• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cytotoxicity

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Effect of Allopurinol on Methylmercuric Chloride-Induced Cytotoxicity in $C_6$ Cultured Glioma Cells

  • Oh, Yong-Leol;Son, Byoung-Kwan
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.451-455
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    • 2006
  • It is demonstrated that inorganic mercury has cytotoxic effect on glial cells. Recently, oxygen radicals is involved in methylmercuric chloride (MMC)-induced cytotoxicity. But, the toxic mechanism of MMC is left unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the cytotoxicity of MMC on $C_6$ glioma cells. The cytotoxicy was measured by cell viability using XTT assay in $C_6$ glioma cells. Colorimetric assay is regarded as a very sensitive screening method for the determination of the cell viability on various agents. In this study, MMC decreased cell viability according to the dose- and time dependent manners after $C_6$ glioma cells were grown with various concentrations of MMC for 48 hours. In the protective effect of allopurinol on MMC-induced cytotoxicity, allopurinol was effective in the prevention of MMC-induced cytotoxicity in these cultures. These results suggest that MMC has highly cytotoxic effect on $C_6$ glioma cells by the decrease of cell viavility, and free radical scavenger such as allopurinol was effective on organic mercury-induced cytotoxicity in these cultures.

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Effect of Cigarette Filter on Cytotoxicity Potential of Mainstream Smoke (담배주류연의 세포독성에 대한 담배필터의 영향)

  • Shin Han-Jae;Sohn Hyung-Ok;Han Jung-Ho;Park Chul-Hoon;Hur Jae-Yeon;Lee Dong-Wook;Hwang Keon-Joong;Hyun Hak-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.27 no.1 s.53
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cigarette filter on in vitro cytotoxicity of cigarette mainstream smoke from the cigarette. In this work, we used 3 types of cigarettes included non-filtered 2R4F cigarette, cellulose acetate-filtered 2R4F cigarette, and carbon dual-filtered 2R4F cigarette which was made from original 2R4F by replacing with an acetate filter containing carbon. The cytotoxicity of both the cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), which was collected in Cambridge filter pad, and the gas/vapor phase (GVP), which was bubbled through in phosphate-buffered saline in a gas-washing bottle, was determined using a neutral red uptake assay with CHO-K1 cells. With regard to cytotoxicity when calculated on an equal puff basis, the cytotoxicity of CSC from the filtered cigarettes was lower than that of the non filtered cigarette. Also, $EC_{50}$ vlaue of GVP from carbon filter cigarette was 40.9 puff/L, indicating the cytotoxicity to be $20\%$ lower than that of the CA filter cigarette. The cytotoxicity of the GVP was correlated to the several vapor phase components (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, crotonaldehyde and MEK). In conclusion, carbon filter, which significantly reduced the amount of carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke, results in significant reductions in the cytotoxicity potential of the smoke.

CYTOTOXICITY OF RETROGRADE FILLING MATERIALS TESTED BY 51Cr RELEASE, MIT AND LD ACTIVITY (51Cr방출과 MTT 및 LD활성도를 이용한 역충전재의 세포독성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, La-Young;Im, Mi-Kyung
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.409-428
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    • 1994
  • Endodontic surgery is performed when conventional endodontic therapy fails or is contraindicated. In such cases, retrograde filling materials including amalgam, composite resin, and various cements have been used. Biocompatibilty and margin sealing ability of retrograde filling materials are important for the long term success of endodontic surgery. In vitro cell culture is frequently used as the method of measuring the biocompatibilty of dental materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of six kinds of retrograde filling materials including newly developed light curing glass ionomer cements. Each material was mixed according to. the manufacture's instruction and evaluated as : freshly mixed, 24-hour after mixing, and 168-hour after mixing respectively. The elution solution was extracted after 24-hour contact with materials using media. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by direct contact, or elution contact. Test results of radiochromium($^{51}Cr$) release, cell viability using tetrazolium dye (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl dimethyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) test and lactate dehydrogenase(LD) of damaged L929 cells were analyzed. In the $^{51}Cr$ release of direct contact, all experimental retrograde filling materials except amalgam and glass ionomer cement showed increased cytotoxicity compared to control. In the $^{51}Cr$ release of elution solution, the released $^{51}Cr$ was so minimal that it was impossible. to evlauate the cytotoxicity exactly. The elution solutions of glass ionomer cement and IRM showed marked cytotoxicity in MTT test. LD enzyme activity was highest in tests of direct contact with composite, light curing composite, and light curing glass ionomer cement and IRM. Amalgam revealed least cytotoxicity while IRM showed cytotoxicity using all three methods. Composite, light curing composite and light curing glass iomomer cement were cytotoxic in the tests of $^{51}Cr$ release and LD activity. Glass ionomer cement showed cytotoxic effect only in the MTT method. From these results it is suggested that the standardization and optimization of cytotoxicity testing, especially using elution solutions, should be strongly advised.

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Reduced Addamycin Cytotoxicity in RIF-1 Multicell Spheroid Due to an Acidic Microenvironment

  • Um, Kyung-Il;Cheston, Sally B.;Suntharalingam, Mohan;Rhee, Juong-G.
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1997
  • Variations in adriamycin uptake and cytotoxicity were studied in tumor cells that were grown in different growth states and microenvironments. RIF-1 tumor cells were maintained in an RPMI 1640 medium, and grown in either a monolayer or multicell spheroids. For exponentially growing cells, adriamycin cytotoxicity increased with increased dosage up to 2.5 $\mu$g/ml, and this cytotoxicity was reduced when the cells were grown in a plateau phase or in an acidic microenvironment (pH 6.6). This reduced cytotoxicity was correlated with the uptake of the drug. For multicell spheroids, the cytotoxicity of the drug was reduced dramatically, and this reduction was also correlated with a reduced uptake of the drug and an acidic pH inside of the spheroids. When the drug cytotoxicity was evaluated at different locations within the spheroids, the cells in the inner regions were least affected by the drug, suggesting that both an acidic microenvironment and noncycling plateau phase cells are contributing factors in decreasing the efficacy of the drug in an organized tissue, such as multicell spheroids.

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Biological Characterization of the Chemical Structures of Naturally Occurring Substances with Cytotoxicity

  • Park, Hee-Juhn;Jung, Hyun-Ju;Lee, Kyung-Tae;Choi, Jong-Won
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.175-192
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    • 2006
  • Screening for the cytotoxicity from plant origin is the first stage for anti-cancer drug development. A variety of terpenoids with exomethylene, epoxide, allyl, $\alpha,\beta-unsaturated$ carbonyl, acetylenes, and $\alpha-methylene-\gamma-lactone$ induces apoptosis and/or differentiation as well as cytotoxicity through the ROS signal transduction pathways. These are found among monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, flavonoids, coumarins, diarylheptanoids, and even organosulfuric compounds. The most essential characteristics of natural cytotoxic substances is to possess the strong electrophilicity that is susceptible to nucleophilic biomolecules in the cell. Thiol-reductants and superoxide dismutase can block or delay apoptosis. Thus, ROS and the resulting cellular redox-potential changes can be parts of the signal transduction pathway during apoptosis. Disturbance of the balance of oxireduction by the pigment of natural quinones also caused the induction of the differentiation and apoptosis. Saponins with the cytotoxicity are restricted to their monodesmosides, rather than to bisdesmosides. Those saponins exhibited calcium ion-mediated apoptosis in addition to cytotoxicity whereas they showed also differentiation without extracellular calcium ion. The properties on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and differentiation were assumed to depend on resultant oxidative stress to the cells. In this review, we describe a spectrum of cytotoxic compounds with various action mechanisms.

Correlation Between Skin Irritation and Cytotoxicity of Anti-wrinkle Agents (화장품 원료의 피부자극성과 세포독성의 관련성)

  • 이은희;이종권;김용규;박기숙;안광수
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.310-319
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    • 2001
  • To compare skin irritation and cytotoxicity of anti-wrinkle agents, we examined skin irritation of six anti-wrinkle agents (ascorbic acid, glycolic acid, all trans-retinoic acid, ginseng extract, retinol, EB) in New Zealand white rabbit. Cytotoxicity of these agents was determined by MTT [tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] at multi-time points in cultured HaCaT cell, a human immortalized keratinocyte cell. We then analyzed correlation between skin irritation and cytotoxicity by spearman's rank correlation analysis. All trans-retinoic acid showed the highest primary irritation index (0.92) in skin irritation test. Being all the six agents not irritant, retinal showed the most cytotoxic agents. The correlation between skin irritation and cytotoxicity ($IC_{50}$/ at different time point was 0.814, 0.757, 0.814 and 0.7 at 3, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. We also fecund that IC$_{20}$ and IC$_{80}$ of these agents showed similar correlation with skin irritation. These results therefore demonstrated that there is close correlation between skin irritation and cytotoxicity $IC_{50}$/ value by MTT in HaCaT cell at early time points by anti-wrinkle agents or IC$_{20}$ value. $IC_{50}$/ at earily time point or IC$_{20}$ values may be reliable alternative determinant of skin irritation.n.

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Cytotoxicity Against Human Cancer Cell Lines by Paecilomyces tenuipes DUGM 32001 (눈꽃동충하초(Paecilomyces tenuipes)의 인간 암세포주에 대한 세포독성)

  • 심중섭;민응기;장해룡;이창윤;김삼수;한영환
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.312-315
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    • 2000
  • Paecilomyces tenuipes DGUM 32001, an entomopathogenic fungus, was examined to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells. The fruiting bodies of P. tenuipes were extracted with methanol and fractioned with some organic solvents i.e. chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The methanol extracts of P. tenuipes showed significant cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines; HeLa, HeLa S3, and A-431. Among the fractions tested, the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines. The $IC_{50}$ values of ethyl acetate fraction against HeLa, HeLa S3, and A-431 were 13, 35, and 30 $\mu$g/ml, respectively. However, cytotoxicity might not be due to apoptosis. The methanol extract of cultured mycelia showed high cytotoxicity against HeLa cell lines.

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Effects of Protoberberine Alkaloids on L-DOPA-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells (Protoberberine 알칼로이드가 PC12 세포중의 L-DOPA 유도 세포독성 작용에 미치는 영향)

  • 이재준;김유미;김춘매;양유정;강민희;이명구
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.230-233
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    • 2003
  • Previously, protoberberine alkaloids such as berberine and palmatine have been found to lower dopamine content in PC12 cells (Shin et at., 2000). In this study, the effects of berberine and palmatine on L-DOPA-induced increase in dopamine level and cytotoxicity in PC12 cells were investigated. Treatment of PC12 with L-DOPA at concentration ranges of 20∼50 $\mu$M increased dopamine content and the increase in dopamine levels by L-DOPA was inhibited by 10∼40 $\mu$M berberine and 10∼80 $\mu$M palmatine, which the concentration ranges did not show a cytotoxicity. However, berberine and palmatine at concentrations higher than 50 $\mu$M and 100 $\mu$M caused a cytotoxicity, respectively. In addition, berberine (10∼20 $\mu$M) and palmatine (10∼50 $\mu$M) at non-cytotoxic concentration ranges aggravated L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells (L-DOPA concentration ranges, 20∼50 $\mu$M). The L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity was also significantly potentiated by berberine (50 $\mu$M) and palmatine (100 $\mu$M) with cytotoxic ranges. These data demonstrate that berberine and palmatine inhibit L-DOPA-induced increase in dopamine content and stimulate L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, the possibility that the long-term L-DOPA treated patients with berberine and palmatine could be checked the adverse symptoms.

Cytoprotective Effect of Phenolic Compounds Against Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity (페놀 화합물의 Hexavalent Chromium독성에 대한 세포 보호효과)

  • Han, Du-Seok;Kang, Jeong-Il;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : In order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of hexavalent chromium, the cytoprotective effect of phenolic compounds against hexavalent chromium-induced cytotoxicity, cell viability, cell adhesion ability, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) activity, and morphological changes of cells were examined. Methods : We measured the cytotoxicity of hexavalent chromium with 3-[4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT), 2,3-bis-[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-caboxanilide (XTT), LDH and DPPH methods. Results : The cytotoxicity of hexavalent chromium($IC_{50}$, $44.0-51.0{\mu}M$) was high according to the toxic criteria. Cytoprotective effect of phenolic compounds against $IC_{50}$ value of hexavalent chromium in cell morphology increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions : These results suggest that 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid may be used as a cytoprotective agent against chromium(IV)-mediated cytotoxicity.

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Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Root Canal Disinfectants and Root Canal Sealers on L Cells in Vitro (수종(數種) 근관소독제(根管消毒劑) 및 근관충전재(根管充塡材)의 세포독성(細胞毒性)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chung, Choong-Mo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.85-99
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    • 1981
  • This study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of three root canal disinfectants (formocresol, camphorated phenol and eugenol) and ten root canal sealers(Cavitec, Hypo-cal, Vitapex, AH26, Canals, Mynol, $N_2$, $N_2$-Medical, Z. O. E. and Calvital) in vitro. The experiments were performed in four differrent modes. In the first and second experiment, the "long-distance" cytotoxicity of three root canal disinfectants were tested on L cells. In the third exeriment, ten root canal sealers were tested for cytotoxicity by means of the tissue culture-agar overlay method immediately, 4 and 24 hours after the experiment. In the fourth experiment, the study with radioactively labeled L cells were employed to determine the relative cytotoxicity of ten root canal sealers. The results were as follows; 1. Every vapors from disinfectants showed more or less cytotoxicity. Of the three disinfectats, formocresol appeared to be the highest cytotoxic effect and camphorated phenol was the lowest. 2. Root canal sealers tested in tbis study showed cytotoxicity at every stage of time intervals. 3. The highest cytotoxic effect was freshly mixed $N_2$ meaical and $N_2$ also revealed the highest cytotoxic effect after 4 or 24 hours among these materials. Vitapex was found the lowest cytotoxic effect at all experimental stage. 4. Root canal sealers except N2 and Mynol showed cytotoxic effect were decreased cytotoxicity according to the time elapsed.

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