• Title/Summary/Keyword: Congestion

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A study on the impact and activation plan of unmanned aerial vehicle service (무인항공기 서비스 영향성과 활성화 방안 연구)

  • Yoo, Soonduck
    • The Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2022
  • The purpose of this study is to discuss the impact of unmanned aerial vehicle service and how to activate it. The discussion on the impact of the introduction of the unmanned aerial vehicle service was examined in terms of economic, environmental, and social acceptance, and a plan to revitalize the industry was presented. In terms of economic impact, if transportation services are increased using unmanned aerial vehicles in the future, road-based transportation cargo may decrease and road movement speed may increase due to reduced road congestion. This can have a positive effect on the increase in the value of land or real estate assets, and it also provides an impact on smart city design. In terms of environmental impact, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) generally move through electricity, so they emit less exhaust gas compared to other existing devices, such as vehicles and railroads, and thus have less environmental impact. However, noise can have a negative impact on the habitat in the presence of wild animals along their migration routes. In terms of social acceptability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) technology, areas that are declining due to the emergence of new services may appear, and at the same time, organizations that create profits may appear, causing conflicts between industries. Therefore, it is essential to form a social consensus on the acceptance of emerging industries. The government should come up with various countermeasures to minimize the negative impact that reflects the characteristics of the unmanned aerial vehicle use service. Just as various systems such as road signs were introduced so that vehicles can be operated on the ground to secure air routes in the mid- to long-term for revitalization of unmanned-based industries, development and establishment of services that should be introduced and applied prior to constructing air routes I need this. In addition, the design and implementation of information collection and operation plans for unmanned air traffic management in Korea and a plan to secure a control system for each region should also be made. This study can contribute to providing ideas for mid- to long-term research on new areas with the development of the unmanned aerial vehicle industry.

The Characteristics of Black Carbon of Seoul (서울의 블랙카본 특성 연구)

  • Park, Jongsung;Song, Inho;Kim, Hyunwoong;Lim, Hyungbae;Park, Seungmyung;Shin, Suna;Shin, Hyejoung;Lee, Sangbo;Kim, Jeongho
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.113-128
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    • 2019
  • The concentration and coating thickness of black carbon (BC) were measured along with fine dust in the fall of 2018, at the Seoul Metropolitan Area Intensive Monitoring Station (SIMS). In fall, the concentration of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ was $23{\pm}12.6{\mu}g/m^3$ and $12{\pm}5.8{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, lower than that in other seasons. The BC level, measured using an Aethalometer, was $0.73{\pm}0.43{\mu}g/m^3$, while the levels of elemental carbon (EC) and refractory-BC (rBC), measured by semi-continuous carbon analyzer (SOCEC) and single particle soot photometer (SP2), were $0.34{\pm}0.18{\mu}g/m^3$ and $0.32{\pm}0.18{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. As such, the concentration level differed according to the measurement method, but its time-series distribution and diurnal variation showed the same trends. The BC concentration at SIMS was primarily affected by automobiles with higher levels of BC during morning and evening commuting times due to increased traffic congestion. rBC, measured by SP2, had a peak concentration and coating thickness of 84 nm and 43 nm, respectively. Notably, the coating thickness had an inverse relationship with particle size.

Development of remote control automatic fire extinguishing system for fire suppression in double-deck tunnel (복층터널 화재대응을 위한 원격 자동소화 시스템 개발 연구)

  • Park, Jinouk;Yoo, Yongho;Kim, Yangkyun;Park, Byoungjik;Kim, Whiseong;Park, Sangheon
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2019
  • To effectively deal with the fire in tunnel which is mostly the vehicle fire, it's more important to suppress the fire at early stage. In urban tunnel, however, accessibility to the scene of fire by the fire fighter is very limited due to severe traffic congestion which causes the difficulty with firefighting activity in timely manner and such a problem would be further worsened in underground road (double-deck tunnel) which has been increasingly extended and deepened. In preparation for the disaster in Korea, the range of life safety facilities for installation is defined based on category of the extension and fire protection referring to risk hazard index which is determined depending on tunnel length and conditions, and particularly to directly deal with the tunnel fire, fire extinguisher, indoor hydrant and sprinkler are designated as the mandatory facilities depending on category. But such fire extinguishing installations are found inappropriate functionally and technically and thus the measure to improve the system needs to be taken. Particularly in a double-deck tunnel which accommodates the traffic in both directions within a single tunnel of which section is divided by intermediate slab, the facility or the system which functions more rapidly and effectively is more than important. This study, thus, is intended to supplement the problems with existing tunnel life safety system (fire extinguishing) and develop the remote-controlled automatic fire extinguishing system which is optimized for a double-deck tunnel. Consequently, the system considering low floor height and extended length as well as indoor hydrant for a wide range of use have been developed together with the performance verification and the process for commercialization before applying to the tunnel is underway now.

A study on the fire characteristics according to the installation type of large smoke exhaust port in a small cross sectional tunnel fire (소단면 대심도 터널 화재시 대배기구의 설치형태에 따른 화재특성 연구)

  • Choi, Pan-Gyu;Baek, Doo-San;Yoo, Ji-Oh;Kim, Chang-Yong
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2019
  • Recently, due to the efforts to mitigate traffic congestion and expansion of space efficiency, the construction of underground roads has been increased in big-scale cities. Since tunnels in the city have a higher chance for a fire leading to a great tragedy during a severe traffic jam than mountain tunnels, it is highly likely that it will be constructed as a tunnel, having a small cross section, for small vehicles. However, if they are constructed as such small-vehicle tunnels, it would be possible to reduce the design fire intensity while the concentration of harmful gases would increase due to a reduction in the small cross sectional area, led by a decrease in the tunnel height. In this study, behaviors of fire smoke by the installation interval and format of large-scale exhaust-gas ports were examined and compared in the analysis of temperatures and CO concentrations of a tunnel and its results were as the following. Although there were no significant differences in the smoke spreading distance between installation intervals, but in this study, 100 m was found to be the most effective installation interval. The smoke exhaustion performance was found to be excellent in the order of $4m{\times}3m$, $6m{\times}2m$, and $3m{\times}2m$ (2 lane) of the smoke spreading distance. Although there was no significant difference in the smoke spreading distance between formats of large-scale exhaust-gas ports, it was found that the smoke spreading distance was larger than other cases when it was $3m{\times}2m$ in the fire growing process. The analysis of smoke spreading distances by the aspect ratio showed that a smoke spreading distance was shorted when its the smoke spreading distance was found to be shorter when its traverse distance was relatively longer than its longitudinal distance.

Analysis of PM2.5 Concentration and Contribution Characteristics in South Korea according to Seasonal Weather Patternsin East Asia: Focusing on the Intensive Measurement Periodsin 2015 (동아시아 지역의 계절별 기상패턴에 따른 우리나라 PM2.5 농도 및 기여도 특성 분석: 2015년 집중측정 기간을 중심으로)

  • Nam, Ki-Pyo;Lee, Dae-Gyun;Jang, Lim-Seok
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.183-200
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    • 2019
  • In this study, the characteristics of seasonal $PM_{2.5}$ behavior in South Korea and other Northeast Asian regions were analyzed by using the $PM_{2.5}$ ground measurement data, weather data, WRF and CMAQ models. Analysis of seasonal $PM_{2.5}$ behavior in Northeast Asia showed that $PM_{2.5}$ concentration at 6 IMS sites in South Korea was increased by long-distance transport and atmospheric congestion, or decreased by clean air inflow due to seasonal weather characteristics. As a result of analysis by applying BFM to air quality model, the contribution from foreign countries dominantly influenced the $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations of Baengnyeongdo due to the low self-emission and geographical location. In the case of urban areas with high self-emissions such as Seoul and Ulsan, the $PM_{2.5}$ contribution from overseas was relatively low compared to other regions, but the standard deviation of the season was relatively high. This study is expected to improve the understanding of the air pollutant phenomenon by analyzing the characteristics of $PM_{2.5}$ behavior in Northeast Asia according to the seasonal weather condition change. At the same time, this study can be used to establish the air quality policy in the future, knowing that the contribution of $PM_{2.5}$ concentration to the domestic and overseas can be different depending on the regional emission characteristics.

Detection and Control of Bacterial Diseases of Cultured Fishes in Korea (양식어류(養殖魚類)의 세균성질병(細菌性疾病)의 진단(診斷)과 대책(對策))

  • Chun, Seh-Kyu
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.5-30
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    • 1988
  • This is a comprehensive study for considering the effective treatment and control program of bacterial disease occurring in common carp, israel carp, color carp, crucian carp, eel and tilapia by clarifying the causes, mechanism of infection and onset and the diagnostic criteria. As a first step, the authors investigated the external views, gross and histopathologic findings of diseased fish using 450 infected fishes obtained from various farmer of Korea. This infection was characterized by hyperemia, hemorrhage and swelling of body surface and fins, congestion of liver, spleen, kidney, inflammation of intestine, hemorrhagic inflammation of various tissues, and necrosis and ulcer of various tissues were accompanied in serious cases. Bacteriologically, Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda were isoiated from these fishes. Particularly in the regular check on 222 eels, 177 strains were isolated as 29.94% of Aeromonas hydrophila, 48.58% of Edwardsiella tarda and 21.47% of Flexibacter columnaris. Hexibacter columnaris was isolated from corroded gill of eels. The identical disease was occurred by innoculating the isolated Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda and the identical strains were isolated from infected experimental fishes. The eels which were diagnosed Aeromonas disease from Kwangju, Pusan accompanied hemorrhage, swelling of body surface and fins, inflammation of stomach and intestine containing mucous fluids mixed with the pathogens. Color carp and crucian carp which were innoculated with the isolated 5 strins of Aeromomas hydrorphil died within 3 or 4 days accompanying with the characteristics of Aeromonas disease. Edward disease was characterized by abscesses of body surface, pus formation with concentration on phagocytes. The size of absecsses increased with progression elf disease. There were also various abscesses at internal organ and white nodules appeared in kidney. Histologically, various progressive granuloma were examined without inflammation of intestine. Columnaris disease of eels showed no hemorrhage except slight white body color. In autopsy, most of internal organs appeared normal and there were no septic odors. The only character was corrosion of gills. In order to treat these bacterial diseases, infected fishes must bathe in 20ppm chloramphenicol or kanamycin solution for 1 hour. Besides, medication program in oral ingestion of 75mg/kg chloramphenicol per day continuing for 5 to 7 days. After injecting the formalin treated Aermonas hydrophila antigen into carp, relatively high agglutination titer showed between 3 weeks and 6 weeks. Though this titer decreased from that time, it was continued for 18 weeks. In the case of injecting the formalin treated Edwardsiella tarda antigen into tilapia, the titer also increased. But tilapia which were immersed in the suspension fluid of the formalin treated Edwardsiella tarda showed no increase of the titer.

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Protective Effects of Chemical Drugs on the Course of Uranium-induced Acute Renal Failure (우라늄오염에 의한 신부전증에 미치는 제염제의 방호효과)

  • Kim, Tae-Hwan;Chung, In-Yong;Kim, Sung-Ho;Kim, Kyeng-Jung;Bang, Hyo-Chang;Yoo, Seong-Yul;Chin, Soo-Yil
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.27-39
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    • 1990
  • Appreciable radiation exposures certainly were occurred in the reactor burn-up, the nuelear fall-out and the surroundings of nuclear installations with radioactive effluents. Therefore, radioactive nuclides is not only potentially hazardous to workers of nuclear power plants and related industrials, but also the wokers who handle radioactive nuclides in biochemical research and nuclear medicine diagnostics. And in the case of occurring the nuclear accidents, the early medical treatment of radiation injury should be necessary but little is established medical procedures to decontaminate the victims of internal contamination of radioactive nuclides in korea. Accordingly, to achieve the basic data for protective roles and medical treatment of radiation injury, the present studies were carrid out to evaluate the decontamination of uranium by the chemical drugs. The results observed were summarized as follows: 1. The combined treatmet group of sodium bicarbonate and saline with uranyl nitrate injection simultaneously and the dithiothreitol group that was administered 30 minutes after uranyl nitrate injection were increased significantly in the change of body weight than uranyl nitrate-only group (P<0.005). 2. All the experimental groups were increased the fluid intake and urine volume on the uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure. but the combined treatment group of sodium bicarbonate and saline with uranyl nitrate injection simultaneously and the dithiothreitol group that was administered 30 minutes after uranyl nitrate injection have the higher increment of fluid intake and urine volume (P<0.05). 3. When sodium bicarbonate and saline was treated with uranyl nitrate injection simultaneously. and dithiothreitol was administered 30 minutes after uranyl nitrate injection. there was significantly reduced in BUN concentration (P<0.01). 4. When dithiothreitol was administered 30 minutes after uranyl nitrate injection. there was reduced more significantly on the increment of serum creatinine concentration than that observed in uranyl nitrate-only group(P<0.01). but when the combined treatment of sodium bicarbonate and saline with uranyl nitrate simultaneously, there was still. albeit much less marked. decrease in serum creatinine concentration. 5. The sodium bicarbonate and saline was treated with uranyl nitrate simultaneously and dithiothreitol was administered at 30 minutes after uranyl nitrate were excreted markedly higher urine creatinine concentration than the uranyl nitrate-only group. 6. Uranyl nitrate has been used in experimental animals to produce hydropic degeneration and swelling of proximal tubules, disappearance of microvilli and brush border or necrosis in the kidney and centrilobular necrosis, congestion, and telangiectasia of the liver. When the sodium bicarbonate and saline was treated with uranyl nitrate simultaneously, and dithiothreitol was administered. 30 minutes after uranyl nitrate, there was more marked the protective effect than uranyl nitrate-only group. Finally, if the sodium bicarbonate and saline may administered as quickly as possible each time that some risk for internal contamination, with uranium, and dithiothreitol is administered 30 minutes after uranium contamination, there ameliorates the course of uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure.and this effect is assocciated with prevention of uranium (heavy metal)-induced alterations in BUN, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, fluid intake, urine volume and body weight.

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GET Imaging Evaluation of Patients with Esophageal Cancer (식도암 환자의 GET 영상 평가)

  • Moon, Jong Wun;Lee, Chung Wun;Seo, Young Deok;Yun, Sang Hyeok;Kim, Yong Keun;Won, Woo Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Measure gastric emptying time (GET: Gastric Emptying Time) is a non-invasive and quantitative evaluation methods, mainly by endoscopic or radiological examination confirmed no mechanical obstruction in patients with symptoms of congestion is checked. Such tests are not common gastric emptying time measured esophageal cancer patients (who underwent esophagectomy) patients after surgery for gastric emptying time was measured test. And the period of time for more than one year after the gastric emptying time measurement was performed. By comparing the two kinds of tests in the chest cavity after surgery as the evaluation of gastrointestinal function tests evaluate the usefulness of GET, and will evaluate the characteristics of the image. Materials and Methods: 93 patients who underwent esophagectomy with gastric emptying time measurement of subject tests immediately after surgery and after 1 year or longer were twice. Preparation of the patient before the test is more than 12 hours of overnight fasting is important, in addition to the medicine or to stop smoking, and diabetes insulin injections should be early in the morning is ideal to test. Generally labeled with $^{99m}Tc-DTPA$ resin which is used to make steamed egg, seaweed and fermented milk with a high viscosity after eating, three hours in the standing position was measured. Evaluation of gastric emptying curves on the way intragastric radioactivity level by 50% the time (half-time [T1/2]) was calculated, based on the half-life was divided into three steps: over 180 minutes was defined as delayed gastric emptying, within 180minutes was defined as intermediate gastric emptying and when all the radioisotopes were dumped into the jejunum as soon as swallowed, was defined as rapid gastric emptying. Results: Gastric emptying time of a typical images stomach of antrum and fundus additional images appear stronger over time move on to the small intestine. but esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy side of the thoracic cavity showed a strong image. Immediately after surgery, the half-time (T1/2) of rapid gastric emptying appeared to 12.9%, intermediate gastric emptying appeared to 52.7%, delay gastric emptying appeared to 34.4%. After more than a year the results of the half-life after surgery, 67% of rapid gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying was changed, 69% of delay gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying changed. Intermediate gastric emptying worse in patients rapid gastric emptying and the delay gastric emptying is 24% in the case. Conclusion: Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer who underwent half-time measurement test (T1/2) rapid gastric emptying and delay gastric emptying are the result of the comparison over time, changes were observed intermediate gastric emptying. Mainly seeing of gastric emptying time measurement in the esophagus instead of thoracic cavity to check the evaluation of gastrointestinal function can be useful even means. And segmentation criteria and narrow time interval of checking if more accurate information and analysis of the clinical diagnosis and evaluation seems to be done.

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The Literatual Study on the Wea symptom in the View of Western and Oriental Medicine (위증에 대한 동서의학적(東西醫學的) 고찰(考察))

  • Kim, Yong Seong;Kim, Chul Jung
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.211-243
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to investigate the cause, symptom, treatment, medicine of Wei symptom through the literature of oriental and western medicine. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Wei symptom is the symptom that reveals muscle relaxation without contraction and muscle relaxation occures in the lower limb or upper limb, in severe case, leads to death. 2. Since the pathology and etiology of Wei symptom was first described as "pe-yeol-yeop-cho"(肺熱葉焦) in Hung Ti Nei Ching(黃帝內經), for generations most doctors had have accepted it. but after Dan Ge(丹溪), it had been classified into seven causes, damp-heat(濕熱), phlegm-damp(濕痰), deficiency of qi(氣虛), deficiency of blood(血虛), deficiency of yin(陰處), stagnant blood(死血), stagnant food(食積). Chang Gyeng Ag(張景岳) added the cause of deficiency of source qi(元氣). 3. The concept of "To treat Yangming, most of all"(獨治陽明) was emphasized in the treatment of Wei symptom and contains nourishment of middle warmer energy(補益中氣), clearance of yangming-damp-heat(淸化陽明濕熱). 4. Since Nei-ching era(內經時代), Wei and Bi symptom(痺症) is differenciated according to the existence of pain. After Ming era(明代) appeared theory of co-existence of Wei symptom and pain or numbness but they were accepted as a sign of Wei symptom caused by the pathological factor phelgm(痰), damp(濕), stagnancy(瘀). 5. In the western medical point of view, Wei symptom is like paraplegia, or tetraplegia. and according to the causative disease, it is accompanied by dysesthesia, paresthsia, pain. thus it is more recommended to use hwal-hyel-hwa-ae(活血化瘀) method considering damp-heat(濕熱), qi deficiency of spleen and stornach(脾胃氣虛) as pathological basis than to simply differenciate Wei and Bi symptom according to the existence of pain. 6. The cause of Gullian-Barre syndrome(GBS) is consist of two factors, internal and external. Internal factors include asthenia of spleen and stomach, and of liver and kidney. External factors include summur-damp(暑濕), damp-heat(濕熱), cold-damp(寒濕) and on the basis of "classification and treatment according to the symptom of Zang-Fu"(臟腑辨證論治), the cause of GBS is classified into injury of body fluid by lung heat(肺熱傷津), infiltration of damp-heat(濕熱浸淫), asthenia of spleen and kidney(脾腎兩虛), asthenia of spleen and stomach(脾胃虛弱), asthenia of liver and kidney (肝腎兩虛). 7. The cause of GBS is divided by according to the disease developing stage: Early stage include dryness-heat(燥熱), damp(濕邪), phlegm(痰濁), stagnant blood(瘀血), and major treatment is reducing of excess(瀉實). Late stage include deficiency of essence(精虛), deficiency with excess(虛中挾實), and essencial deficiency of liver and kidney(肝腎精不足) is major point of treatment. 8. Following is the herbal medicine of GBS according to the stage. In case of summur-damp(暑濕), chung-seu-iki-tang(淸暑益氣湯) is used which helps cooling and drainage of summer-damp(淸利暑濕), reinforcement of qi and passage of collateral channels(補氣通絡). In case of damp-heat, used kun-bo-hwan(健步丸), In case of cool-damp(寒濕), used 'Mahwang-buja-sesin-tang with sam-chul-tang'(麻黃附子細辛湯合蓼朮湯). In case of asthenia of spleen and kidney, used 'Sam-lyeng-baik-chul san'(蔘笭白朮散), In case of asthenia of liver and kidney, used 'Hojam-hwan'(虎潛丸). 9. Following is the herbal medicine of GBS according to the "classification and treatment according to the symptom of Zang-Fu"(臟腑辨證論治). In the case of injury of body fluid by lung heat(肺熱傷津), 'Chung-jo-gu-pae-tang'(淸燥救肺湯) is used. In case of 'infiltration of damp-heat'(濕熱浸淫), us-ed 'Yi-myo-hwan'(二妙丸), In case of 'infiltration of cool-damp'(寒濕浸淫), us-ed 'Yui-lyung-tang', In case of asthenia of spleen, used 'Sam-lyung-bak-chul-san'. In case of yin-deficiency of liver and kidney(肝腎陰虛), used 'Ji-bak-ji-hwang-hwan'(知柏地黃丸), or 'Ho-jam-hwan'(虎潛丸). 10. Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy is occuered by compression or ischemia of spinal cord. 11. The cause of cervical spondylosis with myelopathy consist of 'flow disturbance of the channel points of tai-yang'(太陽經兪不利), 'stagnancy of cool-damp'(寒濕凝聚), 'congestion of phlegm-damp stagnant substances'(痰濕膠阻), 'impairment of liver and kidney'(肝腎虛損). 12. In treatment of cervical spondylosis with myelopathy, are used 'Ge-ji-ga-gal-geun-tang-gagam'(桂枝加葛根湯加減), 'So-hwal-lack-dan-hap-do-hong-eum-gagam(小活絡丹合桃紅飮加減), 'Sin-tong-chuck-ue-tang-gagam(身痛逐瘀湯加減), 'Do-dam-tang-hap-sa-mul-tang-gagam'(導痰湯合四物湯加減), 'Ik-sin-yang-hyel-guen-bo-tang'(益腎養血健步湯加減), 'Nok-gakyo-hwan-gagam'(鹿角膠丸加減). 13. The cause of muscle dystropy is related with 'the impairement of vital qi'(元氣損傷), and 'impairement of five Zang organ'(五臟敗傷). Symptoms and signs are classified into asthenia of spleen and stomach, deficiency with excess, 'deficiency of liver and kidney'(肝腎不足) infiltration of damp-heat, 'deficiency of qi and blood'(氣血兩虛), 'yang deficiency of spleen and kidney'(脾腎陽虛). 14. 'Bo-jung-ik-gi-tang'(補中益氣湯), 'Gum-gang-hwan'(金剛丸), 'Yi-gong-san-hap-sam-myo-hwan'(異功散合三妙丸), 'Ja-hyel-yang-gun-tang'(滋血養筋湯), 'Ho-jam-hwan'(虎潛丸) are used for muscle dystropy. 15. The causes of myasthenia gravis are classified into 'insufficiency of middle warmer energy'(中氣不足), 'deficiency of qi and yin of spleen and kidney'(脾腎兩處), 'asthenia of qi of spleen'(脾氣虛弱), 'deficiency of qi and blood'(氣血兩虛), 'yang deficiency of spleen and kidney'(脾腎陽虛). 16. 'Bo-jung-ik-gi-tang-gagam'(補中益氣湯加減), 'Sa-gun-ja-tang-hap-gi-guk-yang-hyel-tang'(四君子湯合杞菊地黃湯), 'Sa-gun-ja-tang-hap-u-gyi-eum-gagam'(四君子湯合右歸飮加減), 'Pal-jin-tang'(八珍湯), 'U-gyi-eum'(右歸飮) are used for myasthenia gravis.

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