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A Study on Types and Reasons of Engine Troubles Related to Fuel Oil (연료유에 의한 선박 디젤엔진 손상에 관한 연구)

  • Na, Eun-Young;Baik, Shin-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2009
  • Fuel oil mostly used for a ship is made from crude oil by refining process. In order to produce plenty of high-quality fuel oil, the Fluid catalytic cracking(FCC) method is widely adopted to many refinery factories during the decomposition process from high molecule into lower molecule. The major constituents in spent FCC catalysts are Si, Al, Fe, Ti, alkali metals and some others. The spent catalyst is also composed small amounts of rare metals such as Ce, Nd, Ni and V. The big problem in FCC oil is mixing the catalyst in the oil. This reason is unstable separation of FCC catalyst in separator. Such a FCC catalyst will become a reason of heavy wear down in moving parts of engine. The impurity in oil is ash and deposit compound, such as Al, Si, Ni, Fe and V, which will accelerate the wear down on fuel pump, fuel injection valve cylinder liner and piston ring. It is important to find a basic reason of an engine trouble for preventing similar troubles anymore. Insurance compensation will be different according to the reason of an engine trouble which might be natural abrasion or other external causes. In this study, types and reasons of engine troubles related to fuel oil will be covered.

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Water Repellent Finishes of Polyester Fiber Using Glow Discharge (글로우방전을 이용한 폴리에스테르섬유의 발수가공)

  • Mo, Sang Young;Kim, Gi Lyong;Kim, Tae Nyun;Chun, Tae Il
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.29-41
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    • 1993
  • In order to surface Hydrophobilization of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber samples were treated in the atmosphere of CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$glow discharge. The sample used in this study was PET film which is 75$\mu$m thick made by Teijin, O-Type(Japan). The cleaned samples were placed in plasma reactor made of pyrex glass cylinder, and plasma processing was carried out by glow discharge of CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ gas, being continuously fed by gas flow and continuously pumped out by a vacuum system. Electric power source for generate plasma state was sustained alternating current(60Hz) and voltage was sustained 600 volt. The duration of plasma treatment varied from 15 to 120 seconds except special case, the monomer gase pressure varied from 0.02 to 0.3 Torr and power range was 10 to 90 watts. The hydrophobic features of changed PET surface were evaluated by contact angle measurement and surface chemical characteristics were analyzed by ESCA. Results can be summerized as follows. 1. The most favorable setting position of substrate was the center area between the two electrodes. 2. $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ discharge current was lower than that of CF$_{4}$ when same voltage was sustained. Treated efficiency between CF$_{4}$ and $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ did not revealed significant differences under same electric power(wattage). 3. When monomer pressure is very low below 0.02 torr, as though substrate is exposed to CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ plasma, it tend to be hydrophilic through a little of fluorine bond and a great deal of oxidizing reaction. 4. There brought good hydrophobilization when monomer pressure was more 0.1 torr and duration of glow discharge treatment was over 45 seconds. When monomer pressure was too high, discharge current became low. Although prolong the duration, there was no more high hydrophobilization. 5. According to ESCA analysis, there were a little CF bond and a prevailing CF$_{2}$ bond in CF$_{4}$-treated substrate. There were CF$_{3}$, a little CF and a prevailing CF$_{2}$ bond in $C_{2}$F$_{6}$-treated substrate.d substrate.

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