastomotic recurrence and 9.1% (8/88) for penetrating complications. 20.5% (18/88) of the patients underwent step-up therapy after CTE detection of anastomotic recurrence. These outcomes were not significantly different between CDAI < 150 and CDAI ${\geq}150$, except that CTE yield for extraluminal penetrating complications was significantly higher in CDAI ${\geq}150$ (16.2% [6/37] vs. 3.9% [2/51]; multivariable-adjusted p = 0.029). CTE showed 92.3% (12/13) sensitivity and 83.3% (15/18) specificity for anastomotic recurrence. Conclusion: CTE may be a viable option for the early postsurgical surveillance of recurred disease in CD patients.

### The Effects of Modified Chin Tuck Exercise on the Cervical Curvature, the Strength and Endurance of the Deep Cervical Flexor Muscles in Subjects with Forward Head Posture

• Kang, Hyojeong;Yang, Hoesong
• Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine
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• v.7 no.2
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• pp.189-195
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• 2019
• Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chin tuck exercise (CTE) on the craniovertebral angle (CVA), strength and endurance of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles in subjects with forward head posture(FHP). This study was performed on 30 subjects with FHP. Method : Thirty subjects were divided into two groups; modified CTE (n=15), conventional CTE (n=15). Both of the group performed the exercise 4 times a week for 6 weeks. The subjects performed CTE in two different methods; modified CTE, with device designed that help keep cervical lordois curve, and coventional CTE, without using device. The CVA was measured using Image software version. A pressure biofeedback unit was used to measure the strength and endurance of the DCF muscles. The data was analyzed by the paired t-test for comparing before and after changes of variables in each group and the independent t-test for comparing the between groups. Result : There was statistically significant difference of before and after strength and endurance of DCF muscles in modified CTE (p<0.05). There was statistically significant difference of before and after only endurance of DCF muscles in conventional CTE (p<0.05). There was statistically significant difference of between the two group in strength of DCF muscles (p<0.05). Conclusion : Muscle strength to stabilize the spine plays an important role in maintaining a good posture. Therefore, we suggest that the application of CTE with a device designed to maintain the lordotic curvature in the neck is likely to yield better outcomes in FHP subjects in future studies.

### Cudrania tricuspidata Suppresses Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Response In Vitro and In Vivo (꾸지뽕나무 추출물의 비만세포 억제에 의한 항알레르기 효과 및 기전)

• Kim, Young-Mi
• YAKHAK HOEJI
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• v.56 no.1
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• pp.26-34
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• 2012
• Mast cells play an important role in early and late phase allergic reactions through allergen and IgE-dependent release of histamine, proteases, prostaglandins, and several multifunctional cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether Cudrania tricuspidata extract (CTE) suppresses IgE-mediated allergic responses in mast cells, an allergic animal model, and its mechanism of action in mast cells. We found that CTE inhibited IgE-mediated degranulation and cytokine production in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), as well as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice. With regard to its mechanism of action, CTE suppressed the activating phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a key enzyme in mast cell signaling processes and that of LAT, a downstream adaptor molecule of Syk in $Fc{\varepsilon}RI$-mediated signal pathways. CTE also suppressed the activating phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Akt. The present results strongly suggest that the anti-allergic activity of CTE is mediated through inhibiting degranulation and allergic cytokine secretion by inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells. Therefore, CTE may be useful for the treatment of allergic diseases.

### Multivariate CTE for copula distributions

• Hong, Chong Sun;Kim, Jae Young
• Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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• v.28 no.2
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• pp.421-433
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• 2017
• The CTE (conditional tail expectation) is a useful risk management measure for a diversified investment portfolio that can be generally estimated by using a transformed univariate distribution. Hong et al. (2016) proposed a multivariate CTE based on multivariate quantile vectors, and explored its characteristics for multivariate normal distributions. Since most real financial data is not distributed symmetrically, it is problematic to apply the CTE to normal distributions. In order to obtain a multivariate CTE for various kinds of joint distributions, distribution fitting methods using copula functions are proposed in this work. Among the many copula functions, the Clayton, Frank, and Gumbel functions are considered, and the multivariate CTEs are obtained by using their generator functions and parameters. These CTEs are compared with CTEs obtained using other distribution functions. The characteristics of the multivariate CTEs are discussed, as are the properties of the distribution functions and their corresponding accuracy. Finally, conclusions are derived and presented with illustrative examples.

### Inhibitory Effects of the Roots of Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau on Osteoclast Differentiation (꾸지뽕나무 뿌리 추출물의 파골세포 분화 억제 효과)

• Kim, Yu-Gyeong;Jeong, Gil-Saeng
• Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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• v.48 no.2
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• pp.155-159
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• 2017
• Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (Moraceae) is a traditional oriental medicine that has been widely used as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory in Korea. This study was performed that the 70% ethanol extract of the roots of C. tricuspidata (CTE) suppressed receptor activator of NF-${\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis, actin ring formation in RAW 264.7 cell lines. CTE significantly inhibited the JNK/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway without affecting ERK and p38 signaling in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Also, CTE inhibited RANKL-induced expression of c-Fos, an upstream activator of NFATc1. Consequently, CTE suppresses osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL induced MAPK signaling pathways and disrupts the actin rings in mature osteoclasts. Thus, CTE can be used for the development of osteoporosis treatment drug with a natural material.

### Evaluation of Temperature-dependency of CTE of Materials for MEMS Using ESPI (ESPI를 이용한 MEMS용 소재의 열팽창 계수 온도 의존성 평가)

• Kim, Dong-Won;Kim, Hong-Jae;Lee, Nak-Kyu;Choi, Tae-Hoon;Na, Kyoung-Hoan;Kwon, Dong-Il
• Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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• pp.1315-1320
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• 2003
• The thermal expansion coefficient, which causes the micro failure at the interfacial state of thin films is necessary to consider for proper designing MEMS. The effect of temperature on the coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) of $SiO_2$ and $Si_3N_4$ film was investigated. Thermal strain induced by mismatch of CTE between substrate and thin film continuously measured with resolution-improved electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI). The thermal stress induced by mismatch of CTE derivate through thermal strain. The thermal expansion coefficients of thin film were calculated with the general equation of CTE and thermal stress in thin films, and it confirmed that CTE of $SiO_2$changed from $0.25{\times}10^{-6}/^{\circ}C$ to $1.4{\times}10^{-6}/^{\circ}C$ with temperature increasing from 50 to $600^{\circ}C$