• Title/Summary/Keyword: Congestion

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Development of Parking Space Forecast Model for Large Traffic-inducing Facilities Considering Surrounding Circumstance (주변 환경을 고려한 대규모 교통유발시설 주차면산정 모형개발에 관한 연구 - 판매시설을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Je jin;Oh, Seok Jin;Kim, Sung Hun;Ha, Tae Jun
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.593-601
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    • 2017
  • With the rapid industrial development and national economic advance since 1970, the national income of Korea has sharply increased. As a result, issues regarding city expansion, urban concentration, increase in the number of registered motor vehicles, and increase in traffic have caused transportation issues such as traffic congestion and problems with parking. Especially, enforcement ordinances and rules have been established on installation and management of parking lots to solve problems with parking which are raised as social problems such as conflict with neighbors but the flexible calculation of legal parking space has the limitations because of the diversity and complex functionality of purposes of facilities. Accordingly, this study attempted to supplement such demerit of the parking space demand forecast method based on the legally required number of parking spaces and average unit requirement in the parking space supply. This study estimated the required number of parking spaces by analyzing existing literature, collecting field research data, and analyzing the factors that have an impact on the parking demand. Also, it compared the required number of parking spaces based on the average unit requirement as well as the required number of parking spaces by the forecast model based on the cumulative number of motor vehicles parked. The result was that the required number of parking space based on average unit requirement was less than the cumulative number of motor vehicles parked by 9.99%. Meanwhile, the required number of parking spaces by the forecast model was more than the cumulative number of motor vehicles parked by 4.37%. Therefore, it is believed that the parking space forecast model is more efficient than the others in estimating there quired parking space. The parking space forecast model of this study consider different environmental factors to enable practical parking demand forecast considering the local characteristics and thus supply the parking space in an efficient way.

The Budget of Nutrients in the Estuaries Near Mokpo Harbor (목포항 주변 하구역의 영양염 수지)

  • Kim, Yeong-Tae;Choi, Yoon-Seok;Cho, Yoon-Sik;Oh, Hyun-Taik;Jeon, Seung-Ryul;Choi, Yong Hyeon;Han, Hyoung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.708-722
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    • 2016
  • Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) models for nutrient budgets were used to estimate the seasonal capacity of the Youngsan Estuary and Youngam-Geumho Estuary to sink and/or supply nutrients such as dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and nitrogen (DIN) to provide an understanding of the behavior of the coupled biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and nitrogen in the estuaries (Youngsan Estuary, Youngam-Geumho Estuary) near Mokpo Harbor. During non-stratified periods (May, September, and November, 2008), simple three-box models were applied in each sub-region of the system, while a two-layer box model was applied during on-site observation of stratification development (July, 2008). The resulting mass-balance calculation indicated that even after large discharges from artificial lakes (in May and July), DIP influxes due to a mixing exchange ($V_{X-3}$, or $V_{deep}$) were more than terrigenous loads, indicating the backward transportation of nutrients from a marine source. The model results also indicated that for nutrient loads (DIP and DIN fluxes) in September, an extreme congestion of nutrients occurred around the mouths (sub-region III of the model) of the estuaries, possibly due to an imbalance in physical circulations between the estuaries and offshore locations. In November, the Youngam-Geumho Estuary, into which freshwater was discharged from artificial lakes (Youngam and Geumho Lake), showed nutrient enrichment in the water column, but the Youngsan Estuary showed nutrient depletion. In conclusion, to efficiently control water quality in the estuaries near Mokpo Harbor, integrated environmental management programs should be implemented. I.e., the reduction of nutrient loads from land basins as well as the deposit of nutrient loads into adjacent coastal lines.

Interaction Between TCP and MAC-layer to Improve TCP Flow Performance over WLANs (유무선랜 환경에서 TCP Flow의 성능향상을 위한 MAC 계층과 TCP 계층의 연동기법)

  • Kim, Jae-Hoon;Chung, Kwang-Sue
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2008
  • In recent years, the needs for WLANs(Wireless Local Area Networks) technology which can access to Internet anywhere have been dramatically increased particularly in SOHO(Small Office Home Office) and Hot Spot. However, unlike wired networks, there are some unique characteristics of wireless networks. These characteristics include the burst packet losses due to unreliable wireless channel. Note that burst packet losses, which occur when the distance between the wireless station and the AP(Access Point) increase or when obstacles move temporarily between the station and AP, are very frequent in 802.11 networks. Conversely, due to burst packet losses, the performance of 802.11 networks are not always as sufficient as the current application require, particularly when they use TCP at the transport layer. The high packet loss rate over wireless links can trigger unnecessary execution of TCP congestion control algorithm, resulting in performance degradation. In order to overcome the limitations of WLANs environment, MAC-layer LDA(Loss Differentiation Algorithm)has been proposed. MAC-layer LDA prevents TCP's timeout by increasing CRD(Consecutive Retry Duration) higher than burst packet loss duration. However, in the wireless channel with high packet loss rate, MAC-layer LDA does not work well because of two reason: (a) If the CRD is lower than burst packet loss duration due to the limited increase of retry limit, end-to-end performance is degraded. (b) energy of mobile device and bandwidth utilization in the wireless link are wasted unnecessarily by Reducing the drainage speed of the network buffer due to the increase of CRD. In this paper, we propose a new retransmission module based on Cross-layer approach, called BLD(Burst Loss Detection) module, to solve the limitation of previous link layer retransmission schemes. BLD module's algorithm is retransmission mechanism at IEEE 802.11 networks and performs retransmission based on the interaction between retransmission mechanisms of the MAC layer and TCP. From the simulation by using ns-2(Network Simulator), we could see more improved TCP throughput and energy efficiency with the proposed scheme than previous mechanisms.

A Machine Learning-based Total Production Time Prediction Method for Customized-Manufacturing Companies (주문생산 기업을 위한 기계학습 기반 총생산시간 예측 기법)

  • Park, Do-Myung;Choi, HyungRim;Park, Byung-Kwon
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.177-190
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    • 2021
  • Due to the development of the fourth industrial revolution technology, efforts are being made to improve areas that humans cannot handle by utilizing artificial intelligence techniques such as machine learning. Although on-demand production companies also want to reduce corporate risks such as delays in delivery by predicting total production time for orders, they are having difficulty predicting this because the total production time is all different for each order. The Theory of Constraints (TOC) theory was developed to find the least efficient areas to increase order throughput and reduce order total cost, but failed to provide a forecast of total production time. Order production varies from order to order due to various customer needs, so the total production time of individual orders can be measured postmortem, but it is difficult to predict in advance. The total measured production time of existing orders is also different, which has limitations that cannot be used as standard time. As a result, experienced managers rely on persimmons rather than on the use of the system, while inexperienced managers use simple management indicators (e.g., 60 days total production time for raw materials, 90 days total production time for steel plates, etc.). Too fast work instructions based on imperfections or indicators cause congestion, which leads to productivity degradation, and too late leads to increased production costs or failure to meet delivery dates due to emergency processing. Failure to meet the deadline will result in compensation for delayed compensation or adversely affect business and collection sectors. In this study, to address these problems, an entity that operates an order production system seeks to find a machine learning model that estimates the total production time of new orders. It uses orders, production, and process performance for materials used for machine learning. We compared and analyzed OLS, GLM Gamma, Extra Trees, and Random Forest algorithms as the best algorithms for estimating total production time and present the results.

A Study on Significance Testing of Driver's Visual Behavior due to the VMS Message Display Forms on the Road (도로상 VMS 표출방식별 운전자 유의성 검증에 관한 연구)

  • Kum, Ki-Jung;Son, Young-Tae;Bae, Deok-Mo;Son, Seung-Neo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.7 no.4 s.26
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 2005
  • Variable Message Sign (VMS), which provides drivers with direct information about state of traffic congestion and for prevent an accident, is the most effective method among the methods of providing information in Advanced Transportation Management System. Currently establishment and the VMS which is operated foundation lets in Guidelines on the use of Variable message sign (a book of the VMS) of 1999 November the Ministry Construction & Transportation, these contents mean main viewpoint on physical part such as message special quality variable (font, character size and line space, word interval) and position mainly among standard about establishment in general. But, it is true that using without effect verification on the character of VMS display and that using mode of stationary-centered. In this paper, it executed significance test to effort verification on the character of VMS display for more practical and effective information transmission based on the driver viewpoint For the researches; develop 3D-Simulation, select characteristics of driver's visual cognition behavior (the conspicuity, the legibility and the comprehensibility), evaluation each issue (day or night, 80km/h or 100km/h). Especially, that used the Eye Marker Recorder to measure of reading-time (legibility) thus, confirmed objectivity and reduce an observational error. The results showed that the conspicuity is Flashing> Stationary>Scroll. The legibility is not deference that Flashing between stationary form. Also the comprehensibility result showed that Flashing> Stationary>Stroll form.

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The Effects of Sea Cucumber as an Anti-gastritis, Anti-gastric Ulcer, and Anti-Helicobater (해삼의 항위염, 항위궤양 및 항헬리코박터 효과)

  • Oh, Hong-Geun;Moon, Dae-In;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Kang, Young-Rye;Park, Jung-Woo;Seo, Min-Young;Park, Sang-Hoon;Kang, Yang-Gyu;Choe, Chung-Hyeon;Park, In-Sun;Kim, Ju;Yu, Kang-Yeol;Seol, Eu-Ddeum;Kim, Ok-Jin;Lee, Hak-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.605-611
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    • 2012
  • Sea cucumber, $Stichopus$ $japonicus$, is used not only as an outstanding tonic food but also as a traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, hypertension, rheumatism, anemia, and sinus congestion. The purpose of this study was to examine sea cucumber as an anti-gastritis and anti-gastric ulcer in HCl-ethanol-induced gastric and $H.$ $pylori$-infected animal models. Thirty 7-week-old SD rats and Mongolian gerbils were divided into normal (Nor, n=6), control (Con, 60% HCl-ethanol+water, n=6), groupI (DSCI, 60% HCl-ethanol+sea cucumber 30 mg/kg, n=6), groupII (DSCII, 60% HCl-ethanol+sea cucumber 100 mg/kg, n=6), and group III (DSCIII, 60% HCl-ethanol+sea cucumber 300 mg/kg, n=6). Sea cucumber significantly suppressed gastric lesions and ulcers in the 60% HCl-ethanol-induced gastric model. Especially, 100 mg/kg of sea cucumber showed significantly inhibitory effects. In histopathological analysis of the $H.$ $pylori$ model, we found that sea cucumber augmented the eradication rates of $H.$ $pylori$ and attenuated gastric ulcer formation. Our results suggest that sea cucumber has inhibitory effects on gastritis and gastric ulcers. In addition, sea cucumber can be applied for the treatment of $H.$ $pylori$.

A study on the degree of need of the knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical microbiology and mechanisms and effects of drugs in clinical nurses (기초간호자연과학의 병태생리학, 병원미생물, 약물의 기전과 효과 내용별 필요도에 대한 연구)

  • Choe, Myoung-Ae;Byun, Young-Soon;Seo, Young-Sook;Hwang, Ae-Ran;Kim, Hee-Seung;Hong, Hae-Sook;Park, Mi-Jung;Choi, S-Mi;Lee, Kyung-Sook;Seo, Wha-Sook;Shin, Gi-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to define the content of the requisite knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical microbiology, and mechanisms and effects of drugs needed for clinical knowledge for nursing practice. Contents of knowlege on pathological physiology, clinical microbiology, and mechanisms and effects of drugs were constructed from syllabus of basic nursing subjects in 4 colleges of nursing, and textbooks. The degree of need of 72 items was measured with a 4 point scale. The subjects of this study were college-graduated 136 nurses from seven university hospital in Seoul and three in Chonnam Province, Kyungbook Province, and Inchon. They have been working at internal medicine ward, surgical ward, intensive care unit, obstetrics and gynecology ward, pediatrics ward, opthalmology ward, ear, nose, and throat ward, emergency room, rehabilitation ward, cancer ward, and hospice ward. The results were as follows : 1. The highest scored items of the knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical microbiology, and mechanisms and effects of drugs necessary for nursing practice were side effects of drugs, anticoagulants, mechanisms of drugs, antihypertensive drugs, tolerance and addiction of drugs, interactions among drugs, hospital infection in the order of importance. The lowest scored item was structure of microorganisms. 2. The highest order of need according to unit was repair in tissue injury unit, definition etiology classification of inflammation in inflammation unit, transplantation and immunologic response in alterations in immunity unit, thrombus and thrombosis in disorders of cardiovascular function unit, gene disorders in genetic disorders unit, hospital infection in infection unit, virus in microorganisms unit, side reactions of drugs in introduction unit, anticonvulsants in drugs for central nervous system unit, local anesthesia in anesthesia unit, anticoagulants in drugs for cardiovascular system unit, anti-inflammatory drugs in antibiotics unit, anti-ulcer drugs in drugs for digestive system unit, and bronchodilators in drugs for respiratory system unit. 3. The common content of the knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical microbiology, and mechanisms and effects of drugs needed for all clinical areas in nursing were side effects of drugs, anticoagulants, interactions among drugs, and hospital infection. However, the degree of need of each pathological physiology, clinical microbiology, clinical microbiology, and mechanisms and effects of drugs was different depending on clinical areas. 4. Significant differences in the knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical microbiology, and mechanisms and effects of drugs necessary for nursing practice such as tissue changes due to injurious stimuli, degenerative changes of tissue, alterations in metabolism of carbohydrates, ischemia, hyperemia and congestion, hospital infection, structure of microorganism, classification of microorganism, bacteria, virus, antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, antiemetic drugs, antiparkinsonism drugs, antianxiety drugs, antibiotics, tuberculostatics, antiviral drugs, antifungal drugs, parasiticides, antiulcer drugs, antidiarrheais, and anti constipation drugs were shown according to the work area. 5. Significant differences in the knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical microbiology, and mechanisms and effects of drugs necessary for nursing practice such as transplantation and immunologic response, alterations in the metabolism of uric acid, structure of microorganism, classification of microorganism, immunosuppressants, drugs for congestive heart failure were demonstrated according to the duration of work. Based on these findings, all the 72 items constructed by Korean Academic Society of Basic Nursing science should be included as contents of the knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical microbiology, and mechanisms and effects of drugs.

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A Clinical Study of Hypersensitive rhinitis including Allergic rhinitis (알레르기성 비염을 포함하는 과민성 비염 환자에 관한 임상적 연구)

  • Choi, In-Hwa
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.169-182
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    • 2002
  • Background: Allergic rhinitis(AR) is a heterogeneous disorder that despite its high prevalence is often undiagnosed. It is characterized by one or more symptoms including sneezing, itching, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea. And it is frequently accompanied by symptoms involving the eyes, ears, and throat, including postnasal drainage. There are many different causes of rhinitis in children and adults. Approximately 50$\%$ of all cases of rhinitis are caused by allergy. In the case of rhinitis caused by allergens, symptoms arise as a result of inflammation induced by a gamma globulin E-mediated immune response to specific allergens such as pollens, molds, animal dander, and dust mites. The immune response involves the release of inflammatory mediators and the activation and recruitment of cells to the nasal mucosa. AR is similar to 鼻?, hypersensitive rhinitis in Oriental Medicine. I think hypersensitive rhinitis is including of AR, vasomotor rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis related with eosinophil increased and so on. Purpose: To perform a clinical analysis of hypersensitive rhinitis including allergic rhinitis and estimate the efficacy of Oriental Medical treatment. Objective: We studied 96 patients who had visited our hospital with complaints of nasal symptoms from March 2000 to February 2002; they had the signs more than 2 - nasal obstruction, watery discharge, sneezing and eye or nasal itching. Parameters Observed & Methods: We treated them with acupuncture & herb-medication. Sometime they used aroma oil or external medicine. 1) the distribution of sex & age groups 2) the clinical type based on duration & the severity of symptom 3) the breakdown of complication & pasl history of Otolaryngologic or allergic disease 4) the clinical assessment and classification of rhinitis(sneezers and runners & blockers) 5) the associated symptoms and signs 6) the classification of Byeonjeung 7) the classification of prescriptions and 8) the efficacy of treatment. Result: 1. In the clinical type of based on duration, the intermittent type was 42.7$\%$ and the persistent was 57.3$\%$. 2. We observed the severity of symptoms based on the quality of life. The mild type was 24.0$\%$ and the moderate-severe was 76.0$\%$. 3. In the clinical assessment and classification of rhinitis, the sneezers and runners type was 69.8$\%$ and the blockers was 30.2$\%$. 4. The most common family history with otolaryngologic or allergic disease were allergic rhinitis(17.7$\%$), urticaria, paranasal sinusitis and T.B.(3.1$\%$). 5. The most common past history with otolaryngologic or allergic disease were paranasal sinusitis(14.6$\%$), atopic dermatitis and asthma(8.3$\%$). It was 31.3$\%$ they had a family history and 44.8$\%$, past history. 6. The most common complication was paranasal sinusitis(15.6$\%$). In decreasing order the others were otitis media with effusion(9.4$\%$), GERD and headache(6.3$\%$), asthma, bronchitis, nasal bleeding and allergic dermatitis(5.2$\%$). 7. Classification through Byeonjeung : ⅰ) 39 cases(34.9$\%$) were classified as showing Deficiency syndrome. The insuffficiency of Qi was 17.7$\%$, deficiency of Kidney-Yang, 12.5$\%$ and Lung-Cold, 10.4$\%$. ⅱ) 57 cases(59.4$\%$) were classified as showing Excess syndrome. The Fever of YangMing-meridian was 35.4$\%$, Lung-Fever, 24.0$\%$. 8. The efficacy of treatments showed: an improvement in 22cases(22.9$\%$); an improvement partly in 24 cases(25.0$\%$); no real improvement or changes in 16 cases(16.7$\%$); and couldn't check the results 18cases(18.6$\%$). Conclusion: We suggest that this study could be utilized as a standard of clinical Oriental Medical treatment when we treat hypersensitive rhinitis including allergic rhinitis.

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A User Optimer Traffic Assignment Model Reflecting Route Perceived Cost (경로인지비용을 반영한 사용자최적통행배정모형)

  • Lee, Mi-Yeong;Baek, Nam-Cheol;Mun, Byeong-Seop;Gang, Won-Ui
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.117-130
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    • 2005
  • In both deteministic user Optimal Traffic Assignment Model (UOTAM) and stochastic UOTAM, travel time, which is a major ccriterion for traffic loading over transportation network, is defined by the sum of link travel time and turn delay at intersections. In this assignment method, drivers actual route perception processes and choice behaviors, which can become main explanatory factors, are not sufficiently considered: therefore may result in biased traffic loading. Even though there have been some efforts in Stochastic UOTAM for reflecting drivers' route perception cost by assuming cumulative distribution function of link travel time, it has not been fundamental fruitions, but some trials based on the unreasonable assumptions of Probit model of truncated travel time distribution function and Logit model of independency of inter-link congestion. The critical reason why deterministic UOTAM have not been able to reflect route perception cost is that the route perception cost has each different value according to each origin, destination, and path connection the origin and destination. Therefore in order to find the optimum route between OD pair, route enumeration problem that all routes connecting an OD pair must be compared is encountered, and it is the critical reason causing computational failure because uncountable number of path may be enumerated as the scale of transportation network become bigger. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to enable UOTAM to reflect route perception cost without route enumeration between an O-D pair. For this purpose, this study defines a link as a least definition of path. Thus since each link can be treated as a path, in two links searching process of the link label based optimum path algorithm, the route enumeration between OD pair can be reduced the scale of finding optimum path to all links. The computational burden of this method is no more than link label based optimum path algorithm. Each different perception cost is embedded as a quantitative value generated by comparing the sub-path from the origin to the searching link and the searched link.

Perception and Appraisal of Urban Park Users Using Text Mining of Google Maps Review - Cases of Seoul Forest, Boramae Park, Olympic Park - (구글맵리뷰 텍스트마이닝을 활용한 공원 이용자의 인식 및 평가 - 서울숲, 보라매공원, 올림픽공원을 대상으로 -)

  • Lee, Ju-Kyung;Son, Yong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.15-29
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    • 2021
  • The study aims to grasp the perception and appraisal of urban park users through text analysis. This study used Google review data provided by Google Maps. Google Maps Review is an online review platform that provides information evaluating locations through social media and provides an understanding of locations from the perspective of general reviewers and regional guides who are registered as members of Google Maps. The study determined if the Google Maps Reviews were useful for extracting meaningful information about the user perceptions and appraisals for parks management plans. The study chose three urban parks in Seoul, South Korea; Seoul Forest, Boramae Park, and Olympic Park. Review data for each of these three parks were collected via web crawling using Python. Through text analysis, the keywords and network structure characteristics for each park were analyzed. The text was analyzed, as were park ratings, and the analysis compared the reviews of residents and foreign tourists. The common keywords found in the review comments for the three parks were "walking", "bicycle", "rest" and "picnic" for activities, "family", "child" and "dogs" for accompanying types, and "playground" and "walking trail" for park facilities. Looking at the characteristics of each park, Seoul Forest shows many outdoor activities based on nature, while the lack of parking spaces and congestion on weekends negatively impacted users. Boramae Park has the appearance of a city park, with various facilities providing numerous activities, but reviewers often cited the park's complexity and the negative aspects in terms of dog walking groups. At Olympic Park, large-scale complex facilities and cultural events were frequently mentioned, emphasizing its entertainment functions. Google Maps Review can function as useful data to identify parks' overall users' experiences and general feelings. Compared to data from other social media sites, Google Maps Review's data provides ratings and understanding factors, including user satisfaction and dissatisfaction.