• Title/Summary/Keyword: Congestion

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Pharmacological Studies of Cefoperazone(T-1551) (Cefoperazone(T-1551)의 약리학적 연구)

  • Lim J.K.;Hong S.A.;Park C.W.;Kim M.S.;Suh Y.H.;Shin S.G.;Kim Y.S.;Kim H.W.;Lee J.S.;Chang K.C.;Lee S.K.;Chang K.C.;Kim I.S.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.2 s.27
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    • pp.55-70
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    • 1980
  • The pharmacological and microbiological studies of Cefoperazone (T-1551, Toyama Chemical Co., Japan) were conducted in vitro and in vivo. The studies included stability and physicochemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity, animal and human pharmacokinetics, animal pharmacodynamics and safety evaluation of Cefoperazone sodium for injection. 1) Stability and physicochemical characteristics. Sodium salt of cefoperazone for injection had a general appearance of white crystalline powder which contained 0.5% water, and of which melting point was $187.2^{\circ}C$. The pH's of 10% and 25% aqueous solutions were 5.03 ana 5.16 at $25^{\circ}C$. The preparations of cefoperazone did not contain any pyrogenic substances and did not liberate histamine in cats. The drug was highly compatible with common infusion solutions including 5% Dextrose solution and no significant potency decrease was observed in 5 hours after mixing. Powdered cefoperazone sodium contained in hermetically sealed and ligt-shielded container was highly stable at $4^circ}C{\sim}37^{\circ}C$ for 12 weeks. When stored at $4^{\circ}C$ the potency was retained almost completely for up to one year. 2) Antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates. Among the 230 clinical isolates included, Salmonella typhi was the most susceptible to cefoperazone, with 100% inhibition at MIC of ${\leq}0.5{\mu}g/ml$. Cefoperazone was also highly active against Streptococcus pyogenes(group A), Kletsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri, with 100% inhibition at $16{\mu}g/ml$ or less. More than 80% of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella paratyphi was inhibited at ${\leq}16{\mu}/ml$, while Enterobacter cloaceae, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aerogenosa were somewhat less sensitive to cefoperagone, with inhibitions of 60%, 55% and 35% respectively at the same MIC. 3) Animal pharmacokinetics Serum concentration, organ distritution and excretion of cefoperazone in rats were observed after single intramuscular injections at doses of 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. The extent of protein binding to human plasma protein was also measured in vitro br equilibrium dialysis method. The mean Peak serum concentrations of $7.4{\mu}g/ml$ and $16.4{\mu}/ml$ were obtained at 30 min. after administration of cefoperazone at doses of 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively. The tissue concentrations of cefoperazone measured at 30 and 60 min. were highest in kidney. And the concentrations of the drug in kidney, liver and small intestine were much higher than in blood. Urinary and fecal excretion over 24 hours after injetcion ranged form 12.5% to 15.0% in urine and from 19.6% to 25.0% in feces, indicating that the gastrointestinal system is more important than renal system for the excretion of cefoperazone. The extent of binding to human plasma protein measured by equilibrium dialysis was $76.3%{\sim}76.9%$, which was somewhat lower than the others utilizing centrifugal ultrafiltration method. 4) Animal pharmacodynamics Central nervous system : Effects of cefoperazone on the spontaneous movement and general behavioral patterns of rats, the pentobarbital sleeping time in mice and the body temperature in rabbits were observed. Single intraperitoneal injections at doses of $500{\sim}2,000mg/kg$ in rats did not affect the spontaneous movement ana the general behavioral patterns of the animal. Doses of $125{\sim}500mg/kg$ of cefoperazone injected intraperitonealy in mice neither increased nor decreased the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. In rabbits the normal body temperature was maintained following the single intravenous injections of $125{\sim}2,000mg/kg$ dose. Respiratory and circulatory system: Respiration rate, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG of anesthetized rabbits were monitored for 3 hours following single intravenous injections of cefoperazone at doses of $125{\sim}2,000mg/kg$. The respiration rate decreased by $3{\sim}l7%$ at all the doses of cefoperazone administered. Blood pressure did not show any changes but slight decrease from 130/113 to 125/107 by the highest dose(2,000 mg/kg) injected in this experiment. The dosages of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg seemed to slightly decrease the heart rate, but it was not significantly different from the normal control. All the doses of cefoperazone injected were not associated with any abnormal changes in ECG findings throughout the monitering period. Autonomic nervous system and smooth muscle: Effects of cefoperazone on the automatic movement of rabbit isolated small intestine, large intestine, stomach and uterus were observed in vitro. The autonomic movement and tonus of intestinal smooth muscle increased at dose of $40{\mu}g/ml$ in small intestine and at 0.4 mg/ml in large intestine. However, in stomach and uterine smooth muscle the autonomic movement was slightly increased by the much higher doses of 5-10 mg/ml. Blood: In vitro osmotic fragility of rabbit RBC suspension was not affected by cefoperazone of $1{\sim}10mg/ml$. Doses of 7.5 and 10 mg/ml were associated with 11.8% and 15.3% prolongation of whole blood coagulation time. Liver and kidney function: When measured at 3 hours after single intravenous injections of cefoperaonze in rabbits, the values of serum GOT, GPT, Bilirubin, TTT, BUN and creatine were not significantly different from the normal control. 5) Safety evaluation Acute toxicity: The acute toxicity of cefoperazone was studied following intraperitoneal and intravenous injections to mice(A strain, 4 week old) and rats(Sprague-Dawler, 6 week old). The LD_(50)'s of intraperitonealy injected cefoperazone were 9.7g/kg in male mice, 9.6g/kg in female mice and over 15g/kg in both male and female rats. And when administered intravenously in rats, LD_(50)'s were 5.1g/kg in male and 5.0g/kg in female. Administrations of the high doses of the drug were associated with slight inhibition of spontaneous movement and convulsion. Atdominal transudate and intestinal hyperemia were observed in animals administered intraperitonealy. In rats receiving high doses of the drug intravenously rhinorrhea and pulmonary congestion and edema were also observed. Renal proximal tubular epithelial degeneration was found in animals dosing in high concentrations of cefoperazone. Subacute toxicity: Rats(Sprague-Dawley, 6 week old) dosing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg/day of cefoperazone intraperitonealy were observed for one month and sacrificed at 24 hours after the last dose. In animals with a high dose, slight inhibition of spontaneous movement was observed during the experimental period. Soft stool or diarrhea appeared at first or second week of the administration in rats receiving 2.0g/kg. Daily food consumption and weekly weight gain were similar to control during the administration. Urinalysis, blood chemistry and hematology after one month administration were not different from control either. Cecal enlargement, which is an expected effect of broad spectrum antibiotic altering the normal intestinal microbial flora, was observed. Intestinal or peritoneal congestion and peritonitis were found. These findings seemed to be attributed to the local irritation following prolonged intraperitoneal injections of hypertonic and acidic cefoperazone solution. Among the histopathologic findings renal proximal tubular epithelial degeneration was characteristic in rats receiving 1 and 2g/kg/day, which were 10 and 20 times higher than the maximal clinical dose (100 mg/kg) of the drug. 6) Human pharmacokinetics Serum concentrations and urinary excretion were determined following a single intravenous injection of 1g cefoperazone in eight healthy, male volunteers. Mean serum concentrations of 89.3, 61.3, 26.6, 12.3, 2.3, and $1.8{\mu}g/ml$ occured at 1,2,4,6,8 and 12 hours after injection respectively, and the biological half-life was 108 minutes. Urinary excretion over 24 hours after injection was up to 43.5% of administered dose.

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Air Pollution and Its Effects on E.N.T. Field (대기오염과 이비인후과)

  • 박인용
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • 1972.03a
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    • pp.6-7
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    • 1972
  • The air pollutants can be classified into the irritant gas and the asphixation gas, and the irritant gas is closely related to the otorhinolaryngological diseases. The common irritant gases are nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrogen carbon compounds, and the potent and irritating PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate) which is secondarily liberated from photosynthesis. Those gases adhers to the mucous membrane to result in ulceration and secondary infection due to their potent oxidizing power. 1. Sulfur dioxide gas Sulfur dioxide gas has the typical characteristics of the air pollutants. Because of its high solubility it gets easily absorbed in the respiratory tract, when the symptoms and signs by irritation become manifested initially and later the resistance in the respiratory tract brings central about pulmonary edema and respiratory paralysis of origin. Chronic exposure to the gas leads to rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and olfactory or gustatory disturbances. 2. Carbon monoxide Toxicity of carbon monoxide is due to its deprivation of the oxygen carrying capacity of the hemoglobin. The degree of the carbon monoxide intoxication varies according to its concentration and the duration of inhalation. It starts with headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting and tinnitus, which can progress to respiratory difficulty, muscular laxity, syncope, and coma leading to death. 3. Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioxide causes respiratory disturbances by formation of methemoglobin. In acute poisoning, it can cause pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, bronchitis, and pneumonia due to its strong irritation on the eyes and the nose. In chronic poisoning, it causes chronic pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary edema. 4. Ozone It has offending irritating odor, and causes dryness of na sopharyngolaryngeal mucosa, headache and depressed pulmonary function which may eventually lead to pulmonary congestion or edema. 5. Smog The most outstanding incident of the smog occurred in London from December 5 through 8, 1952, because of which the mortality of the respiratory diseases increased fourfold. The smog was thought to be due to the smoke produced by incomplete combustion and its byproduct the sulfur oxides, and the dust was thought to play the secondary role. In new sense, hazardous is the photochemical smog which is produced by combination of light energy and the hydrocarbons and oxidant in the air. The Yonsei University Institute for Environmental :pollution Research launched a project to determine the relationship between the pollution and the medical, ophthalmological and rhinopharyngological disorders. The students (469) of the "S" Technical School in the most heavily polluted area in Pusan (Uham Dong district) were compared with those (345) of "K" High School in the less polluted area. The investigated group had those with subjective symptoms twice as much as the control group, 22.6% (106) in investigated group and 11.3% (39) in the control group. Among those symptomatic students of the investigated group. There were 29 with respiratory symptoms (29%), 22 with eye symptoms (21%), 50 with stuffy nose and rhinorrhea (47%), and 5 with sore thorat (5%), which revealed that more than half the students (52%) had subjective symptoms of the rhinopharyngological aspects. Physical examination revealed that the investigated group had more number of students with signs than those of the control group by 10%, 180 (38.4%) versus 99 (28.8%). Among the preceding 180 students of the investigated group, there were 8 with eye diseases (44%), 1 with respiratory disease (0.6%), 97 with rhinitis (54%), and 74 with pharyngotonsillitis (41%) which means that 95% of them had rharygoical diseases. The preceding data revealed that the otolaryngological diseases are conspicuously outnumbered in the heavily polluted area, and that there must be very close relationship between the air pollution and the otolaryngological diseases, and the anti-pollution measure is urgently needed.

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Chronological observation of intestinal lesions of rots experimentally infected with Echinostoma hortense (흰쥐의 실험적 호르틴스극구흡충 감염에 있어서 장 병변에 대한 경시적 관찰)

  • 이순형;노태영
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 1990
  • Intestinal histopathological changes due to infection with Echinostcma hortense (Trematoda) were studied in rats after experimental infection with the metacercariae. The metacercariae were obtained from the tadpoles of Rana nigrcmaculata, a second intermediate host infected in the laboratory. Total 18 albino rats(Sprague-Dawley) were given 200 matacercariae each and sacrificed on the day 1, 3, 7, 11, 22 or 44 post-infection(PI) Segments of- the small intestine at 1, 3, 5, 8 and 30 cm posterior to the pylorus(PTP) were rejected and studied histopathologically. 1. The flukes were seen to have intruded into the intervillous space in the upper small intestine at early stages(1∼3 days PI), however, they were located mainly in the intestinal lumen at later stages(7∼44 days PI) . The flukes were sucking and destroying the epithelial layers of villi with their oral and ventral suckers. 2. Histopathological changes of the intestine were recognizable in as early as 1∼3 days after infection, and the changes became severer as the infection progressed. 3. The intestinal mucosa was histopathologically characterized by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia throughout the infection period. Major villous changes were blunting, fusion, severe destruction and loss of epithelial layers of villi. Villous/crypt(V/C) height ratio was remarkably reduced from 3 : 1 in controls to 1 : 1 in severely infected animals. In the stroma of villi, inaamma- tory cell infiltrations, vascular congestion, edema, and/or fibrosis were recognized. The goblet cells were increased in number after 11 days PI. It was revealed in the present study that the pathological changes in the intestine of rats infected with E. hortense were chieay confined to the mucosal layer of the upper small intestine, however, the changes were very severe accompanying remarkable destruction of villi and loss of mucosal integrity, and persistent until 44 days PI.

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Effectiveness Analysis of HOT Lane and Application Scheme for Korean Environment (HOT차로 운영에 대한 효과분석 및 국내활용방안)

  • Choi, Kee Choo;Kim, Jin Howan;Oh, Seung Hwoon
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.29 no.1D
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2009
  • Currently, various types of TDM (Transportation Demand Management) policies are being studied and implemented in an attempt to overcome the limitations of supply oriented policies. In this context, this paper addressed issues of effectiveness and possible domestic implementation of the HOT lane. The possible site of implementation selected for this simulation study is part of the Kyung-bu freeway, where a dedicated bus lane is currently being operated. Minimum length of distance required in between interchanges and access points of the HOT lane for vehicles to safely enter and exit the lane, and traffic management policies for effectively managing the weaving traffic trying to enter and exit the HOT lane were presented. A 5.2km section of freeway from Ki-heuing IC to Suwon IC and a 8.3km section from Hak-uei JC to Pan-gyo JC have been selected as possible sites of implementation for the HOT lane, in which congestion occurs regularly due to the high level of travel demand. VISSIM simulation program has been used to analyze the effects of the HOT lane under the assumption that one-lane HOT lane has been put into operation in these sections and that the lane change rate were in between 5% to 30%. The results of each possible scenario have proven that overall travel speed on the general lanes have increased as well by 1.57~2.62km/h after the implementation of the HOT lane. It is meaningful that this study could serve as a basic reference data for possible follow-up studies on the HOT lane as one effective method of TDM policies. Considering that the bus travel rate would continue increase and assuming the improvement in travel speed on general lanes, similar case study can be implemented where gaps between buses on bus lane are available, as a possible alternative of efficient bus lane management policies.

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Fun of Animation-on the Correlation among the Perceptive fun, the Cognitive fun and the Psychological fun (애니메이션의 재미 - 감각적 재미, 인지적 재미, 심리적 재미의 상관관계)

  • Sung, Re-A
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • s.33
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    • pp.99-126
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    • 2013
  • This study is meant to be seeing how fun of animation works by reviewing it theoretically and coordinating it to suggest the structure which integrates fun of animation and validates the proposed fun model. After reviewing fun theoretically, the fun of animation could be able to coordinate that fun of animation is consist of perceptive fun, cognitive fun, and psychological fun. Perceptive fun is induced by visual, auditory and other sensory information and it is directly affected the image, sound, and movement. Cognitive fun can be obtained by reasoning and interpretation to mobilize their knowledge with sensuously perceived stimulation and it is directly affected the story. Psychological fun occurs when the audience see the animation. The psychological fun is the psychological emotional state when the audience watches animation by relieving psychological congestion. It consists of fun of unfamiliarity or identification. By suggesting research model and validating it how the perceptive fun, cognitive fun, and psychological fun affects each other, perceptive fun enhances cognitive fun and psychological fun. Although cognitive fun enhances psychological fun, cognitive fun enhances psychological fun twice than perceptive fun. Also when perceptive fun affects psychological fun, cognitive fun shows the indirect effect as a parameter. In conclusion, perceptive fun affects psychological fun directly and be enhanced through cognitive fun. Fun of animation can be experienced when perceptive fun caused by accepting sensory information of animation instantly, cognitive fun caused by interpretation and understanding sensory information of animation, and psychological fun caused by relieving psychological identity through recognition fuses and acts as one. An animation emphasized a certain element is difficult to be loved by the audience. In this reason, an harmonical combination among the elements of story, image, sound and movement are important to combinate harmoniously for a successful animation to make the audiences fun by arising funny emotions.

An Analysis of Velocity Patterns and Improvement Effect after Application of Domestic Roundabout Design Guidelines (Focusing on Busan Metropolitan City) (국내 회전교차로 설계지침 적용에 따른 속도패턴과 개선효과 분석 - 부산광역시를 중심으로 -)

  • Lim, Chang-Sik;Choi, Yang-Won
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.305-316
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    • 2013
  • To find out if modern roundabout is still effective under drivers behavior and driving conditions in Busan Metropolitan City, the effects before and after introduction of roundabout were analyzed. According to analysis on velocity profile at roundabout, velocity deviation decreased, and average vehicle speed was close to design speed. As a result, it has been confirmed that most roundabouts were properly built. In terms of traffic operation, average vehicle speed improved by 87.2% when a traffic intersection was replaced by a roundabout. therefore, it has been found out that the introduction of roundabout has a positive effect on increasing vehicle speed by reducing traffic congestion. In addition, annual benefits expected from the replacement from a traffic intersection to a roundabout were KRW 872 million as follows; KRW 410 million in traffic communication, KRW 39 million in transportation safety, KRW 255 million in energy saving, KRW 95 million in reduction of air pollution and KRW 73 million in reduction of traffic signal installation cost. In other words, if 10% (193 spots) of all traffic intersections (1,926 spots in total) in Busan City are replaced by roundabouts, the municipal authority would be able to save about KRW 168.3 billion. According to analysis on the benefits expected from the installation of roundabouts compared to the investment cost for traffic intersections, about KRW 679 million could be saved per roundabout. Considering 10% of all traffic intersections in the City of Busan, about KRW 131 billion could be saved annually. The traffic accidents in roundabout usually occur because drivers aren't aware of right-of-way rules. Once the right-of-way rules settle, the number of traffic accidents would significantly decrease. In addition, it is urgent to promote education and campaign for drivers, pedestrians and bikers on the roundabout.

High fructose and high fat diet increased bone volume of trabecular and cortical bone in growing female rats (고과당 및 고지방 식이의 섭취가 성장기 동물모델의 골성장과 골성숙에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Hyejin;Yoo, SooYeon;Park, Yoo-Kyoung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.381-389
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a high fructose and fat diet on bone growth and maturation in growing female rats. Methods: Three-week-old female SD rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; the control group (CON: fed control diet based on AIN-93G, n = 8); the high-fructose diet group (HFrc: fed control diet with 30% fructose, n = 8); the high-fat diet group (Hfat: fed control diet with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8); and the high-fat diet plus high fructose group (HFrc + HFat: fed diets 45 kcal% fat with 30% fructose, n = 8). Each group was assigned their respective diets for the remaining eight weeks. Bone-related parameters (bone mineral density (BMD) and structural parameters, osteocalcin (OC), deoxypyridinoline (DPD)) and morphologic changes of kidney were analyzed at the end of the experiment. Results: Final body weights and weight gain were higher in the HFat and HFrc + HFat groups and showed higher tendency in the HFrc group compared with those of the CON group (p < 0.05); however, no significant difference in caloric intake was observed among the four experimental groups. The serum OC levels of the HFrc and HFrc + HFat groups were lower than those of the CON and HFat groups (p < 0.05). Urinary levels of DPD did not differ among the experimental groups. BV/TV and Tb.N of trabecular bone were higher in the HFrc + HFat group and showed a higher tendency in the HFrc group than those of the CON and HFat groups (p < 0.05). Tb.Pf of trabecular bone were lower in the HFrc + HFat group than those in the CON and HFat groups (p < 0.05). However, no difference in trabecular BMD was observed among the experimental groups. Cortical bone volume was higher in the HFat and HFrc + HFat groups than in the CON and HFrc groups (p < 0.05). No morphology change in kidney was observed among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Our study suggests that 8 weeks of high-fructose and high fat intake could improve the bone quality (Structural parameters) of trabecular and cortical bone of tibia in growing female rats.

Analgesic Effects of Gyejibokryeong-hwan Aqueous Extracts on the Rat Model of Primary Dysmenorrhea (원발성 월경통에 대한 계지복령환(桂枝茯苓丸) 열수 추출물의 진통 효과)

  • Cho, Su-Yun;Kim, Dong-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.95-118
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The objective of this in vivo study is to observe the analgesic effects or improvements of Gyejibokryeong-hwan aqueous extracts (GJBRHe) on the Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) in rats as compared to those of Indomethacin (IND). Methods: The rats were administered with estradiol benzoate for 10 days and oxytocin 1 hour after the last 10th administration of estradiol benzoate to make the primary dysmenorrhea rat model. Gyejibokryeong-hwan aqueous extracts 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg were orally administrated, for 10 days once a day. Then the changes on the body weights and gains during experimental periods, uterine weights and gross inspections, abdominal writhing response for analgesic activities, uterus lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) levels), antioxidant defense system - glutathione (GSH) contents, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA expressions, were monitored with uterus histopathology and immunohistochemistry for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The results of Gyejibokryeong-hwan aqueous extracts were compared to those of Indomethacin adminstered rats. Results: As results of estradiol benzoate and oxytocin treatment, noticeable decreases of body weights and gains, uterus GSH contents, SOD and CAT activities, increases of abdominal writhing responses, uterus lipid peroxidation (MDA level), uterus weights, NF-κB and COX-2 mRNA expressions were observed with increases of TNF-α and iNOS immunolabeled cells, inflammatory cell infiltrations, congestion and enlargement of the uterus at gross and histopathological inspections. These means classic inflammatory and oxidative stress mediated primary dysmenorrhea are relatively well induced. However, these signs were favorably and dose-dependently inhibited by administration of three different dosages of Gyejibokryeong-hwan aqueous extracts, but lesser than those of Indomethacin. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that Gyejibokryeong-hwan aqueous extracts has favorable analgesic and refinement activities dose-dependently on the estradiol benzoate and oxytocin treatment-induced primary dysmenorrhea signs.

Internalizing Environmental Cost using TDM Alternatives (교통수요관리 기법을 활용한 환경오염비용의 내부화 방안연구)

  • 김운수;엄진기;황기연;장지희
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 1999
  • With a growing awareness, transportation is the maior source of urban air pollution. Planners and policy-makers are strongly urged to care the impacts of transportation management strategies on environment. Since transport-related air Pollution can be regarded as negative externalities of transport, it is indispensable to evaluate chanties in air quality which seems to occur when proposed transport measures are implemented. In addition, transport measures should be integrated in a set of combined Paradigm regarding transport and environment. Based on the integrated Paradigm between transportation demand management(TDM) and environmental planning, the main focus is given to apply environment cost internalizing measures to the short-term congestion management Program(SCMP) in Seoul, that has been developed in 1998 by Seoul Development Institute. Three modules are analyzed: without and/or with ₩500, ₩1000 emission plus gas tax, respectively. From the empirical applications on Seoul city, one of the most exemplary findings in SCMP program is that, emission plus gas tax can be a very useful measure to reduce vehicular emissions by targeting major Pollutants differently, rather than by dealing with pollutants collectively. Further research that provides (1)showing the spatial variation of pollution levels along the intersections, (2)more developing combined Paradigm between transport, land use, and environment, (3)using environmental road capacity rather than Physical-aspects of road capacity, and (4)continuing R&D on air quality constrained TDM, can contribute significantly to applications of the real and efficient environment-constrained transportation planning.

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Effects of Hagocho (Prunella vulgaris L.), Gamgook (Chrysanthemum indicum L.) and Galgeun (Pueraria Radix) on Plasma Lipid Compositin and Histological Consideration in Hyperlipidemic Rat (하고초, 감국 및 갈근 증류액이 비만쥐의 지질구성 및 각종 장기의 해부조직학적 소견에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chan-Hee;Kim, Nam-Young;Nam, Eun-Jeung;Kim, Sang-Hyeun;Lee, Ji-Hyang;Lee, Eun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 2007
  • Effects of prunella vulgaris L., chrysanthemum indicum L. and pueraria Radix on plasma lipid composition and histological consideration were investigated in hyperlipidemic rats. Concentration of plasma ${\beta},-lipoprotein$ showed a tendence to decrease in prunella vulgaris L., chrysanthemum indicum L. and pueraria Radix treatment groups. However these values were showed not significantly different from control group. Concentration of plasma FFA in prunella vulgaris L., chrysanthemum indicum L. and pueraria Radix treatment groups showed a lower values compared to control group and concentration of plasma FFA of prunella vulgaris L. and pueraria Radix treatment group showed a lower values than prunella vulgaris L. and chrysanthemum indicum L. treatment group. Concentration of plasma glucose and triglyceride showed a tendence to decrease in prunella vulgaris L., chrysanthemum indicum L. and pueraria Radix treatment groups. However plasma glucose values showed not significantly different from control group. Plasma total cholesterol concentration showed a low and HDL-cholesterol concentration showed a high in prunella vulgaris L. and pueraria Radix treatment group. However LDL-cholesterol concentrations were not significantly different in treatment groups. Histological consideration of heart, liver and kidney in prunella vulgaris L. and pueraria Radix treatment groups showed a good features in fat accumulation condition than those of other treatment groups. However in the condition of high fat accumulation in tissues, heart, liver and kidney were showed a slight congestion and a bashed cell nucleus.