• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chemistry

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Changes in Internal and External Temperature and Microbiological Contamination depending on Consumer Behavior after Purchase of Fresh-Cut Produces (대형마트 신선편의식품 소비자의 구매 후 행동에 따른 식품 내·외부 온도 및 미생물학적 오염 변화)

  • Park, Hyun-Jin;Lee, Jeong-Eun;Kim, Sol-A;Shim, Won-Bo
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.459-467
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we investigated the changes in both ambient temperature and microbial contamination of fresh convenience foods (FCFs) caused by the behavior of consumers after purchase. According to consumer survey results, it took 0.5 to 3 h put the purchased FCF in a home refrigerator or consume it. Only aerobic bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (below maximum permitted limit) were detected in FCFs obtained from a local market. During storage of FCFs in a vehicle trunk for up to 3 h. the external and internal temperatures of FCFs were found to be 19 and 18.5℃ in spring, 44 and 42℃ in summer, 31.3 and 29.2℃ in autumn, and 17.6 and 16.8℃ in winter, respectively. Changes in contamination levels of aerobic bacteria on FCFs stored in a vehicle trunk for up to 3 hours are as follows: 2.72 → 3.41 log CFU/g in spring, 3.11 → 4.32 log CFU/g in summer, 3.08 → 3.81 log CFU/g in autumn, 2.71 → 3.36 log CFU/g in winter. S. aureus exceeding the tolerance was detected even when the FCFs were stored in a vehicle trunk for 1 h in summer and autumn and 2 h in spring and winter. Among three boxes (corrugated box, styrofoam box, and corrugated box coated with an aluminum film), the styrofoam box maintained the lowest temperature and showed the lowest growth rate of microorganisms on FCF after storage for 3 h in the vehicle trunk depending on whether ice was added. These results indicated that the possibility of food poisoning occurs when FCFs are exposed to the external environment. It is necessary to provide guidelines regarding storage temperature and allowable time for safe consumption of FCFs after purchase.

Biodegradation test of the alternatives of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS salts (PFOS salts 및 PFOS 대체물질에 대한 미생물분해시험)

  • Choi, Bong-In;Na, Suk-Hyun;Son, Jun-hyo;Shin, Dong-Soo;Ryu, Byung-taek;Chung, Seon-yong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: In this study, we investigated the biodegradation rates of 8 perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) alternatives synthesized at the at Changwon National University in comparison to those of PFOS potassium salt and PFOS sodium salt. Methods: A biodegradability test was performed for 28 days with microorganisms cultured in the good laboratory practice laboratory at the Korea Environment Corporation following the OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals, Test No. 301 C Results: While $C_5H_8F_3SO_3K$, $C_8F_{17}SO_3K$ and $C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$ were not degraded after 28 days, the 3 alternatives were biodegraded at the rates of 31.4% for $C_8H_8F_9SO_3K$, 25.6% for $C_{10}H_8F_{13}SO_3K$, 23.6% for $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, 20.9% for $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, 15.5% for $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$, 8.5% for $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ and 4.8% for $C_6H_8F_5SO_3K$. When the concentration was the same(500 mg/L), $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ had the lowest tension with 20.94 mN/m, which was followed by $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$ (23.36 mN/m), $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ (27.31 mN/m), $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ (28.17 mN/m), $C_{10}H_8F_{13}SO_3K$ (29.77 mN/m) and $C_8H_8F_9SO_3K$ (33.89 mN/m). Having higher surface tension of 57.64 mN/m and 67.57 mN/m, respectively, than those of the two types of PFOS salts, $C_6H_8F_5SO_3K$ and $C_5H_8F_3SO_3K$ were found valueless as substitute for PFOS. Conclusion: The biodegradation test suggest that 6 compounds could be used as substitutes for PFOS. $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ and $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$ were found to be the best substitutes based on biodegradation rate and surface tension, followed by $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, $C_8H_8F_9SO_3K$ and $C_{10}H_8F_{13}SO_3K$. $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ was found to have relatively low value as an alternative but it still had a potential to substitute the conventional PFOS.

Hydrochemistry and Origin of Noble Gases and $CO_2$ Gas Within Carbonated Mineral Waters in the Kyeoungbuk-Kangwon Province, Korea (경북-강원일대 탄산약수의 수질화학과 탄산 및 영족기체 기원)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho;Yoo, Sang-Woo;Kim, Kyu-Han;Nagao, Keisuke
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.65-77
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    • 2011
  • Hydrochemical and carbon isotopic (${\delta}^{13}C_{DIC}$) analyses of 11 water samples, and noble gas isotopic analyses of 8 water samples collected in the Kyeoungbuk and Kangwon areas of Korea were performed to determine their hydrochemical characteristics and to interpret the source of noble gases and $CO_2$ gas in the water. The carbonated mineral waters are weakly acidic (PH = 5.59-6.04), and electrical conductivity ranges from 302 to $864\;{\mu}S/cm$. The chemical composition of all the water samples is Ca-$HCO_3$ type. The high contents of Fe and Mn exceed the safe limits for drinking water. The ${\delta}^{13}C_{DIC}$ values of the samples range from -5.30‰ to -2.84‰, indicating that the carbon is supplied mainly from a deep-seated source and to a lesser degree from an inorganic carbonate source. The $^3He/^4He$ ratios of the samples range from $1.51{\times}10^{-6}$ to $6.45{\times}10^{-6}$. The samples plot into three groups on a $^3He/^4He$ versus $^4He/^{20}Ne$ diagram: the deep-seated field (e.g., a mantle source), the atmospheric field, and the air-mantle mixing field. A wide range of $^4He/^{20}Ne$ ratios is observed ($0.036{\times}10^{-6}$ to $1.76{\times}10^{-6}$), indicating that while radiogenic $^4He$ is dominant in these water samples, mantle-origin He is also present. The supply of $CO_2$ gas and noble gases from a deep-seated source to carbonated waters is inferred to be controlled by geological structures such as faults and geological boundaries.

Geochemical Occurrence of Uranium and Radon-222 in Groundwater at Test Borehole Site in the Daejeon area (대전지역 시험용 시추공 지하수내 우라늄 및 라돈-222의 지화학적 산출특성)

  • Jeong, Chan Ho;Ryu, Kun Seok;Kim, Moon Su;Kim, Tae Sung;Han, Jin Suk;Jo, Byung Uk
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.171-186
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    • 2013
  • A drilling project was undertaken to characterize the geochemical relationship and the occurrence of radioactive materials at a test site among public-use groundwaters previously known to have high occurrence of uranium and radon-222 in the Daejeon area. A borehole (121 m deep) was drilled and core rocks mainly consist of two-mica granite, and associated with pegmatite and dykes of intermediate composition. The groundwater samples collected at six different depths in the borehole by a double-packed system showed the pH values ranging from neutral to alkaline (7.10-9.3), and electrical conductivity ranging from 263 to 443 ${\mu}S/cm$. The chemical composition of the borehole groundwaters was of the $Ca-HCO_3(SO_4+Cl)$ type. The uranium and Rn-222 contents in the groundwater were 109-1,020 ppb and 9,190-32,800 pCi/L, respectively. These levels exceed the regulation guidelines of US EPA. The zone of the highest groundwater uranium content occurred at depths of 45 to 55m. The groundwater chemistry in this zone (alkaline, oxidated, and high in bicarbonate) is favorable for the dissolution of uranium into groundwater. The dominant uranium complex in groundwater is likely to be $(UO_2CO_3)^0$ or $(UO_2HCO_3)^+$. Radon-222 content in groundwater shows an increasing trend with depth. The uranium and thorium contents in the core were 0.372-47.42 ppm and 0.388-11.22 ppm, respectively. These levels are higher values than those previously been reported in Korea. Microscopic observations and electron microprobe analysis(EPMA) revealed that the minerals containing U and Th are monazite, apatite, epidote, and feldspar. U and Th in these minerals are likely to substitute for major elements in crystal lattice.

Hydrogeochemistry and Origin of $CO_2$ and Noble Gases in the Dalki Carbonate Waters of the Chungsong Area (청송 달기탄산약수의 수리지화학과 탄산 및 영족기체 기원)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho;Kim, Kyu-Han;Nagao, Keisuke
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.123-134
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    • 2012
  • Hydrochemical analyses, carbon isotopic (${\delta}^{13}C_{DIC}$) analyses, and noble gas isotopic ($^3He/^4He$ and $^4He/^{20}Ne$) analyses of the Dalki carbonate waters in the Chungsong area were carried out to elucidate their hydrochemical composition and to determine the source of $CO_2$ gas and noble gases. The carbonate waters have a pH of between 5.93 and 6.33, and an electrical conductivity 1950 to $3030{\mu}S/cm$. The chemical composition of all carbonate waters was Ca(Mg)-$HCO_3$, with a high Na content. The contents of Fe, Mn, and As in some carbonate waters exceed the limit stipulated for drinking water. The concentrations of major ions are slightly higher than those reported previously. The ${\delta}^{13}C_{DIC}$ values range from -6.70‰ to -4.47‰, indicating that the carbon originated from a deep-seated source. The $^3He/^4He$ and $^4He/^{20}Ne$ ratios vary from $7.67{\times}10^{-6}$ to $8.38{\times}10^{-6}$ and from 21.32 to 725.7, respectively. On the $^3He/^4He$ versus $^4He/^{20}Ne$ diagram, the noble gas isotope ratios plot in the field of a deep-seated source, such as mantle or magma. We therefore conclude that $CO_2$ gas and noble gas in the Dalki carbonate waters originated from a deep-seated source, rather than an inorganic $CO_2$ origin as suggested in a previous study.

Hydrochemistry and Occurrence of Natural Radioactive Materials within Borehole Groundwater in the Cheongwon Area (청원지역 시추공 지하수의 수리화학 및 자연방사성물질 산출 특성)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho;Kim, Moon-Su;Lee, Young-Joon;Han, Jin-Seok;Jang, Hyo-Geun;Jo, Byung-Uk
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.163-178
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    • 2011
  • A test borehole was drilled in the Cheongwon area to investigate the relationship between geochemical environment and the natural occurrence of radioactive materials (uranium and Rn-222) in borehole groundwater. The borehole encountered mainly biotite schist and biotite granite, with minor porphyritic granite and basic dykes. Six groundwater samples were collected at different depths in the borehole using the double-packed system. The groundwater pH ranges from 5.66 to 8.34, and the chemical type of the groundwater is Ca-$HCO_3$. The contents of uranium and Rn-222 in the groundwater are 0.03-683 ppb and 1,290-7,600 pCi/L, respectively. The contents of uranium and thorium in the rocks within the borehole are 0.51-23.4 ppm and 0.89-62.6 ppm, respectively. Microscope observations of the rock core and analyses by electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) show that most of the radioactive elements occur in the biotite schist, within accessory minerals such as monazite and limenite in biotite, and in feldspar and quartz. The high uranium content of groundwater at depths of -50 to -70 m is due to groundwater chemistry (weakly alkaline pH, an oxidizing environment, and high concentrations of bicarbonate). The origin of Rn-222 could be determined by analyzing noble gas isotopes (e.g., $^3He/^4He$ and $^4He/^{20}Ne$).

Antioxidant Properties of 7 Domestic Essential Oils and Identification of Physiologically Active Components of Essential Oils against Candida albicans (식물정유 7종의 항산화능 분석 및 Candida albicans 생장 억제 정유의 생리활성 성분 구명)

  • LEE, Sang-Youn;LEE, Da-Song;CHO, Seong-Min;KIM, Jong-Chan;PARK, Mi-Jin;CHOI, In-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.23-43
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    • 2021
  • In this study, we selected two essential oils, Citrus unshiu and Cinnamomum cassia with superior antioxidant effects from the essential oils of 7 wild plants in South Korea and examined their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, which causes dermatitis to identify the antimicrobial components in the essential oils. As a result of measuring DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, SC50 value of the Citrus unshiu essential oil was 0.010 mg/mL, while for the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil, SC50 value was 0.09 mg/mL. In addition, when ABTS (2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity was measured, SC50 value of the Citrus unshiu essential oil was 0.09 mg/mL, while for the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil, it was 0.06 mg/mL, exhibiting high antioxidant activity. For the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia was 1.25 mg/mL and that of Citrus unshiu was 5 mg/mL, demonstrating a high antimicrobial activity of the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil. Through the thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassay, we assessed the antimicrobial activity against C. albicans according to the fraction components of the two essential oils. Also, by using preparative TLC (prep. TLC), we obtained the active fractions, and by performing GC/MS analysis of the components with the same Rf value, we identified the antimicrobial-active components. As a result, the main components having antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were cinnamyl acetate, eucalyptol, linalool, and citral of the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and linalool from the Citrus unshiu essential oil. Also, based on the analysis of the fractional components that showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in both of the two essential oils, it was found that linalool has antioxidant activity, while cinnamyl acetate, eucalyptol, citral, and geranyl acetate have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Influence of Fertilization Treatment using Organic Amendment based on Soil Testing on Plant Growth and Nutrient Use Efficiency in Potato (토양검정에 의한 유기자원 시비처방이 감자의 생육 및 양분이용효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Jin-Soo;Lee, Bang-Hyun;Kang, Seung-Hee;Lee, Tae-Guen
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.4
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    • pp.436-446
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we verified the effects of organic amendment application based on soil testing in potato cultivation. The application rate of organic amendments was determined based on the inorganicization rate of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium in the organic amendments. There was no significant difference in the length, stalk number, stalk diameter, and leaf color of potato plants under organic amendment application compared with those under chemical fertilization. The quantity of potato tubers and yield of marketable tubers under organic amendment application were higher than those under chemical fertilization. The top fresh weight and top-to-root ratio were the highest under organic amendment application, followed by those under chemical fertilization and the control. The inorganic nitrogen content in the leaves and stems of potato plants was the highest under chemical fertilization. There was no difference in the phosphoric acid content between the potatoes under chemical fertilization and those under organic amendment application. The potassium content in potatoes was higher under chemical fertilization than that under organic amendment application. While the change trend of inorganic nitrogen content in the roots was similar to that in the leaves and stems, the potatoes under organic amendment application, with the highest yield, showed the highest dry weight. The tuber weight showed a positive correlation with plant length, stalk number, and stalk diameter. The higher the weight of the tuber, the higher the weight of the marketable tuber, and the higher the top fresh weight, the higher the yield. Therefore, to increase yield, it is necessary to supply nutrients to improve the top fresh weight to the optimal level. There was no difference in the utilization efficiency of nitrogen and potassium between the potatoes under chemical fertilization and those under organic amendment application. The utilization efficiency of phosphoric acid was increased by 0.1% in potatoes under organic amendment application compared with that under other treatments. Regarding soil chemistry after harvest, the soils under organic amendment application showed a higher electrical conductivity and higher nitrogen and phosphoric acid content than those under other treatments. Therefore, the organic amendment method used in this study can be an alternative to chemical fertilization. It is also advantageous for the cultivation of subsequent crops in potato fields.

Screening of Adsorbent to Reduce Salt Concentration in the Plastic Film House Soil under Continuous Vegetable Cultivation (시설채소재배지의 토양특성과 흡착제 종류별 염류경감 효과)

  • Ok, Yong-Sik;Yoo, Kyung-Yoal;Kim, Yoo-Bum;Chung, Doug-Young;Park, Yong-Ha;Yang, Jae-E.
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2005
  • Salt accumulation in the plastic film house soils under continuous cultivation condition causes problems such as salt damages to plants, nitrate accumulation in vegetables, groundwater contamination, etc. due to excess application of fertilizers. Objective of this research was to find an optimum adsorbent to reduce salt concentration in the soil solution of plastic film house soils, where crop injuries have been observed due to the salt accumulation. The soils were significantly high in available P $(1,431{\sim}6,516mg\;kg^{-1}),\;NO_3-N\;(117.60{\sim}395.73mg\;kg^{-1})$, exchangeable Ca $(4.06{\sim}11.07\;cmol_c\;kg^{-1})$ and Mg $(2.59{\sim}18.76\;cmol_c\;kg^{-1})$, as compared to those of the average upland soils in Korea. Soils were treated with each of adsorbent such as ion-exchange resin, zeolite, rice bran, etc. at 2% level and prepared into saturated-paste samples. After equilibrium, soil solution was vacuum-extracted from the soil and measured for changes of the pH, EC, and concentrations of $Ca^{2+},\;Mg^{2+},\;K^+,\;Na^+,\;{NH_4}^+,\;{PO_4}^{3-}\;and\;{NO_3}^-$. Rice bran effectively removed ${PO_4}^{3-}\;and\;{NO_3}^-$ in the soil solution up to 100%. Efficiency was decreased in the orders of rice bran > ion-exchange resin > zeolite. Removal efficiencies of zeolite and ion-exchange resin for $Ca^{2+}$ were ranged from 1 to 65% and from 7 to 61%, respectively. Ion-exchange resin was also effective for removing $Mg^{2+},\;K^+,\;Na^+,\;and\;{NH_4}^+$. Overall results demonstrated that rice bran and ion-exchange resin could be applicable for salt accumulated soil to remove the respective anion and cation.

Molecular Characterization of Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase gene in Red Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) (고추에서 분리한 Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase 유전자의 분자생물학적 특성)

  • Kim Kye-Won;Ha Sun-Hwa;Cho Kang-Jin;Kim Eun-Ju;Lee Min-Kyung;Yu Jae-Ju;Kim Jong-Guk;Lee Shin-Woo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.167-173
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    • 2005
  • Three different cDNAS for cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) which are involved in the second step of the general phenylpropanoid pathway were isolated and designated as pc4h1 (1,755 bp), pc4h2 (1,655 bp), and pc4h3 (1,316 bp), respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that both pc4h1 and pc4h2 clones encode polypeptides of 505 amino acids frame but pc4h3 clone was truncated at the 5'-end of coding region. The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that PC4H1 and PC4H2 are highly homologous (95.8% identical) with each other and contain three conserved domains which are typical in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase: proline-rich region, threonine-containing binding pocket for the oxygen molecule, and heme binding region. In addition, result of the phylogenic tree analysis revealed that both pepper C4Hs belong to Class 1. pc4h2 transcription was strongly induced in wounded fruit (400%) and root (200%) relative to its very low basal level but not in leaf or stem tissue. In case of pc4h1, the basal level of transcription was higher than pc4h2 but induction by wounding was lower in fruit and root while leaf and stem tissues did not respond to wounding. The basal level of pc4h3 transcripts was not, if any, detectable and response to wounding was not observed.