• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Cylinder contact

검색결과 162건 처리시간 0.047초

3D feature profile simulation for nanoscale semiconductor plasma processing

  • Im, Yeon Ho
    • 한국진공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.61.1-61.1
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    • 2015
  • Nanoscale semiconductor plasma processing has become one of the most challenging issues due to the limits of physicochemical fabrication routes with its inherent complexity. The mission of future and emerging plasma processing for development of next generation semiconductor processing is to achieve the ideal nanostructures without abnormal profiles and damages, such as 3D NAND cell array with ultra-high aspect ratio, cylinder capacitors, shallow trench isolation, and 3D logic devices. In spite of significant contributions of research frontiers, these processes are still unveiled due to their inherent complexity of physicochemical behaviors, and gaps in academic research prevent their predictable simulation. To overcome these issues, a Korean plasma consortium began in 2009 with the principal aim to develop a realistic and ultrafast 3D topography simulator of semiconductor plasma processing coupled with zero-D bulk plasma models. In this work, aspects of this computational tool are introduced. The simulator was composed of a multiple 3D level-set based moving algorithm, zero-D bulk plasma module including pulsed plasma processing, a 3D ballistic transport module, and a surface reaction module. The main rate coefficients in bulk and surface reaction models were extracted by molecular simulations or fitting experimental data from several diagnostic tools in an inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasma system. Furthermore, it is well known that realistic ballistic transport is a simulation bottleneck due to the brute-force computation required. In this work, effective parallel computing using graphics processing units was applied to improve the computational performance drastically, so that computer-aided design of these processes is possible due to drastically reduced computational time. Finally, it is demonstrated that 3D feature profile simulations coupled with bulk plasma models can lead to better understanding of abnormal behaviors, such as necking, bowing, etch stops and twisting during high aspect ratio contact hole etch.

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베르누이 부상유동의 이론해석 및 수치해석 연구 (Theoretical and Computational Analyses of Bernoulli Levitation Flows)

  • 남종순;김규완;김진현;김희동
    • 대한기계학회논문집B
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.629-636
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    • 2013
  • 공압 부상은 베르누이 원리에 기초한다. 그러나 공압 부상 방법은 제품의 원가 상승의 요인이 되는 대량의 유량을 소모하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 이 논문에서는 베르누이 부상 유동의 통찰력을 얻기 위해 수치 해석 연구를 수행하였다. 3차원 압축성 Navier-Stokes 방정식과 SST k-${\omega}$ 난류모델에 유한 체적법을 적용하여 계산하였다. 기체 유량, 공정 제품의 직경 그리고 원형실린더와 공정 제품사이의 간극을 다양하게 변화하여 공정 제품 주위의 유동 특성을 조사하였다. 그 결과 부상력을 위한 최적의 간극과 공급 기체 유량이 증가하면 큰 부상력이 발생한다는 것을 알았다.

MW급 풍력발전기 동력전달용 테이퍼 연결장치 설계에 관한 연구 (Tapered Joint Design for Power Transmission of MW-grade Wind Turbine)

  • 강종훈;배준우;온한용;권용철
    • 대한기계학회논문집A
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.1183-1189
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    • 2015
  • 본 연구는 풍력발전기용 동력 전달부품의 테이퍼 연결장치 설계에 관한 것이다. 요구되는 전달토크의 크기, 동력을 전달하는 축의 직경, 테이퍼 링의 접촉면적 그리고 압축 면압을 부과하기 위한 볼트의 체결력 등이 테이퍼 연결장치 설계의 주요 변수이다. 테이퍼 연결의 계산은 축대칭 평면 변형률 조건의 복합링 구조로 가정하여 응력과 변형량을 계산 하였다. 축에 작용하는 면압은 요구 전달동력을 이용하여 계산하였고, 보강링에 작용하는 면압은 축과 허브의 변형량 일치 조건을 이용하여 계산하는 방법을 제안하였다. 복합링의 수식으로 구한 반경방향의 변형량으로 테이퍼 각도를 고려한 축방향 습동거리를 계산하였다. 수식으로 구한 응력과 상대습동거리의 타당성을 검증하기 위하여 유한요소해석을 수행하였으며 축방향의 하중이 발생하는 테이퍼면에서 원주방향의 응력이 최대 10% 수준의 오차를 보이고 있으나 그 외 응력분포와 상대습동거리는 수식적인 방법과 해석적인 방법이 일치함을 확인하였다.

열간 스피닝 공정을 통한 CNG 고압용기의 돔 및 입구 부 성형 (Forming of Dome and Inlet Parts of a High Pressure CNG Vessel by the Hot Spinning Process)

  • 이광오;박건영;곽효서;김철
    • 대한기계학회논문집A
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    • v.40 no.10
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    • pp.887-894
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    • 2016
  • 압축천연가스(CNG) 압력용기는 D.D.I공정을 통해 실린더부를 제작한 후, 스피닝 공정을 통해 돔 부 성형이 이루어진다. 그러나 스피닝 공정의 입구 부 성형에 관한 연구는 미미하며, 현장 작업자들의 경험이나 시행착오에 의해 제작되고 있는 실정이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 이론 임계좌굴하중 및 유한요소해석에서 축 방향 하중의 비교를 통하여 좌굴발생을 예측하였고, 상용 소프트웨어를 이용하여 돔부의 좌굴 방지를 위한 방법을 제안하였다. 또한, 입구 부 성형을 위하여 돔 부와 롤러가 맞닿는 점에서의 돔부의 반경에 따른 롤러 하중을 분석하고, 이를 토대로 입구 부 성형을 수행하였다.

Evaluation of the Effect of Riser Support System on Global Spar Motion by Time-domain Nonlinear Hull/Mooring/Riser Coupled Analysis

  • KOO BON-JUN;KIM MOO-HYUN
    • 한국해양공학회지
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.16-25
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    • 2005
  • The effect of vertical riser support system on the dynamic behaviour of a classical spar platform is investigated. Spar platform generally uses buoyancy-can riser support system, but as water depth gets deeper the alternative riser support system is required due to safety and cost issues. The alternative riser support system is to hang risers off the spar platform using pneumatic cylinders rather than the buoyancy-can. The existing numerical model for hull/mooring/riser coupled dynamics analysis treats riser as an elastic rod truncated at the keel (truncated riser model), thus, in this model, the effect of riser support system can not be modeled correctly. Due to this reason, the truncated riser model tends to overestimate the spar pitch and heave motion. To evaluate more realistic global spar motion, mechanical coupling among risers, guide frames and support cylinders inside of spar moon-pool should be modeled. In the newly developed model, the risers are extended through the moon-pool by using nonlinear finite element methods with realistic boundary condition at multiple guide frames. In the simulation, the vertical tension from pneumatic cylinders is modeled by using ideal-gas equation and the vertical tension from buoyancy-cans is modeled as constant top tension. The different dynamic characteristics between buoyancy-can riser support system and pneumatic riser support system are extensively studied. The alternative riser support system tends to increase spar heave motion and needs damper system to reduce the spar heave motion.

노화된 흰쥐 뇌 삼차신경주감각핵에 관한 전자현미경적 연구 (An Electron Microscopic Study on the Main Sensory Trigeminal Nucleus in the Aging Rat Brain)

  • 김명국
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the main sensory trigeminal nucleus in the aging rat brain by means of electron microscope. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, two (control group) and thirty six (aging group) months of age, were used. These animals were sacrificed by perfusion fixation with 2.5% glutaraldehyde-2.0% paraformaldehyde (0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) under sodium pentobarbital. The objective area was punched out with a sharp-edged metal cylinder of 0.8 mm in diameter. These blocks of tissue were then washed in 0.1M phosphate buffer, postfixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in a graded series of ethyl alcohol, and embedded in Epon 812. Thin sections were cut with Super Nova ultramicrotome, pick up on grids and double stained with lead citrate and uranyl acetate, and observed in JEOL 100B electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. In the control group, the neuronal cell body of the main sensory trigeminal nucleus was filled with nucleus, Golgi complex, Nissl substance, mitochondria, microfilaments and microtubules. However, few Nissl substances are seen in neuronal cell body. Axoaxonic synapse, axodendritic synapse, axosomatic synapse, axospinous synapse, myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers were well organized around cell bodies. Neurons with abnormal changes were not seen. 2. In the aging group, the neuronal cell body of the main sensory trigeminal nucleus contained large number of lipofuscin granules, dense body and swollen mitochondria. Terminal boutons contained glycogen, crystal-like vesicle and membranous indicating first signs of degeneration. The dendrites were found to be in synaptic contact with altered axon terminals. Frequently axons filled with dark axoplasn and splitted myelin sheath were noticed.

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평균 모세관압과 네트워크 모델을 이용한 불포화토의 유효 열전도도 산정에 관한 연구 (Study on Evaluation of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Unsaturated Soil Using Average Capillary Pressure and Network Model)

  • 한은선;이철호;최현준;최항석
    • 한국지반공학회논문집
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.93-107
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    • 2013
  • 입상체의 열전도도 산정에 관한 연구는 다공질 매질이나 지반공학에서 다양하게 사용될 수 있다. 입상체의 열전도도 산정은 입자들 사이의 에너지 관계에 대한 모사를 통해 "유효 열전도도"를 획득하는 것으로 발전하였다. 본 연구는 불포화토의 유효 열전도도를 산정하기 위해 3차원 개별 요소법을 이용하여 입자를 생성하고 기존 네트워크 모델을 수정하여 적용하였다. 수정된 네트워크 모델을 검증하기 위해 3가지 다른 크기의 글라스 비즈와 주문진사를 이용하여 실내시험을 통해 흙-수분 특성 곡선과 포화도에 따른 시료의 열전도도를 산정하였다. 수정된 네트워크 모델에서는 흙-수분 특성 곡선을 사용하여 입자 사이의 평균 유효 열전달 실린더 반경을 조정하고 모델에 적용하였다. 일련의 실내시험과 수정된 네트워크 모델을 사용하여 결과를 비교한 결과, 흙-수분 특성 곡선을 적용한 네트워크 모델은 주어진 불포화 조건에서 입상체 시료의 유효 열전도도를 합리적으로 모사할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 포화상태의 유효 열전달 실린더 반경 계수로 정규화한 예측식을 제안하였다. 제안한 예측식을 통해 기존 네트워크 모델을 사용하여 불포화 상태에서 입상체의 유효 열전도도를 산정할 수 있다.

전동차 고속차단기 고장 분석을 위한 FMECA 기법 (FMECA Procedure for Failure Analysis of Train High-Speed Circuit Breaker)

  • 김성렬;문용선;최규형
    • 한국산학기술학회논문지
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.3370-3377
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    • 2015
  • 전동차는 대용량 교통수단으로서 정시 운행 및 높은 안전성이 요구되기 때문에, 고장 분석을 체계적으로 수행하여 신뢰도를 향상시키기 위한 수단으로서 고장 영향의 심각도 및 치명도를 정량적으로 평가하는 FMECA (Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis) 기법이 적용되고 있다. 그러나, 아직까지 전동차에 특화된 FMECA 규격 및 절차는 정립되어 있지 않고 자동차 산업 등 다른 산업분야의 FMECA 규격을 그대로 적용하고 있기 때문에 전동차의 고유한 운영 및 유지보수 여건을 충분히 반영하지 못하고 있다. 본 논문에서는 산업계 각 분야에서 적용되고 있는 FMECA 규격에 대한 분석을 토대로, 전동차 분야에 적합한 FMECA 기법으로서 고장 영향 분석과 치명도 분석을 단계별로 나누어 수행하고 고장 영향의 심각도에 중점을 두어 치명도를 분석하는 기법을 제시하였다. 제안 기법을 전동차의 핵심 안전 장치인 고속차단기에 적용하여 도시철도 현장에서의 15년 동안의 전동차 유지보수 데이터를 이용하여 분석한 결과, 고속차단기 부품 중에서 특히 아크 슈트의 절손이 심각도 3등급, 치명도 5등급으로 위험도가 가장 높았으며, 뒤를 이어서 전자변 파손 및 접촉 불량, 실린더 파손 등이 심각도 3등급, 치명도 4등급으로 위험도가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 분석 결과는 전동차 고속차단기의 설계 및 유지보수 업무의 개선에 활용할 수 있다.

레이저 처리후 임프란트 표면 변화에 관한 연구 (The Evaluation of the atomic composition and the surface roughness of Titanium Implants following Various Laser treatment with air-powder abrasive)

  • 김태정;임성빈;정진형
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.615-630
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    • 2002
  • Various long-term studies have shown that titanium implants as abutments for different types of prostheses have become a predictable adjunct in the treatment of partially or fully edentulous patients. The continuous exposure of dental implants to the oral cavity with all its possible contaminants creates a problem. A lack of attachment, together with or caused by bacterial insult, may lead to peri-implantitis and eventual implant failure. Removal of plaque and calculus deposits from dental titanium implants with procedures and instruments originally made for cleaning natural teeth or roots may cause major alterations of the delicate titanium oxide layer. Therefore, the ultimate goal of a cleaning procedure should be to remove the contaminants and restore the elemental composition of the surface oxide without changing the surface topography and harming the surrounding tissues. Among many chemical and mechanical procedure, air-powder abrasive have been known to be most effective for cleaning and detoxification of implant surface. Most of published studies show that the dental laser may be useful in the treatment of pen-implantitis. $CO_2$ laser and Soft Diode laser were reported to kill bacteria of implant surface. The purpose of this study was to obtain clinical guide by application these laser to implant surface by means of Non-contact Surface profilometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) with respect to surface roughness and atomic composition. Experimental rough pure titanium cylinder models were fabricated. All of them was air-powder abraded for 1 minute and they were named control group. And then, the $CO_2$ laser treatment under dry, hydrogen peroxide and wet condition or the Soft Diode laser treatment under Toluidine blue O solution condition was performed on the each of the control models. The results were as follows: 1. Mean Surface roughness(Ra) of all experimental group was decreased than that of control group. But it wasn't statistically significant. 2. XPS analysis showed that in the all experimental group, titanium level were decreased, when compared with control group. 3. XPS analysis showed that the level of oxygen in the experimental group 1, 3($CO_2$ laser treatment under dry and wet condition) and 4(Soft Diode laser was used under toluidine blue O solution) were decreased, when compared with control group. 4. XPS analysis showed that the atomic composition of experimental group 2($CO_2$ laser treatment under hydrogen peroxide) was to be closest to that of control group than the other experimental group. From the result of this study, this may be concluded. Following air-powder abrasive treatment, the $CO_2$ laser in safe d-pulse mode and the Soft Diode laser used with photosensitizer would not change rough titanium surface roughness. Especially, $CO_2$ laser treatment under hydrogen peroxide gave the best results from elemental points of view, and can be used safely to treat peri-implantitis.

산부식후 상아질 표면의 습윤 또는 건조가 상아질 결합에 미치는 영향 (EFFECTS OF DENTIN SURFACE WETNESS OR DESICCATION AFTER ACID ETCHING ON DENTIN BONDING)

  • 양원경;권혁춘;손호현
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.243-253
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate dentin bonding by two different dentin bonding systems(DBS) using acetone based primer or adhesive [All Bond 2(AB2), One Step(OS)] when they were applied by wet or dry bonding technique. Morphology of resin-dentin interface and hybrid layer thickness(HLT) were investigated using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope(CLSM) and compared to shear bond strength(SBS). 72 extracted sound human molars were randomly divided into 4 groups of 18 teeth each - Group 1.(AW); AB2 by wet bonding. Group 2(AD); AB2 by dry bonding. Group 3.(OW); OS by wet bonding, Group 4.(OD); OS by dry bonding. In 6 teeth of each group, notch-shaped class V cavities(depth 2mm) were prepared on buccal and lingual surface at the cementoenamel juction(12 cavities per group). To obtain color contrast in CLSM observation, bonding resins of each DBS were mixed with rhodamine B and primer of AB2 was mixed with sodium fluorescein. Prepared teeth of each group were treated with AB2, OS, respectively according to the manufacturer's instructions except for dentin surface moisture treatment after acid etching. In group 1 and 3, after acid etching, excess water was removed with wet tissue(Kimwipes), leaving consistently shiny, visibly hydrated dentin surface. In group 2 and 4, dentin surface was dried for 10 seconds at 1 inch distance. The treated teeth were then packed with composite resin(${\AE}$litefil) and light-cured. 12 microscopic samples($60{\sim}80{\mu}m$ thickness) of each group were obtained after longitudinal section and grinding(Exakt cutting and grinding system). Morphological investigation of resin-dentin interface and HLT measurement using CLSM were done. For measurement of SBS, remaining 12 teeth of each group were flattened occlusally to remove all enamel and grinded to 500 grit SiC(Pedemet Specimen Preparation Equipment). After applying DBS on the exposed dentin surface, composite resin was applied in the shape of cylinder, which has 5mm diameter, 1.5mm thickness, and light cured. SBS was measured using Instron with a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. It was concluded as follows, 1. HLT of AW(mean: $2.59{\mu}m$) was thicker than any other group, and followed by AD, OW, OD in descending order(mean; 2.37, 2.28, $1.92{\mu}m$). Only OD had statistically significant differences(p<0.05) to AW and AD. 2. There were intimate contact of resin and dentin at the interface in wet bonding groups, but gaps or irregular interfaces were observed in dry bonding groups. 3. The length, diameter, density of resin tags were various even in the same group without significant differences between groups and lots of adhesive lateral branches were observed. 4. There were no statistically significant difference of SBS between AB2 and OS, but SBS of wet bonding groups were significantly higher(p<0.05) than dry bonding groups. 5. There were no consistent relationships between HLT and SBS.

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