• Title/Summary/Keyword: Congestion

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Internalizing Environmental Cost using TDM Alternatives (교통수요관리 기법을 활용한 환경오염비용의 내부화 방안연구)

  • 김운수;엄진기;황기연;장지희
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 1999
  • With a growing awareness, transportation is the maior source of urban air pollution. Planners and policy-makers are strongly urged to care the impacts of transportation management strategies on environment. Since transport-related air Pollution can be regarded as negative externalities of transport, it is indispensable to evaluate chanties in air quality which seems to occur when proposed transport measures are implemented. In addition, transport measures should be integrated in a set of combined Paradigm regarding transport and environment. Based on the integrated Paradigm between transportation demand management(TDM) and environmental planning, the main focus is given to apply environment cost internalizing measures to the short-term congestion management Program(SCMP) in Seoul, that has been developed in 1998 by Seoul Development Institute. Three modules are analyzed: without and/or with ₩500, ₩1000 emission plus gas tax, respectively. From the empirical applications on Seoul city, one of the most exemplary findings in SCMP program is that, emission plus gas tax can be a very useful measure to reduce vehicular emissions by targeting major Pollutants differently, rather than by dealing with pollutants collectively. Further research that provides (1)showing the spatial variation of pollution levels along the intersections, (2)more developing combined Paradigm between transport, land use, and environment, (3)using environmental road capacity rather than Physical-aspects of road capacity, and (4)continuing R&D on air quality constrained TDM, can contribute significantly to applications of the real and efficient environment-constrained transportation planning.

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Effects of Hagocho (Prunella vulgaris L.), Gamgook (Chrysanthemum indicum L.) and Galgeun (Pueraria Radix) on Plasma Lipid Compositin and Histological Consideration in Hyperlipidemic Rat (하고초, 감국 및 갈근 증류액이 비만쥐의 지질구성 및 각종 장기의 해부조직학적 소견에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chan-Hee;Kim, Nam-Young;Nam, Eun-Jeung;Kim, Sang-Hyeun;Lee, Ji-Hyang;Lee, Eun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 2007
  • Effects of prunella vulgaris L., chrysanthemum indicum L. and pueraria Radix on plasma lipid composition and histological consideration were investigated in hyperlipidemic rats. Concentration of plasma ${\beta},-lipoprotein$ showed a tendence to decrease in prunella vulgaris L., chrysanthemum indicum L. and pueraria Radix treatment groups. However these values were showed not significantly different from control group. Concentration of plasma FFA in prunella vulgaris L., chrysanthemum indicum L. and pueraria Radix treatment groups showed a lower values compared to control group and concentration of plasma FFA of prunella vulgaris L. and pueraria Radix treatment group showed a lower values than prunella vulgaris L. and chrysanthemum indicum L. treatment group. Concentration of plasma glucose and triglyceride showed a tendence to decrease in prunella vulgaris L., chrysanthemum indicum L. and pueraria Radix treatment groups. However plasma glucose values showed not significantly different from control group. Plasma total cholesterol concentration showed a low and HDL-cholesterol concentration showed a high in prunella vulgaris L. and pueraria Radix treatment group. However LDL-cholesterol concentrations were not significantly different in treatment groups. Histological consideration of heart, liver and kidney in prunella vulgaris L. and pueraria Radix treatment groups showed a good features in fat accumulation condition than those of other treatment groups. However in the condition of high fat accumulation in tissues, heart, liver and kidney were showed a slight congestion and a bashed cell nucleus.

A Comparative Toxicological Study of Dried Mylabris phalerata Extract and it's Modifier : Single Dose Toxicity on Male Mice (반묘(斑猫)와 가공반묘(加工斑猫)의 단회투여(單回投與) 독성에 대한 비교연구)

  • Roh, Heui-Mok;Kim, Seong-Mo;Choi, Hong-Sik
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare, the potency of toxicity of Cantharidin containing dried Mylabis phalerata (MP) extract and it's modifier. Methods : They were monitored at dosage level 2,000, 1,000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. Changes of body weight, clinical signs, mortality, LD50, macroscopic changes of gastrointestinal tract and liver were observed after single oral dose of test articles with changes of serum Gastrin and Somatostatin levels. Results : Dosage-dependent decrease of body weight and/or gains were demonstrated in dried MP extract-dosing groups, were also detected in modified and dried MP extract-dosing groups at 2,000 and 1,000 mg/kg-dosing group. However, below 500 mg/kg-dosing group, the body weights were significantly increased compared to that of equal dosage group of dried MP extract-dosing group. Dosage-dependently detected clinical signs in dried MP extract-dosing groups, were also detected in modified and dried MP extract-dosing groups at 2,000 and 1,000 mg/kg-dosing group. However, below 500 mg/kg-dosing group, these clinical signs dramatically were decreased compared to that of equal dosage group of dried MP extract-dosing group. Dosage-dependent increase of mortality rates were observed in dried MP extract-dosing groups, were also detected in modified and dried MP extract-dosing groups at 2,000 and 1,000 mg/kg-dosing group. However, below 500 mg/kg-dosing group, the mortalities were significantly decreased compared to that of equal dosage group of dried MP extract-dosing group. The LD50 of dried MP extract in male mice was dramaticlly increased in their modify, 265.86 vs 426.99 mg/kg. Dosage-dependently increase of number of hemorrhagic and/or erythematous spots detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of dried MP extract-dosing groups, were also detected in modified and dried MP extract-dosing groups at 2,000 and 1,000 mg/kg-dosing group. However, below 500 mg/kg-dosing group, these abnormal spots were dramatically decreased compared to that of equal dosage group of dried MP extract-dosing group. Dosage-dependently increase of degrees of enlargement and congestion detected in the liver of dried MP extract-dosing groups, were also detected in modified and dried MP extract-dosing groups at 2,000 and 1,000 mg/kg-dosing group. However, below 500 mg/kg-dosing group, these abnormal signs were dramatically decreased compared to that of equal dosage group of dried MP extract-dosing group. Dosage-dependently increase of serum gastrin levels of dried MP extract-dosing groups, were also detected in modified and dried MP extract-dosing groups at 2,000 and 1,000 mg/kg-dosing group. However, below 500 mg/kg-dosing group, these abnormal increase were dramatically decreased compared to that of equal dosage group of dried MP extract-dosing group. Dosage-dependently increase of serum somatostatin levels of dried MP extract-dosing groups, were also detected in modified and dried MP extract-dosing groups at 2,000 and 1,000 mg/kg-dosing group. However, below 500 mg/kg-dosing group, these abnormal increase were dramatically decreased compared to that of equal dosage group of dried MP extract-dosing group. Conclusions : The toxicity of dried MP extract was reduced by their modify.

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Scintigraphic Evaluation of Inhalation Injury in Fire Victims (화재사고시 흡입에 의한 기도손상의 핵의학적 평가)

  • Chun, Kyung-Ah;Cho, Ihn-Ho;Won, Gyu-Jang;Lee, Hyung-Woo;Shin, Kyung-Chul;Jeong, Jin-Hong;Lee, Gwan-Ho
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.28-32
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Conventional chest X-ray and pulmonary function test cannot sensitively detect inhalation injury. Bronchoscopy is known to be the gold standard but it is invasive method. We evaluated whether lung inhalation/perfusion scans can sensitively detect inhalation injury of fire victims. Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients (male 9, female 10, mean age 31.6 yr) of fire victims were enrolled in this study. Inhalation lung scan was performed 2 days later after inhalation injury with $^{99m}Tc$-technegas. Perfusion lung scan was performed 4 days later with $^{99m}Tc$- MAA (macroaggregated albumin). Follow up lung scans were performed 16 and 18 days later for each. Chest X-ray was performed in all patients and bronchoscopy was performed in 17 of 19 patients at the same period. Pulmonary function test was performed in 9 patients. Results: Four of 19 patients showed inhalation and perfusion defects and one showed inhalation defect but, normal perfusion scan findings. These five patients with abnormal scan findings showed abnormal bronchoscopic findings and severe respiratory symptoms. On chest X-ray, 2 of them had pulmonary tuberculosis and one of them showed pulmonary congestion. FEV1 /FVC was abnormal in 3 patients. On the follow up scan, all patients with abnormal initial scan findings showed improved findings and they had improved clinical state. Conclusion: Inhalation/perfusion lung scans can detect inhalation burn injury noninvasively in early stage and may be useful in therapeutic decision making and follow up of patients.

Experimental Pathogenesis of Pullorum Disease with the Local Isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar. enterica subspecies Pullorum in Pullets in Bangladesh

  • Haider, M.G.;Chowdhury, E.H.;Khan, M.A.H.N.A.;Hossain, M.T.;Rahman, M.S.;Song, H.J.;Hossain, M.M.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2009
  • The research work was carried out to study the pathogenesis covering the clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions in different organs, and reisolation and identification of the organisms after experimental infection with the local isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar. enterica subspecies (S.) Pullorum at different time interval of the experiment during the period February 2006 to December 2006. One hundred pullets (seronegative to S. Pullorum of 12 weeks age were purchased and divided into 5 (A, B, C, D and E) groups and each group consisted of 20 birds. Four groups (A, B, C and D) were infected orally with a dose of $10^6\;CFU$, $10^7\;CFU$, $2{\times}10^7\;CFU$, $10^8\;CFU$ of S. Pullorum, respectively, and one group (E) was treated as uninfected control. The used methods were necropsy and histopathology, culture of bacteria, staining and biochemical test of Salmonella. Five birds from each group were randomly selected and sacrificed $1^{st}$ week, $2^{nd}$, $3^{rd}$ and $4^{th}$ weeks of post infection (PI). From all the groups, the bacteriological samples (crop, liver, lung, heart, spleen, bile duodenum, ceca and blood) were collected with pre enriched in buffered peptone water in sterile poly bags. Liver, lungs, heart, spleen, intestine, etc. were collected in 10% buffered-formalin for histopathological examination. No clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions were found in control group and no S. Pullorum was reisolated. Clinical sign of experimentally infected with S. Pullorum in pullets were loss of appetite (100%), slight depression (75%), ruffled feathers (85%), diarrhea (60%) and loss of weight (100%) in chickens. The feed intake and body weight at different weeks after PI differed significantly (p<0.01) among the groups. Grossly, the highest recorded lesion was button-like ulcer in the ceca (80%) and the lowest was white nodules in lungs (1.25%). S. Pullorum were reisolated from crop (91.25%), liver (91.25%), lung (83.75%), heart (71.25%), spleen (87.75%), bile (33.25%), duodenum (92.50%), ceca (97.50%) and from different group of infection (61.25%). The highest microscopic findings were intestinal and cecal mucosa and submucosa exhibited infiltration of mononuclear cells and congestion (96.25%), and the lowest finding was nodule formation in the lungs (3.75%). The pattern of the disease production by local isolate of S. Pullorum in Bangladesh is almost similar with other isolates in different countries.

Effect of Thyroid Hormone on the Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Canine Lung (갑상선 호르몬이 잡견 폐장의 허혈-재관류 손상에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영태;성숙환
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.637-647
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    • 1999
  • Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the major contributing causes of early graft failure in lung transplantation. It has been suggested that triiodothyronine (T3) may ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury to various organs in vivo and in vitro. Predicting its beneficial effect for ischemic lung injury, we set out to demonstrate it by administering T3 into the in situ canine ischemia-reperfusion model. Material and Method: Sixteen adult mongrel dogs were randomly allocated into group A and B. T3 $(3.6\mug/kg)$ was administered before the initiation of single lung ischemia in group B, whereas the same amount of saline was administered in group A. Ischemia was induced in the left lung by clamping the left hilum for 100 minutes. After reperfusion, various hemodynamic parameters and blood gases were analyzed for 4 hours while intermittently clamping the right hilum in order to allow observation of the injured left lung function. Result: Arterial oxygen partial pressure $(PaO_2)$ decreased 30 minutes after reperfusion and recovered gradually thereafter in both groups. In group B the decrease of $PaO_2$ was less marked than in group A. The recovery of $PaO_2$ was faster in group B than in group A. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant from 30 minutes after reperfusion $(125\pm34$ mmHg and $252\pm44$ mmHg, p<0.05) until the end of the experiment $(178\pm42$mmHg and $330\pm37$ mmHg, p<0.05). The differences in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure, airway pressure and lung compliance showed no statistical significance. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level, measured from the tissue obtained 240 minutes after reperfusion, was lower in group B $(0.40\pm0.04\mu$M) than in group A $(0.53\pm0.05\mu$M, p<0.05). The ATP level of group B $(0.69\pm0.07\mu$M/g) was significantly higher than that of group A $(0.48\pm0.07\mu$M/g, p<0.05). The microscopic exami nation revealed varying degrees of injury such as perivascular neutrophil infiltration, capillary hemorrhage and interstitial congestion. There were no differences in the microscopic findings between the two groups. CONCLUSION T3 has beneficial effects on the ischemic canine lung injury including preservation of oxygenation capacity, less production of lipid peroxidation products and a higher level of tissue ATP. These results suggest that T3 is effective in pulmonary allograft preservation.

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Successful 20 hours Canine Allograft Preservation with new Solution Containing Triiodothyronine - Development of new lung preservation solution II - (삼요드티로닌을 포함한 폐보존액을 이용한 20시간 폐보존 - 새로운 폐 보존액의 개발 II -)

  • 성숙환;김영태;김주현
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.413-421
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    • 1999
  • Background: Ischemia reperfusion injury is known to contribute to the major causes of the early graft failure in lung transplantation. Triiodothyronine (T3) has been suggested to ameliorate ischemia reperfusion injury from both in vivo and in vitro experiments of various organs. Prospecting its beneficial effect for pulmonary allograft preservation, we made a new solution by adding T3 into the extracellular type dextran solution. Material and Method: Twelve adult mongrel dogs underwent left lung allotransplantation. Six donor dogs were flushed with the new solution(Group 1, n=6), and the remaining six were flushed with Euro-Collins solution to serve as controls(Group 2, n=6). Allografts were stored in each preservation solution for 20 hours at 4$^{\circ}C$. Left single lung transplantations were performed. The right pulmonary artery and the right main bronchus were clamped at 15 minutes after the reperfusion and maintained throughout the experiment to evaluate the transplanted left lung function. Result: Arterial carbon dioxide tension was better in group 1 than in group 2 throughout the experiment period and the difference was statistically significant at 2 hours after reperfusion(28.0${\pm}$3.0 mmHg and 53.1${\pm}$17.4 mmHg, p<0.05). The differences of arterial oxygen partial pressure, peak airway pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance showed no statistical significance. The malondialdehyde(MDA) level, measured from tissue obtained at 120 minutes after reperfusion showed no statistically significant difference. The tissue wet/dry ratio of group 1(649${\pm}$27 %) was significantly lower than that of group 2(686${\pm}$71 %, p<0.05). The microscopic examination revealed varying degrees of injury represented mainly by findings such as perivascular neutrophil infiltration, capillary hemorrhage and interstitial congestion. These findings were less severe in group 1 than those in group 2. Conclusion: The new solution demonstrated superior allograft preservation after 20 hour ischemia compared to Euro-Collins solution in canine single left lung transplantation model, these results suggest that T3 might be a promising agent for pulmonary allograft preservation.

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Effectiveness Analysis and Application of Phosphorescent Pavement Markings for Improving Visibility (축광노면표시 시인성 개선에 따른 경제성 분석 및 적용방안)

  • Yi, Yongju;Lee, Kyujin;Kim, Sangtae;Choi, Keechoo
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.815-825
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    • 2017
  • Visibility of lane marking is impaired at night or in the rain, which thereby threatens traffic safety. Recently, various studies and technologies have been developed to improve lane marking visibility, such as the extension of lane marking life expectancy (up to 1.5 times), improvement of lane marking equipment productivity, improvement of lane marking visibility by applying phosphorescent material mixed paint. Cost-benefit analysis was performed with considering various benefit items that can be expected. About 45% of traffic accidents would be prevented by improving lane marking visibility. Additionally, accident reduction benefit and traffic congestion reduction benefit were calculated as much as 246 billion KRW per year and 12 billion KRW per year, respectively, by reducing repaint cycle due to enhanced durability. 45 billion KRW per year is expected to reduced with improved lane detection performance of autonomous vehicle. Meanwhile, total increased cost when introducing phosphorescent material mixed paint to 91,195km of nationwide road is identified as 1922 billion KRW per year. However, economic feasibility could not be secured with 0.16 of cost-benefit ratio when applied to the road network as a whole. In case of "Accident Hot Spot" analyzing section window (400m), one or more fatality or two or more injured (one or more injured in case of less than 2 lanes per direction) per year were caused by pavement marking related accident, economic feasibility was secured. In detail, 3.91 of cost-benefit ratio is estimated with comparison of the installation cost for 5,697 of accident hot spot and accident reduction benefit. Some limitations and future research agenda have also been discussed.

Attitudes and Problems of Urban Parks, in Taegu City, Korea (도시공원(都市公園)의 속성(屬性)과 문제점(問題點))

  • Choi, Seok-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.205-217
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    • 1996
  • Today in the industrial society, the urban park is the place for citizens' health, recreation, exercise, and education. This is a very important place as a fine sight and maintenance of public security. As the results of rapid economic growth during the last thirty years, citizens are in the age of material civilization and are challenged with many serious urban problems such as pollution, noise, traffic congestion, human alienation, etc. Rapid material civilization brought to citizens' mental and physical diseases. To some of the problems, it is necessary that we should have proper leisure and recreation facilities, and that we should have the active, positive posture to them. Especially we need the out door recreational spaces and facilities. But nowadays the urban parks are given little thought in spites of the necessity of parks which should be used as a recreational spaces in the urban areas. So, This study attempt to comprehend the function, quantity and quality of the urban park system in Taegu. It is clear that the quantity is inappropriate. Because of inappropriate disposition and management, its coefficiency of utilization is low. In view of the population and park ratio, Dong Gu, Nam Gu, Suseong Gu and Dalseong Gun have comparative good, environments. However, Dalseo Qu, Seo Gu and Jung Gu have less geographical features. There are some methods to provide expansion of the aggregate of urban parks. We can use the school-grounds and their facilities. which were moved from C.B.D. to the outskirts of Daegu, or some parts of urban redevelopment, or the riverside of Sincheon river. In the urban park-program, users' satisfaction-factors are analyzed. We must reconsider the efficiency. The above problems are improved. Active administration and inhabitants' Positive participation are demanded so that the sound development of cities and daily life-surroundings are promoted.

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Handover Functional Architecture for Next Generation Wireless Networks (차세대 무선 네트워크를 위한 핸드오버 기능 구조 제안)

  • Baek, Joo-Young;Kim, Dong-Wook;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Kim, Duk-Jin;Kim, Woo-Jae;Suh, Young-Joo;Kang, Suk-Yang;Kim, Kyung-Suk;Shin, Kyung-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • 2006.10d
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    • pp.268-273
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    • 2006
  • 차세대 무선 네트워크 (4G)는 새로운 무선 접속 기술의 개발과 함께 많은 연구가 필요한 분야이다. 그 중에서 특히 단말의 끊김없는 이동성을 제공해 주기 위한 핸드오버 기술이 가장 중요하다고 할 수 있다. 차세대 무선 네트워크는 새로운 무선 접속 기술과 함께 기존의 무선랜이나 이동통신망 등과 같이 사용될 것으로 예상되며, 네트워크 계층에서의 이동성 지원을 위하여 Mobile IPv6를 사용할 것으로 예상되는 네트워크이다. 이러한 네트워크에서 끊김없는 이동성을 제공해 주기 위해서는 현재까지 연구된 핸드오버 기능 및 구조에 대한 연구와 함께 보다 다양해진 네트워크 환경과 QoS 등을 고려한 종합적인 핸드오버 기능에 대한 연구가 필요하다. 본 논문에서는 차세대 무선 네트워크에서 단말의 끊김없는 핸드오버를 제공해 주기 위하여 필요한 기능들을 도출하고, 이들간의 유기적인 연관관계를 정의하여 다양한 네트워크 환경과 사용자의 우선순위, 어플리케이션의 QoS 요구 조건 등을 고려한 종합적인 핸드오버 기능 구조를 제안하고자 한다. 제안하는 핸드오버 구조는 Monitoring, Triggering, Handover의 세 가지 module로 나뉘어져 있으며, 각각은 필요에 따라 sub-module로 다시 세분화된다. 제안하는 핸드오버 구조의 가장 큰 특징은 핸드오버를 유발시킬 수 있는 여러 가지 요소를 종합적으로 고려하며 이들간의 수평적인 비교가 아닌 다단계 비교를 수행하여 보다 정확한 triggering이 가능하도록 한다. 또한 단말의 QoS 요구 사항을 보장하고 네트워크의 혼잡도(congestion) 및 부하 조절 (load balancing)을 위한 기능을 핸드오버 기능에 추가하여 효율적인 네트워크의 자원 사용이 가능하도록 설계하였다.서버로 분산처리하게 함으로써 성능에 대한 신뢰성을 향상 시킬 수 있는 Load Balancing System을 제안한다.할 때 가장 효과적인 라우팅 프로토콜이라고 할 수 있다.iRNA 상의 의존관계를 분석할 수 있었다.수안보 등 지역에서 나타난다 이러한 이상대 주변에는 대개 온천이 발달되어 있었거나 새로 개발되어 있는 곳이다. 온천에 이용하고 있는 시추공의 자료는 배제하였으나 온천이응으로 직접적으로 영향을 받지 않은 시추공의 자료는 사용하였다 이러한 온천 주변 지역이라 하더라도 실제는 온천의 pumping 으로 인한 대류현상으로 주변 일대의 온도를 올려놓았기 때문에 비교적 높은 지열류량 값을 보인다. 한편 한반도 남동부 일대는 이번 추가된 자료에 의해 새로운 지열류량 분포 변화가 나타났다 강원 북부 오색온천지역 부근에서 높은 지열류량 분포를 보이며 또한 우리나라 대단층 중의 하나인 양산단층과 같은 방향으로 발달한 밀양단층, 모량단층, 동래단층 등 주변부로 NNE-SSW 방향의 지열류량 이상대가 발달한다. 이것으로 볼 때 지열류량은 지질구조와 무관하지 않음을 파악할 수 있다. 특히 이러한 단층대 주변은 지열수의 순환이 깊은 심도까지 가능하므로 이러한 대류현상으로 지표부근까지 높은 지온 전달이 되어 나타나는 것으로 판단된다.의 안정된 방사성표지효율을 보였다. $^{99m}Tc$-transferrin을 이용한 감염영상을 성공적으로 얻을 수 있었으며, $^{67}Ga$-citrate 영상과 비교하여 더 빠른 시간 안에 우수한 영상을 얻을 수 있었다. 그러므로 $^{99m}Tc$-transierrin이 감염 병소의 영상진단에 사용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.리를 정량화 하였다. 특히 선

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