• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cost-effective analysis

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Economic Evaluation of Vaccinations - a Methodologic Review (예방접종의 경제성 평가방법과 사례)

  • Chun, Byung Chul
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2008
  • The basis of the economic evaluation of vaccination is the balance between the use of the resources (input) and the improvements that result from the vaccination (output). Techniques used for economic evaluation of vaccination are cost analysis, cost-minimization analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis and cost-benefit analysis. Cost analysis seeks to characterize the costs of a given vaccination program. Cost-effective analysis is to helps policy-makers decide on the best use of allocated resources, whether cost-benefit analysis is to helps policy-makers decide on the overall allocation of resources. Cost-utility analysis is a specific form of cost-effective analysis in which outcomes are reduced to a common denominator such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) or disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Many economic analyses have been conducted on vaccines in the world, but there have been a little studies on economic evaluation on vaccines in Korea. This paper reviewed the methodology used to economic evaluation on vaccines and immunizations and addressed some examples of the methods.

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The analysis of cost-effectiveness of implant and conventional fixed dental prosthesis

  • Chun, June Sang;Har, Alix;Lim, Hyun-Pil;Lim, Hoi-Jeong
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2016
  • PURPOSE. This study conducted an analysis of cost-effectiveness of the implant and conventional fixed dental prosthesis (CFDP) from a single treatment perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The Markov model for cost-effectiveness analysis of the implant and CFDP was carried out over maximum 50 years. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed by the 10,000 Monte-Carlo simulations, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEAC) were also presented. The results from meta-analysis studies were used to determine the survival rates and complication rates of the implant and CFDP. Data regarding the cost of each treatment method were collected from University Dental Hospital and Statistics Korea for 2013. Using the results of the patient satisfaction survey study, quality-adjusted prosthesis year (QAPY) of the implant and CFDP strategy was evaluated with annual discount rate. RESULTS. When only the direct cost was considered, implants were more cost-effective when the willingness to pay (WTP) was more than 10,000 won at $10^{th}$ year after the treatment, and more cost-effective regardless of the WTP from $20^{th}$ year after the prosthodontic treatment. When the indirect cost was added to the direct cost, implants were more cost-effective only when the WTP was more than 75,000 won at the $10^{th}$ year after the prosthodontic treatment, more than 35,000 won at the $20^{th}$ year after prosthodontic treatment. CONCLUSION. The CFDP was more cost-effective unless the WTP was more than 75,000 won at the $10^{th}$ year after prosthodontic treatment. But the cost-effectivenss tendency changed from CFDP to implant as time passed.

The Estimation Analysis Method of the Annual Operation Cost of Korean High-rise Condominiums

  • Ko, Eun Hyung;Choi, Jun Young
    • Architectural research
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2005
  • In today's building industry the emphasis has been geared more towards construction, thus building maintenance and life cycle have been neglected until now. A direct result of this neglect is the rapid aging of building, which leads to more cost-effective decision making methods for the prolongation of building life span. The following study is conducted in the area of Daegu and Seoul in order to develop the estimation analysis method of the annual operation cost of the Korean high-rise condominiums for the cost-effective decision making support through mathematical and statistical analyses including the present value and standardized measurement corrections. Based on the assumption that the life expectancy of the high rise condominium is 50 years, initial cost is ₩421,212/$m^2$, and a total sum of yearly operation cost during life expectancy is ₩2,154,499//$m^2$), yearly accumulated operation cost is shown as below: $AOC=0.7097t^4-38.803t^3+806.95t^2+11045t-496.52$ ($R^2=0.98$) (Here, AOC = Accumulated Operation Cost, t = given years)

Cost Effective Analysis of Recall Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening in Selangor - Results from a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Abdul Rashid, Rima Marhayu;Ramli, Sophia;John, Jennifer;Dahlui, Maznah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5143-5147
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    • 2014
  • Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is by opportunistic Pap smear which contributes to the low uptake rate. To overcome this, a pilot project called the SIPPS program (translated as information system of Pap smear program) had been introduced whereby women aged 20-65 years old are invited for Pap smear and receive recall to repeat the test. This study aimed at determining which recall method is most cost-effective in getting women to repeat Pap smear. A randomised control trial was conducted where one thousand women were recalled for repeat smear either by registered letter, phone messages, phone call or the usual postal letter. The total cost applied for cost-effectiveness analysis includes the cost of sending letter for first invitation, cost of the recall method and cost of two Pap smears. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) of Pap smear uptake by each recall method was then performed. The uptake of Pap smear by postal letter, registered letters, SMS and phone calls were 18.8%, 20.0%, 21.6% and 34.4%, respectively (p<0.05). The CER for the recall method was lowest by phone call compared to other interventions; RM 69.18 (SD RM 0.14) compared to RM 106.53 (SD RM 0.13), RM 134.02 (SD RM 0.15) and RM 136.38 (SD RM 0.11) for SMS, registered letter and letter, respectively. ICER showed that it is most cost saving if the usual method of recall by postal letter be changed to recall by phone call. The possibility of letter as a recall for repeat Pap smear to reach the women is higher compared to sending SMS or making phone call. However, getting women to do repeat Pap smear is better with phone call which allows direct communication. Despite the high cost of the phone call as a recall method for repeat Pap smear, it is the most cost-effective method compared to others.

A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of the Medication for Osteoporosis (골다공증 치료약제의 비용-효과 분석)

  • 임지영;권순만
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.71-88
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of four medications for treating and preventing osteoporosis -HRT therapy(conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg for 25 days and medroxyprogesterone acetate 5mg for 01112 days), Alendronate(10mg and 5mg), Active Vitamin D(Calcitriol), and Calcium. Total costs include the direct medical cost -examination fee, consultation fee, prescription fee, fee for preparing medications, and the price of pharmaceuticals- and the indirect cost of patients such as traffic expenses and time cost. In addition, the costs of monitoring in adverse reactions are added. The effects of four medications are expressed as BMD(Bone Mineral Density) percent change measured by DEXA(Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) in lumbar spine(L2-L4) and femoral neck site. A mixed model based on meta analysis provides the estimates of effectiveness, which are then appled to the hypothetical cohort consisting of postmenopausal women at the age of 50-59. HRT therapy is the most cost-effective medication at 172,433.64 won (lumbar spine site) and 546,328.28 won (femoral neck site) per BMD percent change for osteoporosis. Alendronate 10mg is more cost-effective than Alendronate 5mg as 345,971.23 won and 378,441.63 won per lumbar BMD percent change at 0.991g/$cm^2$, respectively. Alendronate 10mg is more cost-effective than Alendronate 5mg as 1,329,257.89 won and 1,467,291.23 won per femoral neck BMD percent change at 0.834g/$cm^2$, respectively.

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A Study on the Cost Analysis for the Container Terminal Services based on ABC Approach

  • Ryu, Dong-Ha;Ahn, Ki-Myung;Yoon, Yeo-Sang
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.589-596
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    • 2011
  • Terminal market has rapidly crashed and market rates have taken a sharp plunge. The substantial throughput decrease resulted from the world economic downturn has been a finishing blow to the terminal operators in Busan. Every terminal operator is taking cost saving as its first priority and accelerating structural reform and downsizing. Under the desperate situation, the need of effective cost analysis would be highly required to effectively control operation cost and to develop new services to satisfy the different needs of the customers. Furthermore, terminal operators could reduce unnecessary activities and concentrate their resource on the more cost-effective process through the operation cost analysis. In order to suggest a new framework of the cost control of container terminals, this paper seeks to analyze terminal costs based on ABC approach by processing actual data.

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis on On-line and Off-line Extra Curricula Education (온라인과 오프라인 과외교육의 비용-효과 분석)

  • KIM, Byoung-Joo;KIM, Sun-Yeon;KIM, Jung-Mi
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.199-212
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness analysis on on-line and off-line extra-curricula education(ECE). Based on a review of relevant literature, on-line ECE is defined as internet based learning, and off-line ECE is defined as on-site learning out of school such as private cram schools and private tutoring. The results of this study are as follows: First, sixty nine percent of the subjects were received ECE. Off-line ECE is more dominant than on-line ECE. Second, cost for off-line ECE is more expensive than on-line ECE. Third, off-line ECE is more effective than on-line ECE, when cost is ignored. Fourth, on-line ECE is more cost-effective than off-line ECE.

Economic Analysis of Foldable Containers on the Jeju-Mokpo Container Route

  • Shin, Chang-Hoon;Kim, Sung-Nam;Den, Mariia;Wang, Gao-Feng
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.331-340
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    • 2018
  • Shipping containers promote rapid development of the transport industry, and generate economic and social value. However, problems often occur due to imbalance in dynamics between exports and imports, container relocation, traffic congestion, and general shipping network designs. So, efficient and cost-effective cargo management has become crucial for the Jeju Island - Mokpo container route (JMCR) in South Korea. Dozens of recent studies reveal that collapsible or foldable containers, may become an innovative solution to problematic issues within the shipping industry. The major purpose of this study is to discuss conditions required for successful commercial application of foldable containers, based on a cost-benefit analysis precisely for the JMCR. Findings reveal usage of foldable containers can be cost-effective, if containers make a "FULL<->EMPTY" route. To the contrary, a "FULL<->FULL" route can drastically increase expenditure. However, economic analysis of actual figures for 2010-2015 indicate that benefits for Mokpo - Jeju direction are significant to cover losses on the Jeju - Mokpo line. Seasonal patterns and mixing percentages of foldable and standard containers on the route, may also produce cost-effective solutions. Sensitivity analysis reveals that benefits from using foldable containers, depend mostly on empty container shares in addition to various extra costs.

Cost-Effective MapReduce Processing in the Cloud (클라우드 환경에서의 비용 효율적인 맵리듀스 처리)

  • Ryu, Wooseok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.114-115
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    • 2018
  • This paper studies a mechanism for cost-effective analysis of big data in the cloud environment. Recently, as a storage of electronic medical records can be managed outside the hospital, there is a growing demand for cloud-based big data analysis in small-and-medium hospitals. This paper firstly analyze the Amazon Elastic MapReduce which is a popular cloud framework for big data analysis, and proposes a cost model for analyzing big data using Amazon EMR with less cost. Using the proposed model, the user can construct a cost-effective computing cluster, which maximize the effectiveness of the analysis per operational cost.

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Development of a New Numerical Analysis Method for Nodal Probabilistic Production Cost Simulation (각 부하지점별 확률론적 발전비용 산정을 위한 수치해석적 방법의 개발)

  • Kim, Hong-Sik;Mun, Seung-Pil;Choe, Jae-Seok;No, Dae-Seok;Cha, Jun-Min
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers A
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    • v.50 no.9
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    • pp.431-439
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    • 2001
  • This Paper illustrates a new numerical analysis method using a nodal effective load model for nodal probabilistic production cost simulation of the load point in a composite power system. The new effective load model includes capacities and uncertainties of generators as well as transmission lines. The CMELDC(composite power system effective load duration curve) based on the new effective load model at HLll(Hierarchical Level H) has been developed also. The CMELDC can be obtained from convolution integral processing of the outage capacity probabilistic distribution function of the fictitious generator and the original load duration curve given at the load point. It is expected that the new model for the CMELDC proposed in this study will provide some solutions to many problems based on nodal and decentralized operation and control of an electric power systems under competition environment in future. The CMELDC based on the new model at HLll will extend the application areas of nodal probabilistic production cost simulation, outage cost assessment and reliability evaluation etc. at load points. The characteristics and effectiveness of this new model are illustrated by a case study of MRBTS(Modified Roy Billinton Test System).

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