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Shielding Capability Evaluation of Mobile X-ray Generator through the Production assembled Shield (일체형 방어벽 제작을 통한 이동형 엑스선 발생기의 차폐능 평가)

  • Kim, Seung-Uk;Han, Byeoung-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.895-908
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    • 2018
  • As modern science is developed and advanced, examination and number of times using radiation are increasing daily. General diagnostic X-ray generator is installed on stationary form, But X-ray generator was developed because patient who is in the intensive care unit, operation room, emergency room can not move to general x-ray room. What we examine patient by x-ray generator is certainly necessary, So patient exposure is inevitable. but reducing radiation exposure is highly important matter about radiation technology, guardian, patient in the same hospital room, nurse etc. For this reason, rule regarding safety control of diagnostic x-ray generator revised for radiation worker, patient and protector proclaim that mobile diagnostic x-ray shield must placed in case of examine different location excluding operation room, emergency room, intensive care unit. But, radiogical technologist is having a lot of difficulties to examine with mobile x-ray generator, diagnostic x-ray shield partition, image plate and lead apron. So, when we use x-ray generator, we manufacture shield tools can be attached to the mobile x-ray generator On behalf of x-ray shield partition and conduct analysis and in comparison to part of body and distribution of dose rate and find way to reduce radiation exposure through distribution of dose rate of patient within the radiogical technologist, medical team. Mobile x-ray generator aimed at SHIMADZU inc. R-20, We manufactured equipment for shielding x-ray scattered x-ray by installing shielding wall from side to side based on support beam on the mobile x-ray generator. Shielding wall when moving can be folded and designed to expand when examine. Experiment measured five times in each by an angle for dose rate of eyes, thyroid, breast, abdomen and gonad on exposure condition of upper and lower extremity, chest, abdomen which is examined many times by mobile x-ray generator. We used dosimeter RSM-100 made by IJRAD and measured a horizontal dose rate by body part. The result of an experiment, shielding decreasing rate of the front and the rear showed 77 ~ 98.7%. Therefore using self-production shielding wall reduce scattered x-ray occurrence rate and confirm can decrease exposure dose consequently. Therefore, through this study, reduction result which is used shielding wall of self-production will be a role of shielding optimization and it could be answer about reduction of medical exposure recommended by ICRP 103.

Job Characteristics and Status of Community Occupational Therapist : Focus on OTs in Public Health Centers (지역사회 작업치료사의 업무 특성 및 실태 조사 : 보건소 근무 작업치료사를 중심으로)

  • Min, Kyoung-chul;Kim, Eun-hee;Woo, Hee-soon
    • The Journal of Korean society of community based occupational therapy
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.37-52
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    • 2020
  • Objective : This study was conducted to identify occupational therapists working in public health centers, the characteristics and actual conditions of occupational therapists in the community, and use them as basic data on occupational therapists in the community as of 2020. Methods : 77 questionnaires were replied by e-mail from OTs work at nationwide health public centers. Job characteristics and status were analysed by descriptive statistics and check correlation between job satisfaction and other factors. Results : Most survey respondents were female(77.9%) and 20-30(96.1%).. Some occupational therapists worked for dementia related team(72.7%) and others worked for like visiting care, health care, and rehabilitation center etc. Rate of experiences of public health center was 1-2 years(67.5%), the most common type of contract was flexible part-time worker(61%) and work intensity(94.8%) and satisfaction of work was very high(85.7%). The highest difficulty of their job was budget administrative work(26.7%) and of non-work difficulty was inequality under contracts(27.2%). They usually participated at dementia shelter, visiting OT, group OT. Difficulty of their job was high in budget administration, dementia shelters, and visiting work treatments. Goals of treatment were high in improvement of cognitive ability and, family support. Frequency of treatment was high in improvement of cognitive therapy, family support, and evaluation. Occupational therapy targets for health centers were dementia, the general elderly, and adult brain lesions, including those for ordinary people, psychiatric disorders and children. It was found that the primary occupations for evaluation were nurses (35.7%) and occupational therapists (33.7%), and that MMSE-DS, SGDS, and SMCQ were used a lot. Conclusion : This study could identify the job characteristics and status of community OTs. We hope that this result could be basic data for building expertise and role for community OTs in changing situations like community cares.

Child Rearing Practice of Working Mothers in a Poor Area of Pusan (부산시 영세지역 취업여성들의 영유아 양육실태)

  • Hwang, Yeon-Ja;Park, Jung-Han
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.389-397
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    • 1989
  • To identify the problems in child rearing practice of employed mothers in urban poor area, all of 201 women with children under 6 years old living in Yun San 3 Dong, a poor area of Pusan city, were interviewed with a questionnaire by a trained interviewer from 10th April to 10th May 1989. Among 201 women, 51 women were employed and 150 women were unemployed. Of the employed mothers 78.5% got their jobs because of economical need and 31.4% of them worker for 60-69 hours per week. Their average monthly income was 100,000-190,000 Won in 33.4% and 200,000-290,000 Won in 25.4% Breast milk was fed in 66.0% of the children of unemployed mothers while 49.0 of the children of the employed mothers were breast-fed (p<0.05). The most common reason for not breast feeding was shortage of breast milk among unemployed mothers (58.9%) but that of the employed mothers was their job(63.6%). The basic immunization for children was completed in 70.5% of children of employed mothers as compared with 82.0% of the children of the unemployed mothers were completely immunized (p>0.1). Accident experience rate of children among the employed mothers was 23.5 a and that of the children of the unemployed mothers was 17.3% . The most common cause of acident in children of the unemployed mothers was carelessness while they were playing(34.6%) but in children of the employed mothers it was traffic accident(25.0%) and falling(25.0%). Most of the traffic accidents took place while the children's brother or sister of age under 14 years were baby sitting. When the accident took place 73.1% of the unemployed mothers were just at home, but 58.3% of the employed mothers were out of home for work. In case of the employed mothers, 58.7% of their children were looked after by an adult mainly grandparents, 15.7% by the children's brothers and sisters under 14 years old, and 3.9% of the children were left alone. A majority of the unemployed mothers wanted to get a job if someone could take care of their children. To facilitate the women employment and for the safety and health of the children, good nurseries for working mothers need to be established at a cost they can afford.

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The Characteristics and Medical Utilization of Migrant Workers (외국인 노동자의 특성과 의료이용 실태)

  • Ju, Sun Me
    • Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.164-176
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    • 1998
  • This study deals with the current medical utilization for migrant workers and the characteristics of them. The purpose of this study is to provide the basic information to establish proper medical policy. For the study self-made questionnaire was used, which was answered by 453 migrant workers working in the area of manufacturing and non-technical work in 10 cities like Seoul, Inchon, Namyangju, Sungnam, Kwangju, Pyungchon, Kunpo, Kimpo, Masuk in Kyungki-do and Chunan in Chungchungnam-do. Besides, 303 medical records of those who had visited free medical check-up center were analyzed. The period of accumulating data is 6 months, from November 1st, 1996 to April 30th, 1997. The characteristics of migrant workers and current medical utilization are analyzed by percentage and the relation between characteristics and current medical utilization were analyzed using ${\chi}^2$-test, t-test, ANOVA. The finding of this study was as follows : 1) The number of nationality was 16. The first majority was Philippians as 32.0%. Among 16 nationalities Southeastern and Northern Asians were 48.9%, Southwestern Asian was 46.5%, the rest was 7.3%. Men were 81.0%, those who are aged from 26 to 30 were 39.0%, Graduatee from high school 92.7%, Christians 56.3%, unmarried 55.4% and salary from 600,000 Won to 800,000 Won 53.8% averaging monthly payment 669,810 Won. As for their residence, those who resided over 3 years were 31.9% and the illegal residence reached 77.4%. As for Korean language, those who speak in middle level were 5.6%. 2) As for kind of work and circumstances, manufacturing was 81.1%, 4 off-days per month 72.2% and 9-10 working hours per day 42.1%. As for accommodation, residence in fabric was 62.6% and one or two members as roommate 40.2%. 3) The characteristics of health behavior showed that 89.4% of migrant workers had 3 meals, 70.9% of them did not drink alcohol, 73.5% of them did not smoke. 4) As a characteristic of health status, 71.8% of them perceived of their health. 76.1% thought that they had no illness before coming Korea. Among them who recognized their illness, those who had problem in circulatory system was 35.3%, respiratory system ENT 19.1% and nervous system 19.1%.66.2% of those having illness had already had sickness when coming to Korea. 5) During last one month, 79.2% of them were known as ones having no illness. Among the sick, those who had problem in circulatory system was 31.6%, nervous system 23.7% and respiratory system 21.1%. 60.3% of the sick were not cured at that time. 6) Sorting the symptom of those who visited free medical check up, dental care was 24.2%, orthopedic 14.0% and digestive system 13.8%. Teethache was 34.4%, stomach problem 11.6%, upper respiratory inflammation 10.2% and back pain 5.9%. Averagely they visited free medical check up 1-2 times. According to symptom, epilepsy 25.5 times, heart and vascular disease 9 times, constipation 2.8%, neurosis 2.38 times and stomach problem 2.34 times. 7) The most frequently visited medical service by migrant workers was hospital. The most mentioned reason was good healing as 36.3%. The medical service satisfied migrant workers mostly was hospital as 64.3%. The reason of satisfaction was also good healing as 45.9%. 8) 77.2% of respondents did not spend money for medical check. Average monthly medical cost was 25,100 Won, 3.7% of income. Those who had no medical security was 73.4%. In their case, 67.7% got discount from hospital or support from working place and religious organization. 9) As for the difference of medical utilization according for the characteristics of migrant workers, legal workers and no-Korean speaker used hospital more frequently. 10) Those who were satisfied most of all with the service of hospital were female workers, hinduists and buddhists, legal workers or manufacture workers. 11) Christians, those who have 3 meals or recognize themselves as healthy ones mostly had no illness. As a result, the most of migrant workers in Korea are from Asia. They are good educated but are working in manufacturing and illegal. Their average income is under 700,000 Won which in not enough for medical cost. They have no medical security and medical fee is supported by religious organization or discounted. Considering these facts the medical policy by government is to be established.

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Demands of Education Programs for Evaluation of the Efficacy of Health Functional Foods (건강기능식품 기능성평가 교육요구도에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun-Sook;Kwon, O-Ran;Won, Hye-Suk;Kim, Joo-Hee;Kwak, Jin-Sook;Jeong, Se-Won;Hong, So-Young;Hong, Jin-Hwan;Lee, Hye-Young;Kim, Ji-Yeon;Kang, Yoon-Jung;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.331-337
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of the present study was to survey the demands of an education program for evaluations of the efficacy of health functional foods. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 2,225 members of the Biofood Network Center. A total of 101 (4.6%) individuals responded, 54.5% of the respondents were male and 45.5% were female; the respondents' occupations (in order of prevalence) were as follows: company worker (48.5%)>researcher (27.7%)>student (13.9%)>professor (5.0%)>pharmacist (2%), and dietitian (2%). The businesses in which the respondents worked were (again in order of prevalence) as follows: research & development (64.4%)>marketing (11.9%)>consultation and education (5.9%)>manufacturing and others (17.9%). 41.6% of the respondents reported experience in businesses relevant to KFDA approval for functional ingredients and health functional foods. The results showed that 63.4% of the respondents had previously been educated about functional foods; the types of education program reported were (in order of prevalence): 'overview and acts of health functional food' (n=49)>'standards and specification for health functional food' (n=41)>'efficacy evaluation-human study' (n=24)>'safety evaluation' (n=21)>'efficacy evaluation-in vivo study' (n=13)>and 'others' (n=10). Respondents preferred off-line education programs (62.4%) to on-line programs (22.8%). The preferred duration of an educational program was '$2{\sim}3$ days: total $14{\sim}24$ hours' (30.7%); thus, short-term programs were favored. The primary requirements of a program, from the perspective of the learner, were as follows (scored on a 7-point scale); 'efficacy evaluation and case study-human study' (5.80 points)>'standards and specification for health functional food' (5.72 points)>safety evaluation' (5.7 points)>'overview and acts of health functional food' (5.67 points) and 'efficacy evaluation methods of health functional food by efficacy (intensive)' (5.67 points). Preference for functionality was as follows; 'body weight & body fat' (21.8%), 'immune function' (18.8%) > 'blood glucose' (10.9%). In summary, the educational demand for 'efficacy evaluation and case study' was highest among the curriculum options provided, and with regard to functionality, 'body weight & body fat', 'immune function' and 'skin care' were considered most important by respondents. These results differed among respondents with different jobs and duties, and this suggests that customized education programs for health functional food should be developed.

Current State of Vocational Rehabilitation Program for Individuals with Disabling Mental Illness in Korea (우리나라 정신장애인 직업재활 현황 조사연구)

  • Han, Myung Hun;Kim, Ji-Woong;Kim, Do Yoon;Park, Hye Sun;Park, Hanson;Hwang, Tae-Yeon;Seo, Yongjin;Kim, Seung-Jun;Im, Woo-Young;Lee, Sang Min
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : There has been long lasting trend of deinstitutionalization and public health centered care in management of individuals with disabling mental illness. We aimed to investigate current vocational rehabilitation state and effectiveness of system in korea. Methods : We carried basic survey via telephone and e-mail beforehand to figure out how many and which institutions are operating vocational rehabilitation programs to psychiatric patients. A questionnaire packages were sent to total of 108 institutions in Korea which were operating occupation rehabilitation program. Results : Of 108 institutions, 40.74% were returned with answers. The person in charge of vocational rehabilitation at each institution was mainly mental health social worker(48.8%), and the budget under \1,000,000 was the majority(61.5%) among surveyed institutions. The most commonly used vocational rehabilitation programs was case management(23.1%), followed by psychosocial rehabilitation program(21.2%), and on-the-job training(17.9%). The most effective program was case management(27.4%), followed by psychosocial rehabilitation program(19.8%), on-the-job training(17.9%). The main barrier of occupation rehabilitation to be conducted widely was 'worries about being excluded from beneficiary of National Basic livelihood Protection Act'. Conclusions : Our results suggest that, in spite of high demand in vocational rehabilitation programs, government financial support is still lacking.

The Analysis of Radiation Exposure of Hospital Radiation Workers (병원 방사선 작업 종사자의 방사선 피폭 분석 현황)

  • Jeong Tae Sik;Shin Byung Chul;Moon Chang Woo;Cho Yeong Duk;Lee Yong Hwan;Yum Ha Yong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : This investigation was peformed in order to improve the health care of radiation workers, to predict a risk, to minimize the radiation exposure hazard to them and for them to realize radiation exposure danger when they work in radiation area in hospital. Methods and Materials : The documentations checked regularly for personal radiation exposure in four university hospitals in Pusan city in Korea between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1997 were analyzed. There were 458 persons in this documented but 111 persons who worked less then one year were excluded and only 347 persons were included in this study. Results : The average of yearly radiation exposure of 347 persons was 1.52$\pm$1.35 mSv. Though it was less than 50mSv, the limitaion of radiation in law but 125 (36%) people received higher radiation exposure than non-radiation workers. Radiation workers under 30 year old have received radiation exposure of mean 1.87$\pm$1.01 mSv/year, mean 1.22$\pm$0.69 mSv between 31 and 40 year old and mean 0.97$\pm$0.43 mSv/year over 41year old (p<0.001). Men received mean 1.67$\pm$1.54 mSv/year were higher than women who received mean 1.13$\pm$0.61 mSv/year (p<0.01). Radiation exposure in the department of nuclear modicine department in spite of low energy sources is higher than other departments that use radiations in hospital (p<0.05). And the workers who received mean 3.59$\pm$1.81 msv/year in parts of management of radiation sources and injection of sources to patient receive high radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department (p<0.01). In department of diagnostic radiology high radiation exposure is in barium enema rooms where workers received mean 3.74$\pm$1.74 mSv/year and other parts where they all use fluoroscopy such as angiography room of mean 1.17$\pm$0.35 mSv/year and upper gastrointestinal room of mean 1.74$\pm$1.34 mSv/year represented higher radiation exposure than average radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology (p<0.01). Doctors and radiation technologists received higher radiation exposure of each mean 1.75$\pm$1.17 mSv/year and mean 1.50$\pm$1.39 mSv/year than other people who work in radiation area in hospital (p<0.05). Especially young doctors and technologists have the high opportunity to receive higher radiation exposure. Conclusions : The training and education of radiation workers for radiation exposure risks are important and it is necessary to rotate worker in short period in high risk area. The hospital management has to concern health of radiation workers more and to put an effort to reduce radiation exposure as low as possible in radiation areas in hospital.

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Nutrition Survey in Koje Island (거제도(巨濟島) 주민(住民)의 영양실태조사(營養實態調査))

  • Oh, Seoung-Ho;Chang, Soo-Kyung;Park, Michael Myung-Yun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.43-58
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    • 1977
  • Kojedo is the second largest island in Korea and a total population of 115,500 is living on the island of 394.69 sq. km. Under the direction of three nutrition professors, nutrition surveys in two villages in Kojedo, namely Siljun Ri in Hachung Myon and Soowol Ri in Shinhyun Myon, were carried by 30 college senior students majoring in nutrition from August to 20 August 1977. From a total of 176 households of the two villages, 67 households were randomly selected and 390 family members of the households were subjcets of the nutrition surveys. The precise weighing method was used in evaluating the kinds of foods and nutrient intakes of the subjects for three consecutive days. Thirty-seven pre-school children aged between 3 to 6 years and 27 fertile women were examined for biochemical findings and physical status. The main purposes of the surveys are to provide baseline data on nutrition in Kojedo Island for the Kojedo Community Development Project and to compare the nutritional status of the villages of Siljun Ri and Soowol Ri. Siljun Ri is located in the pilot project area of the Koiedo Community Health Project sponsored since December 1970 by the Christian Medical Commission of the World Council of Churches. While Soowol Ri is a control village for comparison. The results obtained are summarized as follows: Food Intake The average food intake per person per day in Siljun Ri, 1064 grams (91.7% in vegetable foods and 7.6% in animal foods) was 90 grams more than that of Soowol Ri, 974 grams (92.8% in vegetable foods and 5.9% in animal foods). However, the food intake per pre-school child in Siljun Ri, 485 grams (92.6% from vegetable foods and 6.4% from animal foods) was 21 grams lower than that of the Soowol Ri, 506 grams (88.5% from vegetable foods and 6.5% from animal foods). The average intake of beans was 16 grams(1.5% out of the total food intake) in Siljun Ri and 21 grams(2.2% of the total food intake)in Soowol Ri. The villagers should be guided for more consumption of soybeans to improve the quality of protein intake from vegetable foods. Nutrient Intake The adult intake in Siljun Ri and Soowol Ri were 2,529 kcal and 2,511 kcal respectively. The average energy intake of pre-school childen in Siljun Ri was 948 kcal and that for adult and 1,500 kcal for childen aged between 4 to 6 years-given by the Korea FAO Association, the diets in both villages were not adequate. Average daily protein intake of the subjected adult in Siljun Ri was 78.4 grams and that of Soowol Ri was 76.2 grams, while pre-school children took 30.7 grams in the former village and 31.7 grams in the latter village per child per day. The protein intake in both villages were lower than the recommended allowances, 80 grams for adult and 45 grams for $4{\sim}6$ years childen, and animal protein intake of the all subjects was very much lower than the RDA. The main charecter of the diet has been found low in quality of protein and high in carbohydrate. The calcium intakes of the pre-school children in both villages, 251.9 milligrams in Siljun Ri and 218.8 milligrams in Soowol Ri, were very much lower than the recommended allowance of 500 milligrams per day. It is apparent that the diet for children should be supplemented with calcium. Among the vitamin group, the daily average intakes of vitamin A and $B_{2}$(thiamine), $B_{2}$(riboflavin), C(ascorbic acid), and niacin were not adequate for the children in both villages. Especially the intake of riboflavin, 0.4 milligrams in both village children, was much lower than the RDA, 0.9 milligrams per day. Physical Characteristics Average height, weight, chest and head circumference of the pre-school children in both villages were similar to those of the Korean standard given by the Korean Paediatrics Association except that the average height of pre-school boys in Siljun Ri was 8 cm higher than the Korean standard of 105 cm. The mean values of upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness of pre-school boys in both villages were the same, 15.4 cm for upper arm circumference and 6.8 mm for skinfold thickness, but the mean values of those of the girls in Siljun Ri were higher than those of pre-school grils in Soowol Ri. Biochemical Findings Avera ge hemogobin value of boys and girls in both villages was the same, 11.1 grams per 100 ml of blood. The incidence of anemia (Hb value below 11g/100ml) was similar in both viltagesr 36.4% for boys and 50% for girls in Siljun Ri and 37.5% for boys and 50% for girls in Soowol Ri. Average hemoglobin values of fertile women were 10.7g% in Siljun Ri and 10.8% in Soowor Ri. The incidences of anemia(Hb valre brlow 12g/100ml) were 100% in Siljun Ri and 86.7% in Soowol Ri. The anemia of these subjects may be caused mainty low intake of good quality protein and iron intake from vegetable food. Recommendation In general, the nutritional status of a community health pilot village is not higher than that of control village due to the lack of nutrition improvement guldance services. Nutrition education should be delivered to the villagers as a main part of the health education artivities. The emphasis should be on building better health through bttter food habits and better food production as well as on preventing malnutrition and diseasrs. It can be an invaluable part of community developnent. Since nutrition is considered to be at least one-half of MCH care, no village or home visits should be made without careful provision for teaching and demoastrating something simple and practical on nutrition. The nurse, midwife, and village health worker should be the chief promoters of nutrition.

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A Survey on the Status of Health Examination among Farmers in a Rural Area (일부 농촌지역 농업종사자들의 건강진단 수검 실태)

  • Park, Soon-Woo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to reveal the status of health examination among farmers and to attract more attention to the health care system for farmers. Ten pre-trained medical students interviewed the rural residents 18 years of age and older in eight villages which were randomly selected from a county near Taegu city in Korea, in August 1996. Finally 751 persons were interviewed of whom the percentages of male and female were 41.8%, 58.2% respectively. Among the subjects, 361(48.3%) were fully engaged in farming, 184(24.4%) were partly engaged, and the remaining 206(27.3%) were not engaged in farming at all. The overall prevalence of farmer's disease was 23.0% and there was no significant difference between the group of fully engaged in farming(23.3%) and the group of not-fully engaged(22.9%). But the prevalence of farmer's disease in female subjects(27.8%) was significantly higher than that in male(16.2%)(p<0.01). Among the 288 farmer engaged in spraying pesticide, 113(39.2%) had experienced one or more pesticide related symptoms during last one year, but only 18(15.9%) of them had visited medical facilities due to their symptoms. The experience of receiving education about pesticide was significantly correlated with the degree of wearing protectors during pesticide spraying(p<0.001). Among the 736 persons excluding non-respondents, 281(38.2%) received health examination during last one year ; 176(62.6%) of them received free health examination, and 105(37.4%) received charged one. Among the 533 persons 40 years age and older, only 124(23.3%) had received the 'health examination for the elderly' during last one year, which is provided for the 40 years age and older by Korea medical insurance corporation and medical insurance societies. Most of all beneficiaries of self-employed medical insurance thought the imposed contributions as very expensive(77.4%) or moderately expensive(13.2%). The great majority of farmers are exposed to various health risk factors including pesticide, high temperature, overwork etc. comparable to industrial workers. But farmers are excluded from the regular yearly worker's health examination because of not belonging to a company despite they pay relatively more medical insurance contributions compared with the industrial workers and the urban self-employed medical insureds. It is necessary to develop special health management program for farmers such as the special health examination for the industrial workers exposed harmful agents.

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Studies on Dairy Farming Status, Reproductive Efficiencies and Disorders in New Zealand (I) A Survey on Dairy Farming Status and Milk Yield in Palmerston North Area (뉴질랜드 (Palmerston North) 의 낙농 현황과 번식 및 번식장해에 관한 연구(I) Palmerston North 지역의 낙농 현황과 우유 생산량에 관한 조사 연구)

  • 김중계;맥도날드
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2000
  • Eighty dairy farms in Palmers ton North area in New Zealand were surveyed on 1) general characteristics (10 Questions), 2) milk yield and feed supplementary (7 questions), 3) reproductive efficiencies (12 questions) and 4) reproductive disorders (12 questions) by mail questions from February to July, 1998. Among those 4 items from 38 dairy farms (47.5%), especially in items 1) and 2), overall dairy farming situation, supplementary feeding and milk yields were surveyed and analyzed for Korean dairy farmers (especially in Cheju island) to have better understanding or higher economical gains. The results were as follows. 1. In dairy experience, 21 (45%) among 38 dairy farms surveyed were answered that farming less than 15 years, 15~19 year, 20~25 years and over 26 years experience were 3 (7.9%), 7 (18.4%), 6 (15.8%) and 5 (13.2%) which generally showed longer experience compare to Korean dairy farming situation. In survey of labour input and business goal of dairy farming, self-managing farms, sharemilkers, unpaid family manpowering farms, manager running farms, farms with hired worker, farms with part time helper and other type was 21 (55.3%), 10 (26.3%), 2 (3.5%), 3 (5.3%), 18 (31.6%), 2 (3.5%), and 1 (1.8%), respectively. 2. Analyzing pasture and tillable land, pasture according to feeding scale (200, 300 and 400 heads) were 56, 90 and 165.3 ha, and tillable lands were 51, 78 and 165 ha which showed some differences among feeding scale. In recording methods in 38 farms replied, 36 (95%) dairy handbook and 23 (70%) dual methods taking farms were higher than that of 10 (26.3%) computer and 15(39.5%) well-recorder methods. 3. Dairy waste processing facilities in environmental field were almost perfect except of metropolitan area, and so no problem was developed in its control so far. Hence, 26 farm (68.4%) of pond system was higher rather than those in 8 (21.2%) of using as organic manure after storing feces of dairy cattle, 1(2.6%) bunker system and 3 (7.9%) other type farms. 4. In milking facilities, 33 farms (86.9%) of Harringbone types were higher than those in 3 (7.9%) of Walkthrough types, 1 (2.6%) of Rotary system and other types. Although the construction facilities was not enough, this system show the world-leveled dairy country to attempted to elevate economic gains using the advantage of climatic condition. 5. In milking day and yearly yield per head, average 275 milking days and 87 drying days were longer than that of 228 average milking days in New Zealand. Annual total milk yield per head and milk solid (ms) was 3,990 kg and approximately 319 kg. Dairy milk solid (ms) per head, milk yield, fat percentage was 1.2 kg, 15.5 kg and average 4.83% which was much higher than in other country, and milk protein was average 3.75%. 6. In coclusion, Palmerstone North has been a center of dairy farming in New Zealand for the last 21 years. Their dairy farming history is 6~9 year longer than ours and the average number of milking cows per farm is 355, which is much greater than that (35) of Korea. They do not have dairy barn, but only milking parlors. Cows are taken care of by family 0.5 persons), are on a planned calving schedule in spring (93%) and milked for 240~280 days a year, avoiding winter. Cows are dried according to milk yield and body condition score. This management system is quite different from that of Korean dairy farms. Cows are not fed concentrates, relying entirely on pasture forages and the average milk yield per cow is 3,500 kg, which is about 1/2 milk yield of Korean dairy farms. They were bred to produce high fat milk with an average of 4.5%. Their milk production cost is the lowest in the world and the country's economy relies heavily on milk production. We Korean farmers may try to increase farming size, decreasing labor and management costs.

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