• Title, Summary, Keyword: Concentrated treatment condition

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The Detergency Improvement and Fabric Damage in the Washing Treatment by Commercial Bleaching Agents (시판표백제에 의한 농축세제의 세척성 향상과 섬유 손상)

  • 배정숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.113-126
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    • 1999
  • In order to investigate the detergency effect of stained cotton and PET fabric, respectively, these fabrics stained with solid soils such as carbon black, liquid paraffin, and fat and examined the detergency effect in the optimum washing condition. The evaluation of washing efficiency of washed fabrics studied by using the surface reflectance measurement before and after washing treatment. The maximum detergency effect of stained cotton and PET fabric obtained in the mixed washing liquor-bleachig agen(ml)/concentrated washig agent(g/l). To obtain the excellent detergency effect, 2-step washing treatment, pre-washing by bleaching agent only and washing by concentrated detergent, is preferred. In comparing the detergency of polyester and cotton fabric, the detergency of stained polyester fabric superior than that of stained cotton fabric because of the difference of adhesive force between soil material and fabric in preparing soled stained fabric. In this study, we also studied the degree of fabric damage by the measurement of tensile strength change. From the results of the tensile strength measurement, the damage of washed fabric before and after washing treatment was nearly changed.

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Effective Treatment of Wastewater from the Electroplating Plant of Cold-mill by using Microorganism (냉연공장 도금공정에서 발생되는 폐수의 효율적인 미생물 처리에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Sik;Kim, Hyung-Jin
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.301-306
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    • 2009
  • This research was carried out to establish the effective treatment condition and characteristic of wastewater from the electroplating plant of cold rolling mill by using microorganism. Alkaline wastewater and acidic heavy metal wastewater accounted for 64%, 30%, respectively, of the total wastewater. Highly concentrated thiocyanate was 53890 mg/L as COD and it was 53% of total COD, even though it was 0.03% of wastewater from the electroplating plant. When treating mixed wastewater with microorganism, it was easy to remove when SCN concentrations of mixed wastewater was 200 mg/L or less. While the treatment effect of COD-causing materials was low at the concentration of 400 mg/L or less, it implies that highly concentrated thiocyanate contains a large amount of slowly biodegradable organics. When treating with mixed wastewater, pH was 7.33 at the beginning, but after 8 hours it increased to 7.99. This is caused by ammonia which is generated when SCN of highly concentrated thiocyanate was degraded by microorganism.

Physical Dormancy in Seeds of Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) from Korea

  • Kim, Sang-Yeol;Oh, Seong-Hwan;Hwang, Woon-Ha;Kim, Sang-Min;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Kang, Hang-Won
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.421-426
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    • 2008
  • Freshly harvested seed of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.; CMV) was strongly dormant because of hardseedness. Seeds of freshly harvested germinated only 8% while clipping the seed coat completely overcome the innate dormancy, which indicates inhibition of germination of the seed is mainly due to seed coat (87%). The dormant (intact) hard seeds did not imbibe water whereas the non-dormant (clipped) seeds took up rapidly. In natural environment condition, the hard seed coat dormancy was broken only after 5 months after seed harvest. To break such a strong seed coat dormancy, the chemical and heat treatments were effective. Concentrated sulfuric acid was more effective than dry heat and hot water treatments. Hot water treatment improved germination but the germination percentage was less than 41%. Treatments increased germination due to its effect on the seed coat integrity. A scanning electron microscope reveled that disruption of seed coat layers and subsequent development of numerous crack in the hilum region of the seed and on the seed coat surface of concentrated sulfuric acid treatment and formation of cracks in the dry heat treatments, respectively, were observed in the seed coat surface, which served as water entry points.

Preparation of Freeze-dried Cefazolin Sodium Bulk Powder with Good Flowability (유동성이 우수한 분체특성을 갖는 세파졸린 나트륨 진공동결건조 분말의 제조)

  • Cho, Jeong-Sik;Jeong, Eun-Ju
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.284-289
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    • 1998
  • The effect of reaction condition, solvent addition and thermal treatment on the bulk density, crystallinity and chemical properties of the freeze-dried cefazohn sodium was inves tigated to prepare the cefazolin sodium powder for injection with good flowability. Crystalline cefazolin sodium powder with high untapped-bulk density (about 45%) and low compressibility (about 40%) was obtained by solvent addition to the very highly concentrated cefazohn sodium solution followed by subsequent thermal treatment before freeze-drying. The desirable solvent was low substituted alcohol such as isopropyl alcohol and anhydrous ethanol with the final concentration of about 9%. The pH adjustment and nitrogen gas purging during the reaction did not give significant effect on the chemical properties such as content, color, transmittance and pH of the reconstituted cefazolin sodium aqueous solution.

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Effect of Shot Blasting Treatment on the Formability of Thin High Strength Steels (고강도 강판의 성형성에 미치는 Shot Blasting 가공 조건의 영향)

  • Park, K.C.;Kim, J.I.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.341-344
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    • 2008
  • In order to study the effect of shot blasting condition on the formability of thin high strength steels, specimens were made by changing line speed of a commercial shot blasting plant with maintaining constant impeller condition. Surface roughness of prepared specimens was multiplied by lowering line speed or increasing density of shot impact. Formability was reduced as increasing shot impact. The elongation and stretching formability of shot blasted sheet were decreased by about 10% compared to original sheet. More significant decrease in bending formability was observed after shot blasting. This might be due to the concentrated impact near the surface where major strain occurs during bending process.

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Alkali-Treatment of Polyester/Cotton Blend Fabric (Polyester/면 혼방직물의 alkali 처리가공)

  • Lee, Suk-Young;Cho, Hwan
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.6-14
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    • 1991
  • To develop an one-bath process for weight-reduction and mercerization of polyester/cotton fabric, concentrated NaOH solution was padded and steam-treated at high temperature. Following results which can be used commercially are obtained. (1) Steaming temperature of 110-12$0^{\circ}C$ is most efficient. (2) Optimum concentration of NaOH solution is 15-20%. (3) Most favorable weight-reduction is 20% in the aspect of fabric handle, and under this treating condition, dye exhaustion onto the mercerized cotton fiber is also increased to 40% or more. From above results, we believe that the economical and concurrent weight-reduction and mercerzation of polyester/cotton fabric can be realized. Moreover, with continuous treatment by pad-steam procedure, it is expected that this is, also, advantageous for the improvement of fabric quality and productivity.

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Effect of Temperature and Sulfuric acid treatment on the Germination of Hovenia dulcis Thunb (온도 및 황산처리가 헛개나무 종자의 발아에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the optimum condition of breaking dormancy and to increase the germination rate of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. seeds. Germination of seeds which did not germinate at the various constant temperature was induced by the artificial breaking of seed coat, and the germination rate of seeds which the seed coats were broken was the highest(94%) at $15^{\circ}C$. The germination rate of seed was highest when seeds were treated with concentrated $H_2SO_4$ for 40 minutes. When seeds were stored in dry condition, the germination capability was maintained up to 5 years after harvest. However, their germination rate become lowered and average germinating duration was extended. Germination rate of seeds which were stored for 5 years significantly increased by the low temperature treatment more than 30 days.

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The Effect of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Therapy on the Condition of Different Concentration in Rheumatoid Arthritis Rat Model (흰쥐의 류마티스 관절염 모델에서 봉약침의 농도별 처리 조건에 따른 치료 효과)

  • You, Deok-Seon;Yeom, Seung-Ryong;Lee, Su-Kyung;Kwon, Young-Dal;Song, Yung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.101-123
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The aim was to study the effect of bee venom pharmacopuncture therapy with different concentration on rheumatoid arthritis rat model. Methods : We enforced a bee venom pharmacopuncture therapy with different concentration on rheumatoid arthritis rat model by the intradermal injection of chicken type II collagen emulsified. 14 days after the onset of the rheumatoid arthritis rat model, a fixed volume of bee venom was daily injected to ST-35 acupoint in the rat's knee joint for 2-3 weeks. The hind paw volume, arthritic index, arthritic flexion pain test, pain threshold, and serum analysis (CRP, $PGE_2$, ALT, AST) were analyzed, and the expression profiles of COX-2, c-fos, and substance-P at the dorsal horn region of the spinal cord and subchondral bone of the knee joint were also analyzed by using the immunohistochemistry. Results : After the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis rats with bee venom pharmacopuncture, the paw volume of edema of arthritic rats were almost restored to the level of normal group, and behavior tests were very effective. Also the evaluation on the blood serum analysis was remarkable. COX-2, c-fos, and substance-P positive cells in the immunohistological section of dorsal horn region of the spinal cord and subchondral bone of the knee joints were significantly decreased. also the bee venom pharmacopuncture was effective to alleviate their rheumatoid arthritic inflammation cytokine inhibition as regards to the behavior tests and joint histological appearance. Conclusions : Based on the results in this study, bee venom pharmacopuncture with concentrated treatment condition was very effective in low fixed quantity and progressive low increased quantity.

Estimation of Ammonia Stripping Condition for Adequate Aerobic Liquid-Composting of Swine Manure (돈분뇨의 적합한 호기성 액비화를 위한 암모니아 탈기조건 설정)

  • Son, Bo-Kyoon;Gang, Seong-Gu;Jo, Eun-Ju;Kim, Shin-Do;Lee, Chang-Ju;Kim, Jeong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2006
  • Aeration is the most important and indispensable operation unit for the treatment of swine manure using aerobic liquid-composting process. The composting of swine manure depends on biological treatment process, but the highly concentrated ammonia nitrogen is required a pretreatment to expect the appropriate efficiency of the biological treatment process. In this study, pilot experiments have been carried out to estimate of the fit condition about ammonia stripping process as a pretreatment to aerobic liquid- composting. pH adjustment with $Ca(OH)_2$ was economically superior to use of NaOH and optimum pH of ammonia stripping was 12.3, ammonia nitorgen was rapidly removed as pH were increased at $$35^{\circ}C$$. When air stripping is performed before aerobic liquid-stripping, a high initial pH is required for complete ammonia removal and is additional effects such as organic substances, phosphorus, turbidity, and color removal. Stripping process was very efficient in the pretreatment of highly concentrated ammonia nitrogen for composting of swine manure. Emission rate of gaseous ammonia was $0.5355mole\;s^{-1}$ at initial time and $0.0253mole\;s^{-1}$ at finitial time. The fit condition of ammonia stripping in this study were at the temperature of $$35^{\circ}C$$, and the pH of 12.3 during 48 hours.

Removal potential of dissolved gas in gas hydrate desalination process by reverse osmosis (역삼투막을 이용한 가스하이드레이트 해수담수화 공정 내 용존 가스의 제거 가능성 평가)

  • Ryu, Hyunwook;Kim, Minseok;Lim, Jun-Heok;Kim, Joung Ha;Lee, Ju Dong;Kim, Suhan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.635-643
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    • 2016
  • Gas hydrate (GH)-based desalination process have a potential as a novel unit desalination process. GHs are nonstoichiometric crystalline inclusion compounds formed at low temperature and a high pressure condition by water and a number of guest gas molecules. After formation, pure GHs are separated from the remaining concentrated seawater and they are dissociated into guest gas and pure water in a low temperature and a high pressure condition. The condition of GH formation is different depending on the type of guest gas. This is the reason why the guest gas is a key to success of GH desalination process. The salt rejection of GH based desalination process appeared 60.5-93%, post treatment process is needed to finally meet the product water quality. This study adopted reverse osmosis (RO) as a post treatment. However, the test about gas rejection by RO process have to be performed because the guest gas will be dissolved in a GH product (RO feed). In this research, removal potential of dissolved gas by RO process is performed using lab-scale RO system and GC/MS analysis. The relation between RO membrane characteristics and gas removal rate were analyzed based on the GC/MS measurement.