• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cytochrome C

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Interaction of Cytochrome c and Cytochrome c Oxidase Studied by Spin-Label EPR and Site-Directed Mutagenesis

  • Park, Hee-Young;Chun, Sun-Bum;Han, Sang-Hwa;Lee, Kwang-Soon;Kim, Kyung-Hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.397-402
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    • 1997
  • A thiol-specific spin label was attached to cysteine-102 of yeast cytochrome c and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra were measured as a function of added cytochrome c oxidase concentration. The intensity decreased due to line broadening as cytochrome c formed a complex with cytochrome c oxidase and reached a minimum when the ratio of cytochrome c to cytochrome c oxidase became one. Replacement of either Lys-72 or Lys-87 of cytochrome c by Glu did not result in a significant change in binding affinity. Interestingly the K72E mutant, unlike K87E, had a much lower rate of electron transfer than the wild type. These results indicate that many positively charged residues as a group participate in complex formation but Lys-72 might be important for cytochrome c to be locked in an orientation for an efficient electron transfer. A stoichiometry of 1 was also confirmed by optical absorption of the cytochrome c-cytochrome c oxidase complex which had been run through a gel chromatography cloumn to remove unbound cytochrome c. The EPR spectrum of this 1:1 complex, however, was a mixture of two components. This explains a biphasic kinetics for a single binding site on cytochrome c oxidase without invoking conformational transition.

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Modulation of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity by ATP: Implications for Mitochondrial Respiratory Control

  • Park, Nan-Hyang;Chun, Sun-Bum;Han, Tae-Young;Han, Sang-Hwa
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.300-307
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    • 1996
  • ATP and ADP are potential regulators of mitochondtial respiration and at physiological concentrations they affect the rate of electron transfer between cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase. The electron transfer, however, depends on the electrostatic interaction between the two proteins. In order to exclude any nonspecific ionic effects by these polyvalent nucleotides, we used 2'-O-(2,4,6)trinitro(TNP)-derivatives of ATP and ADP which have three orders of magnitude higher affinity for cytochrome c oxidase. A simple titration of the fluorescence intensity of TNP by cytochrome c oxidase showed a binding stoichiometry of 2:1 cytochrome c:cytochrome c oxidase. Higher ionic strength was required for TNP-ATP than for TNP-ADP to be dissociated from cytochrome c oxidase, indicating that the negative charges on the phosphate group are at least partially responsible for the binding. In both spectrophotometric and polarographic assays, addition of ATP (and ADP to a less extent) showed an enhanced cytochrome c oxidase activity. Both electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence spectra indicate that there is no Significant change in the cytochrome c-cytochrome c oxidase interaction. Instead, reduction levels of the cytochromes at steadystate suggest that the increased activity of nucleotide-bound cytochrome c oxidase is due to faster electron transfer from cytochrome ${\alpha}$ to cytochrome ${\alpha}_3$, which is known to be the fate limiting step in the oxygen reduction by cytochrome c oxidase.

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Oxidative Damage of DNA Induced by the Cytochrome c and Hydrogen Peroxide System

  • Kim, Nam-Hoon;Kang, Jung-Hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.452-456
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    • 2006
  • To elaborate the peroxidase activity of cytochrome c in the generation of free radicals from $H_2O_2$, the mechanism of DNA cleavage mediated by the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system was investigated. When plasmid DNA was incubated with cytochrome c and $H_2O_2$, the cleavage of DNA was proportional to the cytochrome c and $H_2O_2$ concentrations. Radical scavengers, such as azide, mannitol, and ethanol, significantly inhibited the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system-mediated DNA cleavage. These results indicated that free radicals might participate in the DNA cleavage by the cytochrome c and $H_2O_2$ system. Incubation of cytochrome c with $H_2O_2$ resulted in a time-dependent release of iron ions from the cytochrome c molecule. During the incubation of deoxyribose with cytochrome c and $H_2O_2$, the damage to deoxyribose increased in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that the released iron ions may participate in a Fenton-like reaction to produce $\cdot$OH radicals that may cause the DNA cleavage. Evidence that the iron-specific chelator, desferoxamine (DFX), prevented the DNA cleavage induced by the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system supports this mechanism. Thus we suggest that DNA cleavage is mediated via the generation of $\cdot$OH by a combination of the peroxidase reaction of cytochrome c and the Fenton-like reaction of free iron ions released from oxidatively damaged cytochrome c in the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system.

Oxidative Modification of Neurofilament-L by the Cytochrome c and Hydrogen Peroxide System

  • Kang, Jung-Hoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.77-80
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    • 2007
  • As neurofilament proteins are major cytoskeletal components of neuron, abnormality of neurofilament is proposed in brain with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Since oxidative stress might play a critical role in altering normal brain proteins, we investigated the oxidative modification of neurofilament-L (NF-L) induced by the reaction of cytochrome c with H2O2. When NF-L was incubated with cytochrome c and H2O2, the protein aggregation was increased in cytochrome c and H2O2 concentrationsdependent manner. Radical scavengers, azide, formate and N-acetyl cysteine, prevented the aggregation of NFL induced by the cytochrome c/H2O2 system. The formations of carbonyl group and dityrosine were obtained in cytochrome c/H2O2-mediated NF-L aggregates. Iron specific chelator, desferoxamine, prevented the cytochrome c/H2O2 system-mediated NF-L aggregation. These results suggest that the cytochrome c/H2O2 system may be related to abnormal aggregation of NF-L which may be involved in the pathogenesis of PD and related disorders.

Lipid Peroxidation Induced by the Reaction of Cytochrome c with Hydrogen Peroxide

  • Kang, Jung-Hoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.830-834
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    • 2006
  • Lipid peroxidation induced by the reaction of cytochrome c with $H_2O_2$ was investigated. When linoleic acid micelles or phosphatidyl choline liposomes were incubated with cytochrome c and $H_2O_2$, lipid peroxidation was increased in cytochrome c and $H_2O_2$ concentrations-dependent manner. Radical scavengers, azide, formate and ethanol prevented lipid peroxidation induced by the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system. Iron specific chelator, desferoxamine also prevented the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system-mediated lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation may be induced by the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system via the generation of free radicals. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine are present in the muscle and brain of many animals and human. Previous studies show that these compounds have an antioxidant function. In the present study, carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine significantly prevented the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system-mediated lipid peroxidation. Carnosine and related compounds also inhibited the free radical-generating activity of cytochrome c. The results suggest that carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine may prevent lipid peroxidation induced by the cytochrome c/$H_2O_2$ system through a free radical scavenging.

The Formation and Change of Cytochrome-c-oxidase in the Mitochondria of the Bovine Cardiac Muscle (우(牛)심근조직의 mitochondria에서 cytochrome-c-oxidase의 형성과 변화)

  • Kim, Soo-Jin
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2008
  • Cytochrome-c-oxidase in mitochondria membrane is one of the most important factors for energy generation in the cell. As well as it is electron transfer enzyme, it is also heavily related to the apoptosis and other pathologic conditions. Meanwhile, porin is a protein located in inner and outer membranes of mitochondria, which is assumed to be functionally correlated with cytochrome-c-oxidase. It functions as forming electron transfer chain and conveying ATP. Therefore, using the immune-microscopy, It compared the distribution of cytochrome-c-oxidase and porin to figure out the formation and changes on cytochrome-c-oxidase in mitochondrial cristae. The sarcroplasm of cardic muscle tissue has many mitochondria. They are classified into two groups: the mitochondria with many cytochrome-c-oxidase and the mitochondria with only porins. The mitochondria with porins had few cytochrome-c-oxidases in their membrane; in contrast, the other mitochondria with rich cytochrome-c-oxidase had few porins in their walls. In addition, according to the location of the tissue in bovine heart, distribution of those kind of mitochondria had been clearly separated. As a result, it could be assumed that immature mitochondria has many porins to transfer the protein materials from sarcroplasm through the porins, and they made cytochrome-c-oxidase until it is enough, and then they decreased the porin and maintained minimum number of the porin.

Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c by Hydrogen Peroxide

  • Kim, Nam Hoon;Jeong, Moon Sik;Choi, Soo Young;Kang, Jung Hoon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.220-227
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    • 2006
  • Oxidative alteration of mitochondrial cytochrome c has been linked to disease and is one of the causes of proapoptotic events. We have investigated the modification of cytochrome c by $H_2O_2$. When cytochrome c was incubated with $H_2O_2$, oligomerization of the protein increased and the formation of carbonyl derivatives and dityrosine was stimulated. Radical scavengers prevented these effects suggesting that free radicals are implicated in the $H_2O_2$-mediated oligomerization. Oligomerization was significantly inhibited by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. During incubation of deoxyribose with cytochrome c and $H_2O_2$, damage to the deoxyribose occurred in parallel with the release of iron from cytochrome c. When cytochrome c that had been exposed to $H_2O_2$ was analyzed by amino acid analysis, the tyrosine, histidine and methionine residues proved to be particularly sensitive. These results suggest that $H_2O_2$-mediated cytochrome c oligomerization is due to oxidative damage resulting from free radicals generated by a combination of the peroxidase activity of cytochrome c and the Fenton reaction of free iron released from the oxidatively-damaged protein.

Cytochrome c Peroxidase: A Model Heme Protein

  • Erman, James E.;Vitello, Lidia B.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.307-327
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    • 1998
  • Cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) is a yeast mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water using two equivalents of ferrocytochrome c. The CcP/cytochrome c system has many features which make it a very useful model for detailed investigation of heme protein structure/function relationships including activation of hydrogen peroxide, protein-protein interactions, and long-range electron transfer. Both CcP and cytochrome c are single heme, single subunit proteins of modest size. High-resolution crystallographic structures of both proteins, of one-to-one complexes of the two proteins, and a number of active-site mutants are available. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that the distal histidine in CcP is primarily responsible for rapid utilization of hydrogen peroxide implying significantly different properties of the distal histidine in the peroxidases compared to the globins. CcP and cytochrome c bind to form a dynamic one-to-one complex. The binding is largely electrostatic in nature with a small, unfavorable enthalpy of binding and a large positive entropy change upon complex formation. The cytochrome c-binding site on CcP has been mapped in solution by measuring the binding affinities between cytochrome c and a number of CcP surface mutations. The binding site for cytochrome c in solution is consistent with the crystallographic structure of the one-to-one complex. Evidence for the involvement of a second, low-affinity cytochrome c-binding site on CcP in long-range electron transfer between the two proteins is reviewed.

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Salsolinol, a catechol neurotoxin, induces oxidative modification of cytochrome c

  • Kang, Jung Hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.119-123
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    • 2013
  • Methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol), an endogenous neurotoxin, is known to perform a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with salsolinol. When cytochrome c was incubated with salsolinol, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in salsolinol-treated cytochrome c. Salsolinol also led to the release of iron from cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the salsolinol-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. It is suggested that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by salsolinol might induce the increase of iron content in cells, subsequently leading to the deleterious condition which was observed. This mechanism may, in part, provide an explanation for the deterioration of organs under neurodegenerative disorders such as PD.

Purification and Characterization of Cytochrome c Oxidase from Photosynthetic Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa (광합성세균 Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa 의 시토크롬 c 산화효소의 정제 및 특성)

  • 강대길;최원기
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 1992
  • Cytochrome c oxida5e from chemotrophically grown R p , geliitinosu was purified by cytochrome c affinity chromatography and DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the cytochrome c oxidase was approximately 110.000 Da by sephacryl s-300 gel chromatography and approximately 52, 000 Da by SDS-gel electrophoresis, respectively. Therefore. cytochrolne c oxidase of Rps. gehtinosu seems to be dimer. The cytochrome c oxidasc was very sensitive to temperature. It's Km and Vmax were 20 pM and 44 unitlmg protein for horsc heart cytochrome c as a substrate. respectively, and its optimum pH and temperature were 6.4 and 25$^{\circ}$C. respectively. The absorption peaks of the reduced cytochrome c oxidase showed at 554 nm, 523 nm. and 422 nm. The activiiy of cytochrome c oxidase was inhibited by KCN, and NaN3, but not by CO, antimycir~ A. and myxothiazol. The cytochrome c-551 was produced either in phototrophically or chemotrophically grown Rps. gelaiinosci. The rcduced cytochrome c-551 was oxidized by b-type cytochrome c oxidase from Rp.v. gc.lrtino.sc~. Km and Vmax of cytochrome c oxidase was 26 pM and 31 unitlnlg protein For cytochrome c-551 as a substrate. respectively. Thercfore. thc electron transfer chain of chemotrophically grown Rps. glatinosa seems lo be ubiquinol cytochrome bc, complex -'cytochrome c-55lMb-type cytochrome c oxidase+02.

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