• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chloropyriphos

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Sooty Mould Infection on Mulberry-Management

  • Reddy, C.Rajagopal;Reddy, P.Lakshmi;Misra, Sunil;Reddy, K.Dharma;Sujathamma, P.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.203-205
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    • 2003
  • Black sooty mould fungus was observed on the upper side of the mulberry leaves caused by the Capnodium sp. This fungus develops with the utilization of the honeydew dropped by the whiteflies. Few selected insecticides like Monocrotophos, Chloropyriphos and Nuvan were tried to control the whitefly incidence and followed by the application of Maida (wheat flour paste) and Starch solution separately to control the incidence of the Capnodium on mulberry. It is found that a significant control of the whitefly incidence with the application of Nuvan (2 $m\ell$/L) and followed by Chloropyriphos (2 $m\ell$/L) and Monocrotophos (1.6 $m\ell$/L) and also a significant control of sooty mould infection were recorded with Starch and Maida application.


  • Park, Sun-Young;Lee, Si-Won;Choi, Jin-Hee
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2006
  • The genetic toxicity of environmental pollutants, namely, nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and chloropyriphos (CP) was investigated in aquatic sentinel species, freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna, and larva of aquatic midge, Chironomus tentans, using Comet assay. Physiological effect of such pollutants was also investigated by studying the specimens' rates of reproduction, growth and survival. Acute toxicity results showed that, as expected, Daphnia was more sensitive than Chironomus to chemical exposure. The order of acute toxicity was CP > NP > BPA in D. magna and NP > CP > BPA in C. tentans. BPA may exert a genotoxic effect on D. magna and C. tentans, given that DNA strand breaks increased in both species exposed to this compound, whereas NP- and CP-induced DNA damage occurred only in C. tentans. In vivo genotoxic data obtained in aquatic sentinel species could provide valuable information for freshwater quality monitoring. The experiments with NP-exposed D. magna showed that the pollutant has long-term effects on reproduction, whereas no short-term effect on DNA integrity was found, being an example of a false-negative result from the biomarkers perspective. This result could be interpreted that other mechanism than genetic alteration might be involved in NP-induced reproduction failure in D. magna. False-positive results from the genotoxic biomarker obtained in BPA-exposed D. magna and in NP-exposed C. tentans make it difficult to use DNA integrity as an early warning biomarker. However, as the mere presence of genotoxic compounds, which are potentially carcinogenic, is of high concern to human and ecosystem health, it could also be important to rapidly and effectively detect genotoxic compounds in the aquatic system in ways that do not necessarily accompany a higher level of alteration. Considering the potential of D. magna and C. tentans as bioindicator species, and the importance of genotoxic biomarkers in ecotoxicity monitoring, DNA damage in these species could provide useful information for environmental risk assessment.

HSP70 and HSC70 gene Expression in Chironomus Tentans (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae Exposed to Various Environmental Pollutants: Potential Biomarker for Environmental Monitoring

  • Lee Sun Mi;Choi Jin Hee
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2005
  • In order to identify potential biomarkers of environmental monitoring, we evaluated heat shock genes expressions as effects of various environmental pollutants (nonylphenol, bisphenol-A, 17a­ethynyl estradiol, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, endosulfan, paraquat dichloride, chloropyriphos, fenitrothion, cadmium chloride, lead nitrate, potassium dichromate, benzo[a]pyrene and carbon tetrachloride) on larvae of aquatic midge Chironomus tentans (Diptera, Chironomidae). Heat shock protein 70 gene expression increased in most of chemicals treated larvae compared to control. The response was rapid and sensitive to low chemical concentrations but not stressor specific. In conjunction with stressor specific biomarkers, heat shock protein 70 gene expression in Chironomus might be developed for assessing exposure to environmental stressors in the fresh water ecosystem. Considering the potential of Chironomus larvae as biomonitoring species, heat shock gene expression has a considerable potential as a sensitive biomarker for environmental monitoring in Chironomus.

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