• Title, Summary, Keyword: Causal Link

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A Study on Interpretation of the "Causal Link" under WTO Safeguard Agreement (세이프가드협정하의 인과관계의 해석원칙에 관한 연구)

  • Ha, Choong-Lyong;Kim, Sun-Ok
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.209-227
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    • 2006
  • This paper analyse current interpretation of the "causal link" that in particular, focuses principally on the so-called "non-attribution" requirement of Article 4.2(b) of the Safeguards Agreement. The safeguard measures are justified as a temporary economic adjustment to harm that is caused by an increase in imports. The problem with this justification is that there are other kinds of economic forces that may injure domestic industries, such as changes in consumer tastes, government spending or a lack thereof, and economic downturns. These problems do not justify government-imposed remedies. When factors therefore other than increased imports are causing injury to the domestic industry at the same time, such injury shall not be attributed to increased imports. The Appellate Body stressed that a contribution of third-party imports to the existence of serious injury must be sufficiently clear as to establish the existence of the causal link required, it found that Article 4.2(b) does not suggest that increased imports be the sole cause of the serious injury, or that other factors causing injury must be excluded from the determination of serious injury. The interest in separation is to ensure that a measure is not applied to remedy harm not caused by imports, but this basic point assumes that the harm is distinguishable in the first place. It also assumes that the safeguard is designed to respond to harm caused by imports. In fact safeguards were never intended to respond to this kind of unfair trade, but rather to provide whatever emergency relief might assist an ailing domestic industry if imports happened to be a part of that injury. The Appellate Body's insistence in breaking cause and effect down to minutia in the non-attribution analysis seems to be so overly intricate that it conflicts with it's broader focus on evaluating factors that effect harm on the industry as a whole.

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A Perceived Causal Structural Model on Work-based Stressor of Clinical Nurse (임상간호사의 업무스트레스요인에 관한 인지적 인과구조모형)

  • Park, Mi-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purposes are to identify the factors that influence work-based stressor experienced by clinical nurses and to provide a perceived causal structural model among these factors. Method: Data was collected and analyzed in 2 steps to apply a perceived causal structure : network analysis which was developed by Kelley(1983). Results: 1. The extracted causes from qualitative data were identified 10 categories ; over loaded work, relative feelings of deprived, inefficient duty schedule, negative attitudes of patient, burden of extra affair, inadequate administrative support, negative attitudes of physician, conflict with other personnels in hospital, lack of professional knowledge and skill, nursing service marketing burden. 2. Construction of the perceived causal structural model ; 1) The most central cause is over loaded work and the distal causes were inadequate administrative support, lack of professional knowledge and skill in the systems of causation. 2) The causes that have a number of outgoing link were over loaded work, inadequate administrative support, negative attitudes of physician. 3) The cause that have a number of incoming link was relative feelings of deprived. Conclusion: The network suggests that the first centre cause was related on over loaded work.

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The Perceived Causal Structure Model on Stress Experienced by Nursing Students during Clinical Practice (간호학생의 임상실습스트레스에 관한 인지적 인과구조모형)

  • Park, Mi-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.54-63
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence stress experienced by nursing students and to provide a perceived causal structure model among these variables. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop efficient guidance to clinical nursing education in this population. This study intends to apply perceived causal structure: network analysis method which was developed by Kelly(1983), and has been applied in nursing research. This method is selected to show dynamic relationship of stressor using network method. Data was collected from convenient sample of 186 junior college nursing students who had the clinical practice experience during 10 weeks. Data collection and analysis was conducted in 2 steps from December, 9, 2002 to February, 8, 2003. Step 1.: Data was collected using literature review(10 articles) to identify the causes of stress. Nine causes of stress were extracted. Step 2.: As perceived casual structure network study, data was collected using questionnaires which included 9 extracted cause and stress. The questionnaire contained a 10 X 10 grid table with 10 causes and effects printed. In network analysis, 'Yes' was scored as 1, 'No' was scored as 0, and the mean(maximum 1, minimum 0) was calculated. Construction of the network under inductive eliminative analysis which stopped the construction of the network when the consensual agreement level dropped near 50% was proceeded by adding causes in order of the mean rating level. In this study, construction of the final network was stopped by consensual agreement level of 52% of the total subjects. The results are summarized as follows : Step 1: Investigation of the causes of stress ; The extracted causes of stress from quality data was identified 9 categories ; negative nurse, lack of clinical practice opportunity, ambiguous role, negative patient, lack of nursing knowledge and skill, difficult of personal relations, inefficient clinical practice guidance, gap of theory and practice, lack of support. Step 2 : Construction of the perceived causal structure model ; 1) The most central cause of stress is ambiguous role in the systems of causation. 2) The distal cause of stress is inefficient clinical practice guidance 3) The causes that have a number of outgoing link are negative nurse, ambiguous role. 4) The causes that have a number of incoming link are ambiguous role, gap of theory- practice, lack of clinical practice opportunity, lack of nursing knowledge- skill. 5) There is a mutual relationship between stress and difficult of personal relations, stress and ambiguous role, ambiguous role and negative nurse, ambiguous role and lack of clinical practice opportunity, ambiguous role and lack of nursing knowledge-skill, lack of nursing knowledge-skill and gap of theory- practice. In conclusion, the network suggests that the first centre cause is related on ambiguous role and the second on negative nurse, inefficient clinical practice guidance in the systems of causation

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Organizational Commitment of Hospital Employees -Testing a Causal Model in Korean Hospitals- (병원근무자의 직장애착에 관한 연구 -한 인과모형의 검증을 중심으로-)

  • 서영준
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.173-201
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    • 1995
  • A causal model of organizational commitment on the basis of Western literature was tested with a sample of 1,164 employees from two university hospitals in Korea. The model contains three groups of determinants : environmental variables(job opportunity, spouse support, and parent support), psychological variables(met expectations, work involvement, positive affectivity, and negative affectivity), and structural variables(job autonomy, work unit control, routinization, supervisor support, coworker support, role ambiguity, role conflict, workload, resource inadequacy, distributive justice, promotional chances, job security, job hazarda, and pay). The data were colleted with questionnaires and analyzed with the LISREL maximum likelihood method. It is found that (1) the following variables, listed in order of size, have significant total effects on organizational commitment : job satisfaction, met expectations, supervisor support, job security, routinization, job opportunity, negative affectivity, work involvement, distributive justice, and promotional opportunity, (2) the model explains fifty-nine percent of the variance in organizational commitment, and (3) the link with expectancy theory is justified by the results for met expectations. Two conclusions can be drawn from these findings. First, the model of organizational commitment appears to be generalizable to Korean hospitals. Second, the model of organizational commitment should include such theoretical variables as environmental, psychological, and structural factors.

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An inverse dynamic trajectory planning for the end-point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

  • Kwon, Dong-Soo;Babcock, Scott-M.;Book, Wayne-J.
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.599-606
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    • 1992
  • A manipulator system that needs significantly large workspace volume and high payload capacity has greater link flexibility than typical industrial robots and teleoperators. If link flexibility is significant, position control of the manipulator's end-effector exhibits the nonminimum phase, noncollocated, and flexible structure system control problems. This paper addresses inverse dynamic trajectory planning issues of a flexible manipulator. The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, the inverse dynamic method calculates the feedforward torque and the trajectories of all state variables that do not excite structural vibrations for a given end-point trajectory. Through simulation and experiment with a single-Unk flexible manipulator, the effectiveness of the inverse dynamic method has been demonstrated.

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Structural Causal Relationship between Atmospherics of Web-sites and Repurchase Intention in Internet Shopping Malls (인터넷쇼핑몰 사이트 환경과 재구매의도 간의 구조적 인과관계)

  • Choi, Chul-Jae
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.357-369
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this paper is to explain and identify how atmospherics of web-sites such as graphics, colour, menu and link have an effect on consumers' emotion and satisfaction, which in turn have influence on repurchase intention in internet shopping malls. A survey study was conducted to collect the data with consumers who have experience purchase or search on internet shopping malls. Analysis of structural equation modeling with AMOS 18.0 was performed to test the research hypothesis. The results of the study are as follows: Menu and link are positively associated on consumers' emotion, but graphics and colour have not influence on both consumers' emotion and satisfaction. Consumers' emotion is positively associated on both satisfaction and repurchase intention, and then satisfaction is also positively associated on repurchase intention.

Clinical statistics: five key statistical concepts for clinicians

  • Choi, Yong-Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.203-206
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    • 2013
  • Statistics is the science of data. As the foundation of scientific knowledge, data refers to evidentiary facts from the nature of reality by human action, observation, or experiment. Clinicians should be aware of the conditions of good data to support the validity of clinical modalities in reading scientific articles, one of the resources to revise or update their clinical knowledge and skills. The cause-effect link between clinical modality and outcome is ascertained as pattern statistic. The uniformity of nature guarantees the recurrence of data as the basic scientific evidence. Variation statistics are examined for patterns of recurrence. This provides information on the probability of recurrence of the cause-effect phenomenon. Multiple causal factors of natural phenomenon need a counterproof of absence in terms of the control group. A pattern of relation between a causal factor and an effect becomes recognizable, and thus, should be estimated as relation statistic. The type and meaning of each relation statistic should be well-understood. A study regarding a sample from the population of wide variations require clinicians to be aware of error statistics due to random chance. Incomplete human sense, coarse measurement instrument, and preconceived idea as a hypothesis that tends to bias the research, which gives rise to the necessity of keen critical independent mind with regard to the reported data.

The Effect of Prior Financial Performance on Organizational Reputation and Earnings Management

  • HUYNH, Quang Linh;NGUYEN, Nguyen Van
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2019
  • The paper aims to investigate the linkage among prior financial performance, organizational reputation and earnings quality. Firstly, it examines the influence of prior financial performance on organizational reputation and on earnings quality. Secondly, this research explores the moderating role that prior financial performance plays in the causal relationship from organizational reputation to earnings quality. Thirdly, the mediating role of organizational reputation in the effect of prior financial performance on earnings quality is analyzed. The empirical findings show that, prior financial performance positively affects both earnings quality and organizational reputation that in turn partly mediates the causal connection from prior financial performance to earnings quality; whereas prior financial performance imposes a positive moderation in the influence of organizational reputation on earnings quality. This research is expected to provide scholars and practitioners with a thorough understanding of the complex link among prior financial performance, organizational reputation and earnings quality. That helps them to deliver good decisions on the investment of suitable resources in maintaining and enhancing their organizational reputation, which assures a higher quality of reported earnings that in turn improves involved stakeholders' confidence in their firm. This likely leads the firms to gain better performance in the future.

Estimating the Nature of Relationship of Entrepreneurship and Business Confidence on Youth Unemployment in the Philippines

  • CAMBA, Aileen L.
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.8
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    • pp.533-542
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    • 2020
  • This study estimates the nature of the relationship of entrepreneurship and business confidence on youth unemployment in the Philippines over the 2001-2017 period. The paper employed a range of cointegrating regression models, namely, autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach, Johansen-Juselius (JJ) and Engle-Granger (EG) cointegration models, dynamic OLS, fully modified OLS, and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) estimation techniques. The Granger causality based on error correction model (ECM) was also performed to determine the causal link of entrepreneurship and business confidence on youth unemployment. The ARDL bounds testing approach, Johansen-Juselius (JJ) and Engle-Granger (EG) cointegration models confirmed the existence of long-run equilibrium relationship of entrepreneurship and business confidence on youth unemployment. The long-run coefficients from JJ and dynamic OLS show significant long-run and positive relationship of entrepreneurship and business confidence on youth unemployment. While results of the long-run coefficients from fully modified OLS and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) found that only entrepreneurship has significant and positive relationship with youth unemployment in the long-run. The Granger causality based on error correction model (ECM) estimates show evidence of long-run causal relationship of entrepreneurship and business confidence on youth unemployment. In the short-run, increases in entrepreneurship and business confidence causes youth unemployment to decrease.