• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cytotoxicity

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Effects of Chitosan on the Cytotoxicity of Anticancer Drugs in vitro (In vitro에서 chitosan이 항암제의 세포독성에 미치는 영향)

  • Min, Soon-Hong;Pyo, Myoung-Yun
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2007
  • Chitosan is a depolymerized and partially deacetylated derivative of chitin. We investigated the cytotoxicity of chitosan in cancer cell lines, such as P388, L1210, HCT-15, SK-HepG-1 and mouse splenocytes as a normal cell by MTT assay. To clarify whether chitosan enhances cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs, we also examined the cytotoxicity of combined treatment with chitosan and anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin, mitomycin C, and 5-fluorouracil in cancer cell lines in vitro. Chitosan ($37.5\;{\mu}g/mL,\;75\;{\mu}g/mL,\;112.5\;{\mu}g/mL,\;and\;150\;{\mu}g/mL$) showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in the cancer cell lines. In addition, chitosan showed relatively lower cytotoxicity in normal cells than in the cancer cell lines. Particularly, this trend was significant at high doses of chitosan, i.e. $112.5\;{\mu}g/mL,\;and\;150\;{\mu}g/mL$. Thus, these results suggest that chitosan may selectively induce the growth inhibition in cancer cell lines, compared to normal cells. Furthermore. the co-treatment of chitosan and anticancer drugs exhibited an apparant synergistic cytotoxicity in murine lymphoma cell lines, i.e. P388 and L1210 at $37.5\;{\mu}g/mL$ of chitosan rather than at $75\;{\mu}g/mL$ of chitosan, but such phenomenon could not be observed in solid tumor cell lines, i.e. HCT-15 and SK-HepG-1. However, chitosan did'nt reduced the cytotoxicity against normal mouse splenocytes induced by anticancer drugs. Therefore, it is concluded that the combination of chitosan and anticancer drugs might be useful for the cancer chemotherapy.

Cytotoxicity of Extracts from Korean Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by Extraction Solvents and Plant Parts (추출용매와 부위에 따른 고추 추출물의 세포독성)

  • Choi, So Ra;Kim, Myung Jun;Ahn, Min Sil;Song, Eun Ju;Seo, Sang Young;Choi, Min Kyung;Kim, Young Sun;Choi, Dong Geun;Song, Young Ju
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.369-377
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    • 2014
  • In order to find out anticancer activity of Korean pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), the cytotoxicity against 8 cell lines including 293 (normal kidney cells) and A-431 (epidermoid carcinoma cells) of extracts by extraction solvents and plant parts were investigated using MTT assay. Also the correlation between content of capsaicin known as anticancer ingredient and cytotoxicity of extracts from pepper were analyzed. The distilled water extracts from seed and germinated seed showed very high cytotoxicity against 6 cancer cell lines including A549 (lung carcinoma cells), AGS (stomach adenocarcinoma cells), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma cells), HepG2 (hepatoblastoma cells), HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma cells), and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma cells). But 80% ethanol and methanol extracts showed cytotoxicity against 293 and AGS. The $RC_{50}$, that was, the concentration of sample required for 50% reduction of cell viability, of seed and germinated seed extracts against AGS were $33.4{\sim}389.1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ and $63.9{\sim}1,316.7{\mu}g/m{\ell}$, respectively, so anticancer activity was higher in seed than in germinated seed. In capsaicin contents, seed with high cytotoxicity and pericarp with a little cytotoxicity contained $47.4{\sim}1,260.0{\mu}g/g$ and $58.3{\sim}1,498.0{\mu}g/g$, respectively. As these results, the correlation was not between cytotoxicity and capsaicin content.

Cytotoxicity of Methanol Extracts from Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (꾸지뽕나무 메탄올 추출물의 세포독성)

  • Choi, So-Ra;You, Dong-Hyun;Jang, Ik;Ahn, Min-Sil;Song, Eun-Ju;Seo, Sang-Young;Choi, Min-Kyung;Kim, Young-Sun;Kim, Myung-Kon;Choi, Dong-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2012
  • In order to develop as a natural source of anticancer materials of Cudrania tricuspidata, the cytotoxicity of methanol extracts by harvesting parts and times against 8 cell lines including 293 (normal kidney cells) and A-431 (epidermoid carcinoma cells) were investigated using MTT assay. All harvesting parts had hardly cytotoxicity against 293. And methanol extracts of stem bark and root bark showed very high cytotoxicities against 7 cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity was the highest against HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma cells) and followed by MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma cells), AGS (stomach adenocarcinoma cells), HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma cells), HepG2 (hepatoblastoma cells), A549 (lung carcinoma cells) and A-431. By the way, leaf extract had a cytotoxicity against only AGS and ripe fruit extract had no cytotoxicity. Among harvesting times, the cytotoxicity of root bark were high from April to September but that of stem bark showed a little difference. These results showed that anticancer activities of Cudrania tricuspidata extracts were eventful changes by harvesting parts and times.

A convergence study of cytotoxicity evaluation of adult dentifrices (성인용 치약의 세포독성 평가의 융합적 연구)

  • Choi, Yu-Ri;Shim, Youn-Soo;Jang, Sun-Ok
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to effect the cell activity and cytotoxicity of dentifrice. For the study, 6 kinds of general dentifrice, 3 kind of whitening dentifrice, 2 kinds of natural dentifrice and SLS(sodium lauryl sulfate) of positive control group. Immortalized human gingiva fibroblast cell was used for the study, WST test for cell activity and Agar diffusion test for cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion test showed high cytotoxicity in general dentifrice test group and whitening dentifrice test group, but low cytotoxicity in natural dentifrice test group. As a result of cell nucleus staining, cell shape and nuclear activity showed that the highest activity in natural dentifrice group, followed by whitening dentifrice group and general dentifrice group. As a result of this study, the cytotoxicity of different ingredient and according to the use to dentifrice. As a result of this study, we confirm cytotoxicity of kind and components according to the purpose of using dentifrice. Therefore, it is necessary to indicate the detailed ingredients of dentifrice for the smart choice of consumers.

Antioxidative Effect of Typha orientalis L. Extract on the Oxidative Stress Induced by Cytotoxicity of Cadmium Sulfate (황산카드뮴독성의 산화적 손상에 대한 부들 추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Yoon, Ki Chul;Sohn, Young Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.62-70
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to analyze the cytotoxicity of cadmium sulfate ($CdSO_4$) and the antioxidative effect of Typha orientalis L. (TO) extract on the oxidative stress induced by cytotoxicity of $CdSO_4$ in the cultured NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Methods: For this study, the cell viability and the antioxidative effects such as the inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation (LP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and xanthine oxidase (XO)-inhibitory activity were assessed. Results: The cadmium sulfate significantly decreased cell viability in dose-dependently, and $XTT_{50}$ value was measured at $47.4{\mu}M$ of $CdSO_4$. The cytotoxicity of $CdSO_4$ was determined as highly toxic by Borenfreund and Puerner's toxic criteria. The butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidant significantly increased cell viability injured by $CdSO_4$-induced cytotoxicity in these cultures. In the protective effect of TO extract on $CdSO_4$-induced cytotoxicity, TO extract remarkably increased the inhibitory ability of LP and XO as well as SOD-like ability. Conclusions: From the above results, it is suggested that the oxidative stress is involved in the cytotoxicity of $CdSO_4$, and TO extract effectively protected $CdSO_4$-induced cytotoxicity by antioxidative effects. The natural component like TO extract may be a putative therapeutic agent for treatment of the toxicity induced by heavy metallic compound like $CdSO_4$ correlated with the oxidative stress.

Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Eclipta prostrata

  • Rahman, Mohammad S.;Rashid, Mohammad A.
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2008
  • The plant Eclipta prostrata, a member of the Compositae family, has folkloric reputation of being used as a medicinal agent in Bangladesh. In the present investigation, attempt was taken to explore the antimicrobial potency and cytotoxicity of its extractives and purified compounds. The methanolic extract of the whole plant, its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, aqueous soluble fractions and two purified compounds, eclalbasaponin I (1) and II (2), obtained from Eclipta prostrata were subjected to screening for inhibition of microbial growth by the disc diffusion method at 300 and 100 ${\mu}g$/disc for extracts and pure compounds, respectively. In this case, the carbon tetrachloride and chloroform soluble fractions of the methanolic extract appeared very potent in terms of both zone of inhibition and spectrum of activity. However, all the extractives were also subjected to brine shrimp lethality bioassay for preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation. Here, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of methanolic extract revealed the strongest cytotoxicity having $LC_{50}$ of 1.318 ${\mu}g$/ml.

QSAR Study for Cytotoxicity of Alkylphenols on HeLa Cell (알킬페놀 화합물의 HeLa cell (HL-60)의 세포독성에 대한 QSAR 연구)

  • Kim Myung-Gill;Kim Jae-Hyoun
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of the present study was to perform experiments of cytotoxicity using HeLa cell and to evaluate the possibility that QSAR is applicable to the cytotoxicity of alkylphenols. Higher toxicities were found in four alkylphenols in the following order: 4-n-Nonylphenol) 4-tert-Octylphenol) 4-n-Octylphenol > 4-n Heptylpheonl. Whereas other alkylphenols were apparently less toxic. By using Percent Hydrophilic Surface Area (PHSA) quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) models were developed: Cytotoxicity (%) = 90.14089-4.72224 PHSA ($R^2$=0.2046, $\alpha$=0.0265). It is concluded that some of the obtained data are useful to determine whether QSAR methods can be of general use in predicting that until further work is undertaken to develop QSARs for a much wider range of homologous series of alkylphenol compounds.

2-(1-Hydroxyiminoalkyl)-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinones: Synthesis and Evaluation of Cytotoxicity

  • Tam, Mai-Ngoc;Nam, Nguyen-Hai;Jin, Guang-Zhu;Ahn, Byung-Zun
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.283-287
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    • 2000
  • A series of 2-(1-hydroxyiminoalkyl)-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinones (oximes) was synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against L1210 cells and A549 cells. These oximes showed a greater cytotoxic activity compared to those of 2-(1-hyd roxyalkyl)-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinones as the hydroxyalkyl bioisosteres. The enhanced cytotoxiciy assumed to be due to the improved water solubility of the hydroxyimino group. Moreover, it was found that the cytotoxicity of the oximes decreased with elongation of alkyl groups at the side chain. All of the synthesized compounds showed higher cytotoxicity against L1210 cells than A549 cells.

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Cytotoxicities of Ginseng Saponins and their Degradation Products against some Cancer Cell Lines

  • Baek, Nam-In;Kim, Dong-Seon;Lee, You-Hui;Park, Jong-Dae;Lee, Chun-Bae;Kim, Shin-Il
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.164-168
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    • 1995
  • In order to elucidate the cytotoxicity-structure correlation of ginseng-derived components, several prosapogenins and sapogenins were prepared from Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) saponins by acid hydrolysis or alkaline cleveage, and their chemical structures were identified by a combination of spectral and physical methods. Some of these degradation products showed the cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines, A549, SK-OV-3, SK-Mel-2, P388, L1210 and K562. The significant difference in cytotoxicity between stereoisomers was not found and the activity was inversely proportional to the number of sugars linked to sapogenins. Diol-type prosapogenins and sapogenins showed higher cytotoxicity than triol-type ones.

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Antimicrobial Effect and Cytotoxicity of Chinensis Galla (오배자의 항균활성 및 세포독성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seong-Jin;Yang, Ha-Young;Lee, Seon-Goo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.412-415
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    • 2009
  • Chinensis galla has been used as an multi-functional herb, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, and antitumor agent. This study was performed to antimicrobial and cytotoxicity effect in vitro. The results were summarized as follows : Chinensis galla was antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chinensis galla was antimicrobial effect on Kocuria rhizophila, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes. The extracts of Chinensis galla exhibited cytotoxicity on human dermal fibroblast at $10\;{\mu}{\ell}$ but not at $5\;{\mu}{\ell}$, and the same results was known under a microscope. Accordingly the results show Chinensis galla could antimicrobial effect but exhibited cytotoxicity on human dermal fibroblast at high concentration and it needs more research.