• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cell grouping

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Cross-Layer Optimized Resource Allocation Scheme for OFDMA based Micro Base Stations (OFDMA 기반 마이크로 기지국을 위한 계층간 최적화된 자원할당 기법)

  • Cho, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, a joint PHY-MAC layer optimized resource allocation scheme for OFDMA based micro base stations is investigated. We propose cross-layer optimized two-stage resource allocation scheme including cross-layer functional description and control information flow between PHY-MAC layers. The proposed two-stage resource allocation scheme consists of a user grouping stage and a resource allocation stage. In the user grouping stage, users are divided into a macro base station user group and a micro base station user group based on the PHY-MAC layer characteristics of each user. In the resource allocation stage, a scheduling scheme and an allotment of resources are determined. In the proposed scheme, diversity and adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) schemes are exploited as schedulers. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme increases the average cell throughput about 40~80 % compared to the conventional system without micro base stations.

Dynamic Feedback Selection Scheme for User Scheduling in Multi-user MIMO Systems (다중 사용자 MIMO 시스템의 사용자 스케쥴링을 위한 동적 피드백 선택 기법)

  • Kim, I-Cheon;Kang, Chung G.
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.646-652
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, the system-level performance is evaluated for the feedback scheme on the pre-coding matrix index (PMI) and channel quality indication (CQI), which are required for user selection in the multi-user MIMO system. Our analysis demonstrates that the number of users, the number of selected users, and codebook size are the key factors that govern the performance of the best companion grouping (BCG)-based user scheduling. Accordingly, we have confirmed that the probability of forming the co-scheduled user group is determined by these factors, which implies that the number of PMI's and codebook size can be dynamically determined so as to maximize the average system throughput as the number of users varies in the cell.

Multi-Level Groupings of Minterms Using the Decimal-Valued Matrix Method (십진수로 표현된 매트릭스에 의한 최소항의 다층모형 그룹화)

  • Kim, Eun-Gi
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.83-92
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    • 2012
  • This paper suggests an improved method of grouping minterms based on the Decimal-Valued Matrix (DVM) method. The DVM is a novel approach to Boolean logic minimization method which was recently developed by this author. Using the minterm-based matrix layout, the method captures binary number based minterm differences in decimal number form. As a result, combinable minterms can be visually identified. Furthermore, they can be systematically processed in finding a minimized Boolean expression. Although this new matrix based approach is visual-based, the suggested method in symmetric grouping cell values can become rather messy in some cases. To alleviate this problem, the enhanced DVM method that is based on multi-level groupings of combinable minterms is presented in this paper. Overall, since the method described here provides a concise visualization of minterm groupings, it facilitates a user with more options to explore different combinable minterm groups for a given Boolean logic minimization problem.

Factors Influencing Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection (자가 말초혈액 조혈모세포 채집에 영향을 주는 관련요인)

  • Choi, Yong-Suk;Kim, Kwang-Sung;Kim, Youn-Soon;Hwang, Mee-Jung;Cho, Hyung-Suk;Kim, Su-Mi
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has been widely used. The optimal time for collection is a critical factor to obtain proper counts of CD34 cell by peripheral blood stem cell collection (PBSC). The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing peripheral blood stem cell collection in order to figure out the more effective timing for PBSC. Method: The subjects of this study were 189 patients undergoing 3 leukapheresis from January 28, 2005 to December 31,2006. Group's characteristics, checkup opinion of pre-peripheral blood on the day of harvest & outcome of PBSC were analyzed and evaluated using SAS statistics program after grouping patients as below; group 1-CD34 cell counts $<2{\times}10^6/kg$ (n=97); group $2-2{\times}10^6/kg$ ${\leq}CD34$ cell counts $<4{\times}10^6/kg$ (n=26); group 3-CD34 cell counts ${\geq}4{\times}10^6/kg$ (n=63). Results: Based on outcome of peripheral blood stem cell according to diagnosis, acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) was 65.5% at Group 1, Lymphoma was 21.7% at Group 2 and multiple myeloma (MM) was 70.8% at Group 3. There were significant differences in CD34 cell counts according to diagnosis (p=0.00004). Type of cytokine mobilization according to diagnosis, Lenograsim was using 62.5% of MM & 38.2% of AML and filgrastim is using 22.0% of AML only. Circular peripheral blood CD34 cell counts prior to harvest was $258.1/{\mu}L$ at Group 3 which was much higher comparing to Group 1 ($10.5/{\mu}L$) and Group 2 ($39.9/{\mu}L$) (p<0.001). TNC counts of collected peripheral blood stem cell was $15.36{\times}10^6/kg$ at Group 3 and it's much higher than Group 2 ($13.16{\times}10^6/kg$) and Group 1 ($12.36{\times}10^6/kg$) (p=0.083). There was no significant difference in MNC counts inbetween 3 groups. Conclusions: Circular peripheral blood CD34+ cell counts prior to harvest was much higher at Group 3 than Group 1 and Group 2. Therefore, the number of CD34+ cells on the day of harvest can be used as an accurate predictor for peripheral blood stem cell.

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Goodness-of-Fit Tests for the Ordinal Response Models with Misspecified Links

  • Jeong, Kwang-Mo;Lee, Hyun-Yung
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.697-705
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    • 2009
  • The Pearson chi-squared statistic or the deviance statistic is widely used in assessing the goodness-of-fit of the generalized linear models. But these statistics are not proper in the situation of continuous explanatory variables which results in the sparseness of cell frequencies. We propose a goodness-of-fit test statistic for the cumulative logit models with ordinal responses. We consider the grouping of a dataset based on the ordinal scores obtained by fitting the assumed model. We propose the Pearson chi-squared type test statistic, which is obtained from the cross-classified table formed by the subgroups of ordinal scores and the response categories. Because the limiting distribution of the chi-squared type statistic is intractable we suggest the parametric bootstrap testing procedure to approximate the distribution of the proposed test statistic.

A Visual-Based Logic Minimization Method

  • Kim, Eun-Gi
    • Journal of the Korea Industrial Information Systems Research
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.9-19
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    • 2011
  • In many instances a concise form of logic is often required for building today's complex systems. The method described in this paper can be used for a wide range of industrial applications that requires Boolean type of logic minimization. Unlike some of the previous logic minimization methods, the proposed method can be used to better gain insights into the logic minimization process. Based on the decimal valued matrix, the method described here can be used to find an exact minimized solution for a given Boolean function. It is a visual based method that primarily relies on grouping the cell values within the matrix. At the same time, the method is systematic to the extent that it can also be computerized. Constructing the matrix to visualize a logic minimization problem should be relatively easy for the most part, particularly if the computer-generated graphs are accompanied.

Addition of interleukin-6 to mouse embryo culture increases blastocyst cell number and influences the inner cell mass to trophectoderm ratio

  • Kelley, Rebecca L;Gardner, David K
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 2017
  • Objective: In vitro culture of preimplantation embryos is improved by grouping embryos together in a drop of media. Individually cultured embryos are deprived of paracrine factors; with this in mind, we investigated whether the addition of a single embryo-secreted factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), could improve the development of individually cultured embryos. Methods: Mouse embryos were cultured individually in $2{\mu}L$ of G1/G2 media in 5% oxygen and supplemented with a range of doses of recombinant mouse or human IL-6. Results: Mouse IL-6 increased hatching at doses of 0.01 and 10 ng/mL compared to the control (93% and 93% vs. 78%, p< 0.05) and increased the total number of cells at a dose of 0.1 ng/mL compared to the control ($101.95{\pm}3.36$ vs. $91.31{\pm}3.33$, p< 0.05). In contrast, the highest dose of 100 ng/mL reduced the total number of cells ($79.86{\pm}3.29$, p< 0.05). Supplementation with human IL-6 had a different effect, with no change in hatching or total cell numbers, but an increase in the percentage of inner cell mass per embryo at doses of 0.1, 1, and 100 ng/mL compared to the control ($22.9%{\pm}1.1%$, $23.3%{\pm}1.1%$, and $23.1%{\pm}1.1%$ vs. $19.5%{\pm}1.0%$, p< 0.05). Conclusion: These data show that IL-6 improved mouse embryo development when cultured individually in complex media; however, an excess of IL-6 may be detrimental. Additionally, these data indicate that there is some cross-species benefit of human IL-6 for mouse embryos, but possibly through a different mechanism than for mouse IL-6.

Factors to Predict Successful Harvest during Autologous Peripheral Hematopoietic Stem Cell Collection

  • Kim, Mun-Ja;Jin, Soo-He;Lee, Duk-Hee;Park, Dae-Weon;Koh, Sung-Ae;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Hyun, Myung-Soo;Kim, Min-Kyoung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2012
  • Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has been used as a major treatment strategy for hematological malignancies. The number of CD34 positive cells in the harvested product is a very important factor for achieving successful transplantation. We studied the factors that can predict the number of CD34 positive cells in the harvested product of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), multiple myeloma (MM) and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients after mobilizing them with chemotherapy plus G-CSF. A total of 73 patients (AML 19 patients, MM 28 patients, NHL 26 patients) with hematological malignancies had been mobilized with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating growth factor from April, 2000 to February, 2012. Group's characteristics, checkup opinion of pre-peripheral blood on the day of harvest & outcome of PBSC were analyzed and evaluated using SPSS statistics program after grouping patients as below; group 1: CD34 cell counts < $2{\times}10^6/kg$ (n=16); group 2: $2{\times}10^6/kg{\leq}CD34$ cell counts < $6{\times}10^6/kg$ (n=32); group 3: CD34 cell counts ${\geq}6{\times}10^6/kg$ (n=25). We analyzed the clinical characteristics, the peripheral blood (PB) parameters and the number of CD34 positive cells in the PB and their correlation with the yield of CD34 positive cells collected from the mobilized patients. The total number of leukapheresis sessions was 263 (mean: 3.55 session per patient), and the mean number of harvested CD34 positive cells per patient was $7.37{\times}10^6/kg$. The number of CD34 positive cells in product was significantly correlated with the number of platelet and CD34 positive cells in peripheral blood (P<0.05). The number of PB CD34 positive cells was the best significant factor for the quantity of harvested CD34 positive cells on the linear regression analysis (P<0.05). Many factors could influence the mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells. Platelet count and PB CD34 positive cells count were the two variables which remained to be significant in multivariate analysis. Therefore, the number of platelet and CD34 positive cells in peripheral blood on the day of harvest can be used as an accurate predictor for successful peripheral blood stem cell collection.

A Grouped Scan Chain Reordering Method for Wire Length Minimization (배선 길이 최소화를 위한 그룹화된 스캔 체인 재구성 방법)

  • Lee, Jeong-Hwan;Im, Jong-Seok
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2002
  • In order to design a huge VLSI system, the scan testing methodology by employing scan flip-flops(cells) is a popular method to test those If chips. In this case, the connection order of scan cells are not important, and hence the order can be determined in the very final stage of physical design such as cell placement. Using this fact, we propose, in this paper, a scan cell reordering method which minimizes the length of wires for scan chain connections. Especially, our reordering method is newly proposed method in the case when the scan cells are grouped according to their clock domains. In fact, the proposed reordering method reduces the wire length about 13.6% more than that by previously proposed reordering method. Our method may also be applicable for reordering scan chains that have various constraints on the scan cell locations due to the chain grouping.

Prognostic Sub-Grouping of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas into Germinal Centre And Post Germinal Centre Groups by Immunohistochemistry after 6 Cycles of Chemotherapy

  • Hassan, Usman;Mushtaq, Sajid;Mamoon, Nadira;Asghar, Asghar Hussain;Ishtiaq, Sheeba
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1341-1347
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) can be divided into germinal centre (GC-DLBCL) and post germinal centre (post GC-DLBCL) groups by applying immunohistochemical antibodies. As these subgroups respond differently to chemotherapy, it is possible at diagnosis to select a poor prognostic subgroup for aggressive treatment. Objective: To determine the frequencies of GC-DLBCL and post GC-DLBCL in patients by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the clinical response after six cycles of chemotherapy. Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study conducted in AFIP and CMH, Rawalpindi and NORI, Islamabad, from September 2010 to September 2011, a total of 75 pretreatment cases of DLBCL diagnosed during the study period were included. Cases were segregated in to GC-DLBCL and post GC-DLBCL groups according to results of immunohistochemistry markers CD10, BCL6 and MUM1. Immediate clinical response was assessed after 6 cycles of chemotherapy. Response was divided into complete response, partial response, stable disease or relapse or progression. Results: The mean age was $54.2{\pm}15$. Males were 53 (70.7%). Forty (53.3%) cases comprised the GC-DLBCL group; 25(62.5%) of them showed a complete response. Most patients of the post GC-DLBCL 19(54%) showed relapse/progression. Results of immediate clinical response in both prognostic subgroups were significant (p<0.05). Results regarding positivity with immunohistochemical antibodies CD10 (p 0.011), BCL6 (p 0.013) and MUM1 (p 0.000) regarding immediate clinical response were also significant. Conclusion: GC-DLBCL group shows better response to CHOP chemotherapy regimen. Immunohistochemistry should be used to further classify DLBCL as this can enable us to select aggressive group for aggressive treatment. This manuscript is important because the study is the first to becarried out exclusively in Pakistan or our part of the world.