• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cracked egg

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Crack Detection in Eggshell by Acoustic Responses (음향반응에 의한 계란의 크랙검출에 관한 연구)

  • 조한근;최완규;백진하
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1998
  • A nondestructive quality inspection technique using acoustic impulse response method was developed for eggshell inspection. An experimental system was built to generate the impact force, to measure the response signal and to analyze the frequency spectrum. This system includes an impulse generating unit, an egg holding seal a microphone with preamplifier, and a DSP board installed on Personal Computer. A simple algorithm .was developed for crack detection. Using the developed system with algorithm, crack detection ability was evaluated and the error rate to estimate the normal egg as cracked was found to be 4% and the error rate to estimate the cracked egg as normal was also found to be 4%. This system could be adopted in industry with some modification.

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Detection of Surface Cracks in Eggshell by Machine Vision and Artificial Neural Network (기계 시각과 인공 신경망을 이용한 파란의 판별)

  • 이수환;조한근;최완규
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.409-414
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    • 2000
  • A machine vision system was built to obtain single stationary image from an egg. This system includes a CCD camera, an image processing board and a lighting system. A computer program was written to acquire, enhance and get histogram from an image. To minimize the evaluation time, the artificial neural network with the histogram of the image was used for eggshell evaluation. Various artificial neural networks with different parameters were trained and tested. The best network(64-50-1 and 128-10-1) showed an accuracy of 87.5% in evaluating eggshell. The comparison test for the elapsed processing time per an egg spent by this method(image processing and artificial neural network) and by the processing time per an egg spent by this method(image processing and artificial neural network) and by the previous method(image processing only) revealed that it was reduced to about a half(5.5s from 10.6s) in case of cracked eggs and was reduced to about one-fifth(5.5s from 21.1s) in case of normal eggs. This indicates that a fast eggshell evaluation system can be developed by using machine vision and artificial neural network.

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Determination of the quality of stripe-marked and cracked eggs during storage

  • Liu, Yu Chi;Chen, Ter Hsin;Wu, Ying Chen;Tan, Fa Jui
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1013-1020
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Stripe marks, which occasionally occur on the shell, do not cause breakage to the shell and shell membranes of eggs. This study investigated the quality of intact eggs (IEs), minor stripe-marked eggs (MEs), severe stripe-marked eggs (SEs), and cracked eggs (CEs) during 3-week storage at $25^{\circ}C$. Methods: Shell eggs were collected the day after being laid and were washed. Among them, eggs without any visual cracks or stripe marks on the shells were evaluated as IEs by the plant employees using candling in a darkened egg storage room; the remaining eggs exhibited some eggshell defects. At day 3, the eggs were further categorized into IEs, MEs, SEs, CEs, and broken eggs (BEs) on the basis of the description given. Except BEs, which were discarded, the remaining eggs were stored at $25^{\circ}C$ (approximate relative humidity 50%) and then analyzed. Results: Stripe marks were observed primarily within the first 3 days after washing. At day 3, CEs had significantly (p<0.05) lower Haugh unit values, but all eggs had grades AA or A, according to the United States Department of Agriculture standard. As storage time increased, differences in egg quality between groups were more obvious. IEs had the highest eggshell breaking strength. During storage, the total plate counts and pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., were not detectable in the internal content of IEs and SEs. Conclusion: In conclusion, cracks degraded egg quality severely and minor stripe marks only slightly influenced the egg quality.

A Study of Analysis on Comparison of Laying Performance and Disease Occurrence of Welfare Approved Farms of Laying Hens with Housing Type (산란계 동물복지 인증농가의 사육형태와 품종별 생산성 및 질병발생 비교 분석 연구)

  • Hong, Eui-Chul;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Park, Ki-Tae;Jeon, Jin-Joo;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Park, Sung-Bok;Kim, Chan-Ho;Suh, Sang-Won;Kim, Sang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to collect basic data on the egg laying performance and disease occurrence on animal welfare-approved farms (AWAF) for laying hens with different housing types (windowless, open, and free-range house) and strains (Hy-line, Lohmann). Age at first egg laying was 151 d in the windowless house and 141 d in both the open and free-range houses, and the percentage peaks of each farm were 91.8%, 92.9%, and 86.3%. Average egg production according to housing types were 70.9%, 77.4%, and 65.6% at 18~38 wk old and 91.1%, 90.1%, and 76.2% at 32~36 wk. The average dirty and cracked egg ratio of the windowless, open, and free-range houses was 2.84%, 1.15%, and 0.23%, respectively. Mortality in the open house was lower than the other house types. Age of first egg laying for the Hy-line strain was 155 d and that for the Lohmann strain was 157 d, and the percentage peaks of the two strains were 92.9% (252 d) and 87.2% (237 d), respectively. Average egg production of the strains was 83.7% and 76.9%, respectively. The average dirty and cracked egg ratio of the Hy-Line and Lohmann strains was 3.85% and 2.97%, respectively. Mortality of the Hy-Line strain was lower than that of the Lohmann strain. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the egg weight, HU, and egg yolk color of chickens raised in the open house compared with those of chickens raised in the other house types. In terms of antibody titer, that for Newcastle disease in open house chickens was lower than that of chickens raised in windowless and free-range houses. The antibody titer for low pathogenic avian influenza, avian infectious bronchitis, and avian pneumovirus was high at over 3.0 in all three farms. SG, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella pullorum, fowl adenovirus infection, and infectious laryngotrachitis were not detected in any of the three house types. The number of AWAF for laying hens has continuously increased in Korea, but there is currently little data on the housing types used on the AWAF for laying hens. Therefore, the results of the present study, in which analyzed the laying performance and disease occurrence on AWAF for laying hens, can use as basic data for the improvement of performance and prevention of disease on further AWFA for laying hens.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Macsumsuk and Herb Resources on Egg Performance and Quality in Korean Native Crssbred Chicken (맥섬석과 한방제재 첨가급여가 재래닭 교잡종의 계란생산 및 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byung-Ki;Hwang, Eun-Gyeong
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2012
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Macsumsuk and herb resources on the egg performance and quality in Korean native crossbred chickens. A total of three hundred sixty improved Korean native crossbred chickens in primary laying period were randomly allocated to four treatments (30 birds/treatment ${\times}$ 3 replications) for eight weeks. Dietary treatments included CON (basal diets), T1 (basal diets + 0.3% Macsumsuk), T2 (basal diets + 0.3% herb resources) and T3 (basal diets + 0.3% Macsumsuk + 0.3% herb resources). No significant differences were found for feed intake, egg weight and average egg production (P>0.05), however, cracked egg rate was higher in CON than in T1-T3, especially T3 was the lowest (P<0.05). The crude fat content of whole eggs, CON (11.20%) was higher (P<0.05) than the experimental treatments (9.67%-10.01%). Haugh unit, yolk color, eggshell thickness, and eggshell breaking strength tended to be higher in T1 and T2, but there were no significant differences (P>0.05). However, the experimental treatments were significantly higher than CON (P<0.05) for eggshell breaking strength, and T3 (14.91 mg/g) contained lower (P<0.05) cholesterol in egg yolk than other treatments. For fatty acid composition in egg yolk, CON group showed higher saturated fatty acid contents than the experimental treatments, but T1 (67.00%), T2 (66.78%) and T3 (66.82%) were higher than CON for unsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05). In conclusion, supplementating Macsumsuk and herb resources together in diets of Korean native crossbred chickens could decrease egg yolk cholesterol and improve egg quality.

Efficacy of Antibacteriocidal Yeast That Producing Bacteriocin OR-7 in Chicken (박테리오신 OR-7을 생산하는 항균 효모의 양계에서의 사양시험 효과)

  • Cho, Dong-In;Kang, Sang-Mo;Lee, Jae-Hwa;Lee, Sang-Hyeon;Kim, Nam-Young;Kim, Ki-Seuk
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.391-398
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding probiotics(gene modified yeast) on the egg quality in laying hens. The laboratory method of this study is as follow: In hens, 300, 36 weeks old ISA brown commercial layer, were employed in 13weeks feeding trial with a 7 days adjustment period. Dietary treatments are 1) control (basal diet) 2) Y0.3 (basal diet+0.3% probiotics), 3) Y0.5% (basal diet+0.5% probiotics), 4) PY0.3% (basal diet+0.3% plasmid modified probiotics), 5) PY0.5% (basal diet+0.5% plasmid modified probiotics). For overall period, hen-day egg production, egg weight (p<0.05) by dietary probiotic supplementation were recorded. Eggs were collected and weighed every day. Egg production number and egg production rate, egg weight, failure egg ratio and trouble egg ratio were recorded for 13weeks days. Diets PY0.3 and PY0.5 improved Egg production rate, egg production number and egg weight, compared to control diet (linear effect. p<0.05). And, diets PY0.3 and PY0.5 improved Egg production rate, egg production number, compared to Y0.3 and Y0.5 (linear effect. p<0.05). But, in Inferior egg and cracked egg, diets PY0.3 and PY0.5 did not tended to increase by dietary probiotic supplementation compared to control diet and Y group (0.3, 0.5) (linear effect. p<0.05). The productivity enhance on the egg quality in laying hens is considered from the effects of feeding probiotics(gene modified yeast).

Investigation of Reliability of Automatic Cracked and Bloody Egg Detector (파각란 및 혈란 자동검란기기 검출 신뢰도 검증)

  • Noh, Jae Jung;Jeon, Seung Yeob;Park, Byeong Seck;Kim, Sun Man;Kim, Heui Soo;Kim, Hyun Joo;Jo, Cheorun
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of automatic cracked and bloody egg detector according to the age of the hens and the level of the detector. The results of this study are expected to be helpful in the implementation of the Korean egg grading system, which is expected to improve egg quality for consumers. An official egg grader randomly selected 1,000 eggs for each experiment (total 36,000 eggs), ran them through the automatic detector, and conducted labor inspection using the eggs that were classified by the detector as cracked, bloody, and normal eggs. The results showed that more cracked eggs were laid by hens aged 40-60 weeks than by hens aged 30 weeks (p<0.05). Also, when the detector level increased from four to seven (i.e., when it became less sensitive), its cracked eggs detection rate dropped, and the total rate of cracked eggs was consistent after the labor inspection of the classified eggs. The automatic detector achieved over 97 percent accuracy. The bloody eggs constituted only 0.005 percent of all the samples, and all the detector-detected eggs were bloody eggs after the labor inspection of both the bloody and normal egg lines. Therefore, it can be concluded that the automatic cracked and bloody egg detector was reliable and can be used in the egg grading system. Considering that cracked eggs should be less than 9 percent of first-grade eggs in the present egg grading system, the use of an automatic crack detector may help provide better-quality eggs to consumers by producing less than 5.5 percent cracked eggs.

The Effects of Live Yeast(Saaccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation on the Performance of Laying Hens (활성효모 첨가가 산란계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 유종석;백인기
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.179-191
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    • 1990
  • In order to study the effects of supplementation of live yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the performance of laying hens, five experiments were conducted. Two experiment were conducted during summer period, one with 37 wk old Dekalb-Delta strain laying birds(Exp. 1) and the other one with 100 wk old molted Nick Chick Brown laying birds(Esp.2) . In each experiment, 240 birds were divided into 12 groups of 20 birds each and randomly distributed. Each of the two experimental diets(Control 71 and 0.05% live yeast supplemented 72) was fed to 6 groups for 4 wks in Exp.1 and 3 wks in Exp.2. Three experiments were conducted during winter period, Exp.2 with 54 wk old Hy-Line strain laying birds, Exp.4 with 52 wk old Hy-Line strain laying birds, and Exp.5 with 36 wk old broiler breeder(Indian River strain). In each experiment, 540 birds were divided into 18 groups of 30 birds each and randomly distributed. Each of the 3 experimental diets(Control:$T_1$0.05% live yeast supplemented:$T_2$ and 0.1% live yeast supplemented : T$_3$) was fed to 9 groups for 6 wks in Exp.3, 9 wks in Exp.4 and 4 wks in Exp.5. In Exp.4, Latin Square design was employed to determine the effects of switching feeds at 3 wk intervals. All hens were housed in cages of commercial farm and experimental diets were made with commercial layer feeds. In Experiment 1, egg production was significantly(P<0.05) higher in $T_2$. Feed intake was significantly (P<higher in 72 at 1st wk but 4 wk average was not significantly different. Feed efficiency was significantly(P<0.01) better in 72 at End wk but 4 wk average was not significantly different. Other parameters, such as weight, soft egg production, cracked egg production and mortality were not significantly different. In Experiment 2, egg production was significantly(P<0.05) higher in $T_2$. Feed efficiency was significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01) better at End wk and 3rd wk but 3 wk average was not significantly different. Soft egg production was significantly(P<0.05) higher in 72. Other parameters were not significantly different. In Experiment 3, egg productions were significantly(P<0.05) different among treatments : $T_3$ was higher than $T_1$ and $T_2$ was higher than $T_1$. Egg weight of $T_1$ and $T_2$was significantly(P<0.05) heavier than $T_3$. Feed intake of $T_2$ and $T_3$ was significantly(P<0.05) higher than $T_1$ at 6th wk but overall average was not significantly different. Soft egg production were significantly(P<0.01) different among treatments:$T_1$ was higher than $T_3$ was higher than $T_2$. Feed efficiency cracked e99 Production and mortality were not signifcantly different. In Experiment 4, egg production tended to increase as the level of live yeast supplementation increased but they were not statistically different. In Experiment 5, egg production of broiler breeders of $T_3$ was significantly(P<0.01) higher than $T_1$. Feed intake of $T_3$ was significantly(P<0.05) greater than $T_1$ and $T_2$ at 3rd wk but overall average was not significantly different. Fertility and hatchability tended to be higher in the supplemented groups than in the control.

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The Effects of Supplemental Bacterial Phytase to the Calcium and Nonphosphorus Levels in Feed of Laying Hens (산란계 사료 내 칼슘 및 무기태 인 수준에 따른 Bacterial Phytase 급여 효과)

  • Kang, H.K.;Park, S.Y.;Yu, D.J.;Kim, J.H.;Kang, G.H.;Na, J.C.;Kim, D.W.;Suh, O.S.;Lee, S.J.;Lee, W.J.;Kim, S.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to identify the correlation of bacterial phytase ($Transphos^{(R)}$) to the calcium level in feed. Of all 21-week-old 720 HyLine brown laying hens, 2 birds of similar weight were placed on each individual cage. The experiment was conducted by $3{\times}2{\times}3$ factorial design with including 3 different levels of phytase (0, 300, and 1,000 DPU/kg), 2 different levels of calcium (3.5% and 4.0%), and 3 different levels of no NPP addition 0% (0.095 NPP), 0.5% (0.185% NPP), and 1.0% (0.275% NPP). The feeding trial maintained the ME level of 2,800 kcal/kg and 16% for crude protein. The diet was fed ad libitum and 17 hours of lighting was provided throughout the experimental period. Egg production seemed to increase, in the 300 DPU of bacterial phytase added group and the cracked egg tended to reduce in Transphos added group. The egg productivity between treatment groups did not show significant difference by dietary calcium level, whereas non NPP added group (0.095% NPP) was found to be low compared to NPP added groups (P<0.05). The highest mean egg weight and the highest daily egg mass were detected in 300 DPU phytase added group. Although the mean egg weight was significantly higher in treatment groups fed with 3.5% calcium containing feeds (P<0.05), daily egg mass was no among treatment groups. The mean egg weight and daily egg mass were the lowest in non NPP added group (0.095% NPP) compared to other treatment groups (P<0.05). The feed intake showed similar pattern regardless of the bacterial phytase and calcium levels in the diet. However, the treatment groups fed diets containing NPP level of 0.275% and 0.165% showed significantly higher feed intake than the group fed with 0.095% NPP (P<0.05). Although the feed conversion was not affected by calcium and NPP levels in the diet, the most improved result was obtained from 300 DPU phytase added group (P<0.05). The eggshell breaking strength and thickness increased as dietary calcium level increase the level of calcium increases in diet. The treatment groups fed diet containing 0.275% and 0.165% NPP revealed to show improvement in eggshell breaking strength and yolk color index compared to the NPP non added (0.095% NPP) treatment group. The result of the present study suggests that the appropriate level of microbial phytase is 300 DPU and at this level, tricalciumphosphate supplementation in feed can be reduced to 40% of NRC recommendation. Higher calcium level in feed fail to show synergistic effect by adding microbial phytase.