• Title, Summary, Keyword: Combination ratio

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The Effect of Dot Pattern Size and the Variation of Coloration on Dress Wearers' Image Formation - Focused on Coloration of Value Contrast - (물방울 무늬의 크기와 배색 변화가 원피스 드레스 이미지에 미치는 영향 - 명도 대비 배색을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Sun-Mi;Jeong, Su-Jin
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.863-877
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of dot pattern size(0.8, 1.8, 2.5, 5, 8), color combination (BG/R, Y/B), value tone(lt/dk, p/g), area-ratio on image information. Sets of stimulus and response scales(7 point semantic) were used as experimental materials. The stimuli were 20 color pictures manipulated with the combination of dot pattern size, color combination, value tone and area-ratio using computer simulation. The subjects were 240 female undergraduates living in Gyeongsangnam-do. Image factor of the stimulus was composed of 4 different components, visibility, chastity.feminity, cuteness and attractiveness. In the visibility, color combination, value tone, area-ratio, dot pattern size showed independent effect. In the chastity feminity, color combination, value tone, showed independent effect. In the cuteness, value tone, area-ratio, dot pattern size showed independent effect. Significant interaction effects of color and area-ratio combination on visibility and cuteness were found. Interaction efforts of color and value tone combination, value tone and area-ratio was significant on cuteness. For visibility image, BG/R combination of color and yellow background/blue dots were effective. For cuteness image, pale/grayish tone and background/dots area-ratio were effective.

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Deciding the Appropriate Combination Ratio for FA and BS in High-Intensity Cement Mortar (고강도 시멘트 모르타르에서 FA 및 BS의 적정조합비율 결정)

  • Kim, Min-Sang;Moon, Byeong-Yong;Jo, Man-Ki;Park, Sung-Bae;Han, Min-Cheol;Han, Cheon-Goo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.26-27
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    • 2016
  • This study analyzes the engineering characteristics of mortar according to admixture replacement ratios in cement mortar in a high-intensity ternary system, and changes in FA and BS combination ratios, in order to deduce the optimal combination ratio of FA and BS. Results showed that due to the characteristics of unhardened mortar, flow rate increased with the increase in admixture replacement and FA combination ratios, whereas air quantity decreased and setting time was delayed. Due to the characteristics of light mortar, compression strength decreased at early material ages as the overall combination ratio of FA increased. The FA : BS combination ratio was 2 : 3 on day 28 of material age, proving the best and potentially optimal combination ratio.

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A Study of the Changes in Dress Wearers' Images in Relationto the Changes in the Size and Area Ratio of Polka Dots Relative to Coloration (색상대비 물방울무늬의 크기와 면적비 변화에 따른 원피스 드레스 착용자의 이미지 연구)

  • Kim, Sun-Mi;Jeong, Su-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.54-68
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of dot pattern size(0.8, 1.8, 2.5, 5, 8), color combination(BG/R, Y/B), area-ratio on image formation. Sets of stimulus and response scales(7 point semantic) were used as experimental materials. The stimuli were 20 color pictures manipulated with the combination of dot pattern size, color combination, and area-ratio using computer simulation. The subjects were 240 female undergraduates living in Gyeongnam-do. Image factor of the stimulus was composed of 5 different components, visibility, attractiveness, cuteness, stability and high class image. In the cuteness, color combination, dot pattern size showed independent effect. In the stability, area-ratio, dot pattern size showed independent effect. Interaction effects of color and area-ratio combination was significant on cuteness. For visibility image 8cm yellow dot/blue background, for attractiveness image BG/R coloration, for cuteness image Y/B coloration and for stability image 0.8cm yellow dot/blue background were effective. According to the variation of dot pattern size, color combination and area-ratio, it was investigated that the images for a dress wearer were expressed diversely, were shown differently in image dimensions, and could be produced to different images.

Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios

  • Lopez-Soto, M.A.;Rivera-Mendez, C.R.;Aguilar-Hernandez, J.A.;Barreras, A.;Calderon-Cortes, J.F.;Plascencia, A.;Davila-Ramos, H.;Estrada-Angulo, A.;Valdes-Garcia, Y.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.187-193
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    • 2014
  • As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers ($213{\pm}4$ kg) were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to examine the combination of Optigen and U in a finishing diet containing different starch:acid detergent fibre ratios (S:F) on the characteristics of digestive function. Three S:F ratios (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0) were tested using a combination of U (0.80%) and Optigen (1.0%). Additionally, a treatment of 4.5 S:F ratio with urea (0.80% in ration) as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used to compare the effect of urea combination at same S:F ratio. The S:F ratio of the diet was manipulated by replacing the corn grain by dried distillers grain with solubles and roughage. Urea combination did not affect ruminal pH. The S:F ratio did not affect ruminal pH at 0 and 2 h post-feeding but, at 4 and 6 h, the ruminal pH decreased as the S:F ratio increased (linear, p<0.05). Ruminal digestion of OM, starch and feed N were not affected by urea combination or S:F ratio. The urea combination did not affect ADF ruminal digestion. ADF ruminal digestion decreased linearly (p = 0.02) as the S:F ratio increased. Compared to the urea treatment (p<0.05) and within the urea combination treatment (quadratic, p<0.01), the flow of microbial nitrogen (MN) to the small intestine and ruminal microbial efficiency were greater for the urea combination at a S:F ratio of 4.5. Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved (2.8%, p = 0.02) postruminal N digestion. As S:F ratio increased, OM digestion increased, but ADF total tract digestion decreased. The combination of urea at 4.5 S:F improved (2%, p = 0.04) the digestible energy (DE) more than expected. Combining urea and Optigen resulted in positive effects on the MN flow and DE of the diet, but apparently these advantages are observed only when there is a certain proportion of starch:ADF in the diet.

System Design and Performance Analysis of a Variable Frequency LED Light System for Plant Factory

  • Han, Jae Woong;Kang, Tae Hwan;Lee, Seong Ki;Han, Chung Su;Kim, Woong
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.87-95
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design a variable frequency LED light system for plant factory which combined red, blue, green, white, and UV lights and controlled the ratio of the light wavelength. In addition, this study evaluated the performance of each combination of LED to verify the applicability. Methods: Four combinations of LED (i.e. Red+Blue, Red+Blue+Green, Red+Blue+White, Red+Blue+UV) were designed using five types of LED. The system was designed to control the duty ratio of each wavelength of LED by 1% interval from 0~100%, the pulse by 1Hz interval from 1~20kHz. Response characteristics of the control system, spectral distribution of each combination, light uniformity and uniformity ratio were measured to test the performance of the system. Results: Clean waveforms were measured from 10Hz to 10kHz regardless of duty ratio. Frequency distortion was observed within 5% of inflection point at frequencies above 10kHz regardless of duty ratio, but it was judged negligible. Spectra showed a normal distribution, and maximum PPF with duty ratio of 100% was $271.4{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ for the Red+Blue combination. PPF of the Red+Blue+Green combination was $258.9{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$, and that of the Red+Blue+White combination was $273.9{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$. PPF of the Red+Blue+UV combination was $267.7{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$. Uniformity ratio for the area excepting border showed 0.90 for the Red+Blue and Red+Blue+White combinations, 0.87 for the Red+Blue+Green combination, and 0.88 for the Red+Blue+UV combination. The light was irradiated evenly at the area excepting border, so it was suitable for plant growing. Conclusions: From the results of this study, response characteristics of the control system, spectral distribution of each combination, light uniformity and uniformity ratio were suitable for applying into the plant factory.

The Visual Image Evaluation for the Dot Pattern Size and the Variation of Coloration in the Achromatic Color (무채색 물방울무늬의 크기와 배색변화에 따른 시각적 이미지 평가)

  • Kim, Sun-Mi;Jeong, Su-Jin
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.114-130
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Dot Pattern Size(0.8, 1.8, 2.5, 5, 8), color combination(W/Bk, Bk/Gr, Gr/W), Area-Ratio(Background/Dot, Dot/Background) on wearing dot-printed dresses image. Sets of stimulus and response scales(7 point semantic) were used as experimental materials. The stimuli were 30 color pictures manipulated with the combination of Dot Pattern Size, color combination, and Area-Ratio using computer simulation. The subjects were 180 female undergraduates living in Gyeongnam-do. The data was analyzed by using SPSS program. Analyzing methods were ANOVA and LSD test. Image factor of the stimulus was composed of 5 different components, visibility, chastity, attractiveness, cuteness and feminity. Among them, the visibility and chastity were important. Each dimensional image was affected by dot pattern size, color combination and Area-Ratio. In the visibility image, color combination(W/Bk is the most effective) is more influential, the larger size is effective pattern. In the cuteness and feminity image, area ratio(low-brightness dot pattern is the more effective) is more effective than color combination or dot pattern size. Even the same dot pattern size and area was recognized as different image depending on the area ratio. According to the variation of dot pattern size, color combination and area-ratio, it was investigated that the images for a dress wearer were expressed diversely, were shown differently in image dimensions, and could be produced to different images.

The Design Harmony in the Necktie with Dot Pattern

  • Jung, Su-Jin;Choi, Su-Koung
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 2009
  • This study aims at clarifying the influence that color, tone, dot size, the combination of area ratios exercise on the harmony in dot necktie, and revealing the harmony differentiation according to the cues of various factors for pattern design. The conclusion is drawn as below, in the result that the cues which can exercise influence on the harmony of dot necktie, was analyzed by 54 stimuli. In the result of analysis of variance in order to clarify the influence which color, tone, dot size, and color area ratio exercise on dot necktie harmony, color and dot size operate appeared to be independent cues which exercise significant influence with main effect. In the result of the harmony difference analysis on color, tone, dot size, and color area ratio combination by multiple comparison, the cyan color in vivid tone was estimated to be most inharmonious in the analysis by color and tone. Viewing the harmony difference according to color and dot size, the dot size of 0.5cm in cyan was perceived to be most harmonious. Viewing the harmony difference according to color and color area ratio combination, both magenta and cyan were estimated to be positive, regardless of area ratio combination, and particularly, the case that the background was in cyan and the dots were in grey was perceived more harmonious compared to the contrary case. Viewing the harmony difference according to tone and dot sizes, the case when the dot sizes were 0.5cm, was perceived to be most positive, regardless of tone. Viewing the harmony difference according to color area ratio combination and tone, the case that the chromatic colors, cyan, magenta, and yellow was used as background, was estimated to be more harmonious, compared to the case that the achromatic color, grey was used as background. Viewing the harmony difference according to dot size and color area ratio combination, in case that the dots were in chromatic color and the background was in grey, the harmony showed difference by dot size, and the case of the dot size of 0.5cm was estimated to be most harmonious.

Test procedures for the mean and variance simultaneously under normality

  • Park, Hyo-Il
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.563-574
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we propose several simultaneous tests to detect the difference between means and variances for the two-sample problem when the underlying distribution is normal. For this, we apply the likelihood ratio principle and propose a likelihood ratio test. We then consider a union-intersection test after identifying the likelihood statistic, a product of two individual likelihood statistics, to test the individual sub-null hypotheses. By noting that the union-intersection test can be considered a simultaneous test with combination function, also we propose simultaneous tests with combination functions to combine individual tests for each sub-null hypothesis. We apply the permutation principle to obtain the null distributions. We then provide an example to illustrate our proposed procedure and compare the efficiency among the proposed tests through a simulation study. We discuss some interesting features related to the simultaneous test as concluding remarks. Finally we show the expression of the likelihood ratio statistic with a product of two individual likelihood ratio statistics.

Soft Combination Schemes for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

  • Shen, Bin;Kwak, Kyung-Sup
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 2009
  • This paper investigates linear soft combination schemes for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. We propose two weight-setting strategies under different basic optimality criteria to improve the overall sensing performance in the network. The corresponding optimal weights are derived, which are determined by the noise power levels and the received primary user signal energies of multiple cooperative secondary users in the network. However, to obtain the instantaneous measurement of these noise power levels and primary user signal energies with high accuracy is extremely challenging. It can even be infeasible in practical implementations under a low signal-to-noise ratio regime. We therefore propose reference data matrices to scavenge the indispensable information of primary user signal energies and noise power levels for setting the proposed combining weights adaptively by keeping records of the most recent spectrum observations. Analyses and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed linear soft combination schemes outperform the conventional maximal ratio combination and equal gain combination schemes and yield significant performance improvements in spectrum sensing.

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Development of Combination Runoff Model Applied by Genetic Algorithm (유전자 알고리즘을 적용한 혼합유출모형의 개발)

  • Shim, Seok-Ku;Koo, Bo-Young;Ahn, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.201-212
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    • 2009
  • The Tank model and the PRMS(Precipitation Runoff Modeling-modular System) model have been adopted to simulate runoff data from 1981 to 2001 year in the Seomgin-dam basin. However, the simulated runoff by each single model showed some deviations compared with the observed runoff, respectively. In this study a genetic algorithm combination runoff model has been proposed to minimize deviations between simulated runoff and observed runoff that should yield from single model such as Tank model or PRMS model. The proposed combination runoff model combining the simulated respective output of the Tank model and the PRMS model is to produce the optimum combination ratio of each single model applying to the genetic algorithm which may yield the minimum deviations between simulated runoff and observed one. The proposed combination runoff model has been applied to the Seomgin-dam basin. It has also been shown that the combination model by introducing optimal combination ratio should yield less deviations than single model such as the Tank model or the PRMS model.