• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cylinder contact

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A study on the development of thin-walled metal bearing for the large-sized slow speed diesel engines. (대형저속 디젤엔진용 박판형 메탈 베어링의 국산화 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 김영주;조문제
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 1995
  • Nowadays the thin-walled metal bearing, which is made seperately from the bearing housing and has the ratio of wall thickness/bearing diameter being less than 1/30, are used in many newly developed large-sized slow speed diesel engines for the purpose of upgarding lubication performance and easy maintenance according to the trends of increasing output per cylinder and lowering engine speed. The type of this bearing has been used generally in many small-sized high speed engines applied for automobile, high speed craft and industrial power generation systems since 1950s. But the tranditional thick-walled bearings, whice are linned white metal on the bearing housing directly, have been installed on the large and slow speed engines until 1990s due to the easy manufacturing procedures. In this study we have calculated optimum dimensions of the metal bearing, fabricated special zigs for crush measurement, model test machine, 2 sets of specimens.(crosshead pin bearing, $\phi$818*552*20mm) for B & W 6S70MC(20, 940*88rpm), and evaluated metal constact phenomena of white metal, its friction coefficient, temparature rise through the model test and field performance test.

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Wear Behaviors of ${Si_3}{N_4}$ under Various Sliding Conditions (미끄럼 환경의 변화에 따른 ${Si_3}{N_4}$의 마멸거동)

  • Lee, Yeong-Jae
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.1753-1761
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    • 1996
  • The wear behaviors of ${Si_3}{N_4}$ under the different sliding conditions were investigated. The cylinder-on-disc wear tester was used. Using the servo-metor, the sliding speed did ot alternate due to the frictional forces. Threekinds of loads and speeds were selected to watch the variation of the wear rates and the frictional forces. Also three kinds of sliding condition under a constant speed were used to see the effects of the oxidationand the abrasion. The contact pressure was more effective than the repeated cycle on the wear behavior of ${Si_3}{N_4}$. With the low loads, the effect of the asperity-failure was more dominant than that of oxidation and abrasion. As increasing the load, the effects of oxidation and abrasion were increased, but the asperity-failure effects were decreased. The wear particles destroyed the ozide layers formed on sliding surfaces. The wear rate could be decreased due to delaying the oxidation. The frictional power and the wear weight per time were usefuel to see the transition of wear.

Three-dimensional shape measurement using grating patterns form an optical spatial modulator

  • Tsujioka, Katsumi;Ito, Hiroshi;Furuhashi, Hideo;Higa, Shuntaro;Hayashi, Niichi;Yamada, Jun;Hatano, Kazuo;Uchida, Yoshiyuki
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.561-565
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    • 1994
  • An automatic measuring system of three dimensional shape by a projection method with grating pattern from in optical spatial modulator has been developed. The characteristics of the system were studied. This system is composed of a projector, an optical spatial modulator, a CCD camera, and computer. A liquid crystal is used as the optical spatial modulator. The grating patterns that ire projected on the surface of the object are controlled by the computer connected with the optical spatial modulator. The projector patterns are measured by the CCD camera. The data are transferred to the computer. After a transformation into line data, the data are analyzed to obtain the coordinate of the surface of the object. This system has advantages as follows. (1) It is possible to capture the surface topography without any contact. (2) The time required for the measurements is shorter than the light-section method. (3) An optical spatial modulator using a liquid crystal is possible to control the grating patterns accurately by a computer. Surfaces of a plate and a cylinder were measured. The threshold level had an influence on the measurement. It was shown that this system has adequae accuracy in the measurements.

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Location Issue of Bearing and Unbalance Mass on the Balance Shaft for a Inline 4-Cylinder Engine (직렬 4기통 엔진용 밸런스 샤프트의 베어링 및 불평형 질량 위치 결정 문제)

  • Bae, Chul-Yong;Kim, Chan-Jung;Lee, Dong-Won;Kwon, Seong-Jin;Lee, Bong-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.277-283
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    • 2008
  • Balance shaft module contributes to reduce the engine-born vibration by compensating it from a unbalance mass with opposite phase but practically, this device has some problems during the operation in a high speed owing to the considerable amount of unbalance mass that leads to the large quantity of bending deformation as well as torque fluctuation at the balance shaft. To tackle two main problems, the design strategy on balance shaft is suggested by addressing the optimal location of unbalance mass and supporting hearing based on the formulation of objective function that minimizes critical issues, both bending deformation as well as torque fluctuation. The boundary condition of balance shaft assumes to be free such that any external force or contact component is not taken into consideration in this study.

Design of A Pendulum Type Motor-Driven Blood Pump for Artificial Heart

  • Chang, Jun-K.;Jung, Dae-Y.;Kim, Jong-W.;Min, Byoung-G.;Han, Dong-C.
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1990 no.05
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1990
  • A new version of moving actuator electromechanical total artificial heart was designed to improve total efficiency, durability, and fitting inside thoracic cavity. As compared with our present type of the rolling cylinder actuator, this new model has a pendulum-type actuator with reciprocating motion around the fixed circular path, connected through the gear mechanisms to the motor. By using this mechanism, the efficiency and durability could be improved by replacing sliding mechanism with rolling contact elements. Also, the height of the pump could be decreased from 9cm to 7cm with static stroke volume 65cc. With these improvements, we have implanted this new pump in human size animal (less than 70Kg weight).

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Assessment of Visual satisfaction & Visual Function with Prescription Swimming goggles In-air and Underwater (도수 수경 착용시 실내와 수중에서의 시각적 만족도 및 시력 평가)

  • Chu, Byoung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.357-363
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To investigate the visual function with prescription swimming goggles. Methods: 15 university students (mean age: $22{\pm}1.54$ years) participated, with a mean distance refractive error of RE: S-1.67 D/C-0.40 D, LE: S-1.70D/C-0.37 D. Inclusion criteria were no ocular pathology, able to wear soft contact lenses to correct their refractive error to emmetropia and able to swim. Participants were fitted with contact lenses to correct all ametropia. Subjective evaluation for satisfaction of visual acuity, asthenopia and balance were also measured using a questionnaire while wearing swimming goggles with cylinder (C+1.50 D, Ax $90^{\circ}$) compared with plano sphere outside the swimming pool area. Visual acuity was assessed using the same ETDRS chart. The prescription swimming goggles powers were assessed in random order and ranged in power from S+3.00 D to S-3.00 D in 0.50 D steps. Results: Subjective evaluation was significantly worse for the swimming goggles with cylinder than for the plano powered goggles for all 3 questions, visual acuity, asthenopia and balance. Visual acuity were significantly affected by the different power of the swimming goggles (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the in-air in-clinic and underwater in-swimming pool measures (p=0.173). However, visual acuity measured in the clinic was significantly better than underwater for some swimming goggle powers (+3.00, +1.00, +0.50, 0, -1.00 and -2.00 D). Conclusions: Wearing swimming goggles underwater may degrade the visual acuity compared to within air but as the difference is less than 1 line of Snellen acuity, and it is unlikely to result in significant real-life effects. Having an incorrect cylinder correction was found to be detrimental resulting in lower score of satisfaction. Considering slippery floor of swimming pool area, it can be a potential risk factor. Therefore, it is important to correct any refractive error in addition to astigmatism for swimming goggle.

Vibration and Impact Transmission for each Variable of Woodpile Metamaterial (우드파일 메타물질의 변수 별 진동 및 충격에 끼치는 영향)

  • Ha, Young sun;Hwang, Hui Y.;Cheon, Seong S.
    • Composites Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2021
  • Metamaterials are complexes of elements that can create properties not found in naturally occurring materials, such as changing the direction of forces, creating negative stiffness, or altering vibration and impact properties. In the case of wood pile metamaterials that are easy to manufacture and have excellent performance in reducing vibration and shock in the vertical direction, basic research on variables affecting shock transmission is needed to reduce shock. Although research on impact reduction according to geometrical factors is being conducted recently, studies on the effect of material variables on impact reduction are insufficient. In this paper, finite element analysis was carried out by variablizing the geometrical properties (lamination angle, diameter, length) and material properties (modulus of elasticity, specific gravity, Poisson's ratio) of wood pile cylinders. Through finite element analysis, the shape of the wooden pile cylinder delivering impact was confirmed, and the effect of each variable on the reduction of impact force and energy was considered through main effect diagram analysis, and frequency band analysis was performed through fast Fourier transform. proceeded In order to reduce the impact force and vibration, it was found that the variables affecting the contact area of t he cylinder have a significant effect.

Data Qualification of Optical Emission Spectroscopy Spectra in Resist/Nitride/Oxide Etch: Coupon vs. Whole Wafer Etching

  • Kang, Dong-Hyun;Pak, Soo-Kyung;Park, George O.;Hong, Sang-Jeen
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.433-433
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    • 2012
  • As the requirement in patterning geometry continuously shrinks down, the termination of etch process at the exact time became crucial for the success in nano patterning technology. By virtue of real-time optical emission spectroscopy (OES), etch end point detection (EPD) technique continuously develops; however, it also faced with difficulty in low open ratio etching, typically in self aligned contact (SAC) and one cylinder contact (OCS), because of very small amount of optical emission from by-product gas species in the bulk plasma glow discharge. In developing etching process, one may observe that coupon test is being performed. It consumes costs and time for preparing the patterned sample wafers every test in priority, so the coupon wafer test instead of the whole patterned wafer is beneficial for testing and developing etch process condition. We also can observe that etch open area is varied with the number of coupons on a dummy wafer. However, this can be a misleading in OES study. If the coupon wafer test are monitored using OES, we can conjecture the endpoint by experienced method, but considering by data, the materials for residual area by being etched open area are needed to consider. In this research, we compare and analysis the OES data for coupon wafer test results for monitoring about the conditions that the areas except the patterns on the coupon wafers for real-time process monitoring. In this research, we compared two cases, first one is etching the coupon wafers attached on the carrier wafer that is covered by the photoresist, and other case is etching the coupon wafers on the chuck. For comparing the emission intensity, we chose the four chemical species (SiF2, N2, CO, CN), and for comparing the etched profile, measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, we adopted the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm for analyzing the chose OES data patterns, and analysis the covariance and coefficient for statistical method. After the result, coupon wafers are over-etched for without carrier wafer groups, while with carrier wafer groups are under-etched. And the CN emission intensity has significant difference compare with OES raw data. Based on these results, it necessary to reasonable analysis of the OES data to adopt the pre-data processing and algorithms, and the result will influence the reliability for relation of coupon wafer test and whole wafer test.

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Study on the Control and Topographical Recognition of an Underwater Rubble Leveling Robot for Port Construction (항만공사용 사석 고르기 수중로봇의 제어 및 지형인식에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Sung;Kim, Chi-Hyo;Lee, Jin-Hyung;Lee, Min-Ki
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2018
  • When underwater rubble leveling work is carried out by a robot, real-time information on the topography around the robot is required for remote control. If the topographical information with respect to the current position of the robot is displayed as a 3D graphic image, it allows the operator to plan the working schedules and to avoid accidents like rollovers. Up until now, the topographical recognition was conducted by multi-beam sonars, which were only used to assess the quality before and after the work and could not be used to provide real-time information for remote control. This research measures the force delivered to the bucket which presses the mound to determine whether contact is made or not, and the contact position is calculated by reading the cylinder length. A variable bang-bang control algorithm is applied to control the heavy robot arms for the positioning of the bucket. The proposed method allows operators to easily recognize the terrain and intuitively plan the working schedules by showing relatively 3-D gratifications with respect to the robot body. In addition, the operating patterns of a skilled operator are programmed for raking, pushing, moving, and measuring so that they are automatically applied to the underwater rubble leveling work of the robot.

Superhydrophobic nano-hair mimicking for water strider leg using CF4 plasma treatment on the 2-D and 3-D PTFE patterned surfaces

  • Shin, Bong-Su;Moon, Myoung-Woon;Kim, Ho-Young;Lee, Kwang-Ryeol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.365-365
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    • 2010
  • Similar to the superhydrophobic surfaces of lotus leaf, water strider leg is attributed to hierarchical structure of micro pillar and nano-hair coated with low surface energy materials, by which water strider can run and even jump on the water surface. In order to mimick its leg, many effort, especially, on the fabrication of nanohairs has been made using several methods such as a capillarity-driven molding and lithography using poly(urethane acrylate)(PUA). However most of those effort was not so effective to create the similar structure due to its difficulty in the fabrication of nanoscale hairy structures with hydrophobic surface. In this study, we have selected a low surface energy polymeric material of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, or Teflon) assisted with surface modification of CF4 plasma treatment followed by hydrophobic surface coating with pre-cursor of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). It was found that the plasma energy and duration of CF4 treatment on PTFE polymer could control the aspect ratio of nano-hairy structure, which varying with high aspect ratio of more than 20 to 1, or height of over 1000nm but width of 50nm in average. The water contact angle on pristine PTFE surface was measured as approximately $115^{\circ}$. With nanostructures by CF4 plasma treatment and hydrophobic coating of HMDSO film, we made a superhydrophobic nano-hair structure with the wetting angle of over $160^{\circ}C$. This novel fabrication method of nanohairy structures has been applied not only on 2-D flat substrate but also on 3-D substrates like wire and cylinder, which is similarly mimicked the water strider's leg.

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