• Title/Summary/Keyword: DDI

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Applying Thermal Simulation to the DDI Development of Heat Dissipation Package for High Definition LCD-TV (고해상도 LCD TV 용 DDI 방열 패키지 개발에 열해석 적용)

  • Jung, Chung-Hyo;Yoo, Jae-Wook
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2444-2448
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    • 2007
  • The multi channel of DDI which is the core part of the LCD-TV has been propelled. When multi channel in DDI is introduced, it brings a thermal problem because of the increased power. To solve the thermal problem of the DDI it needs to be investigated each at the package level and module level. It is important to extract the junction temperature(Tj) of DDI clearly from the system level. The objective of this research is to construct a compact model. The compact model is to reduce LCD module including DDI. When the compact model is used, it will be able to easily handle the boundary condition and accurately predict the temperature. Consequently, the temperature of DDI can be calculated easily at the system level. Through this research,we also proposed the cooling plan of DDI for a protection of overheating. The cooling plan was utilized in DDI design.

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Drug-Drug Interaction Prediction Using Krill Herd Algorithm Based on Deep Learning Method

  • Al-Marghilani, Abdulsamad
    • International Journal of Computer Science & Network Security
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.319-328
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    • 2021
  • Parallel administration of numerous drugs increases Drug-Drug Interaction (DDI) because one drug might affect the activity of other drugs. DDI causes negative or positive impacts on therapeutic output. So there is a need to discover DDI to enhance the safety of consuming drugs. Though there are several DDI system exist to predict an interaction but nowadays it becomes impossible to maintain with a large number of biomedical texts which is getting increased rapidly. Mostly the existing DDI system address classification issues, and especially rely on handcrafted features, and some features which are based on particular domain tools. The objective of this paper to predict DDI in a way to avoid adverse effects caused by the consumed drugs, to predict similarities among the drug, Drug pair similarity calculation is performed. The best optimal weight is obtained with the support of KHA. LSTM function with weight obtained from KHA and makes bets prediction of DDI. Our methodology depends on (LSTM-KHA) for the detection of DDI. Similarities among the drugs are measured with the help of drug pair similarity calculation. KHA is used to find the best optimal weight which is used by LSTM to predict DDI. The experimental result was conducted on three kinds of dataset DS1 (CYP), DS2 (NCYP), and DS3 taken from the DrugBank database. To evaluate the performance of proposed work in terms of performance metrics like accuracy, recall, precision, F-measures, AUPR, AUC, and AUROC. Experimental results express that the proposed method outperforms other existing methods for predicting DDI. LSTMKHA produces reasonable performance metrics when compared to the existing DDI prediction model.

Analysis of Drug Interaction Information (국내의약품의 약물상호작용 정보 분석)

  • Lee, Young-Sook;Lee, Ji-Seon;Lee, Suk-Hyang
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2009
  • Adverse drug reactions (ADR) caused by inappropriate prescription are responsible for major socioeconomic loss. Drug-drug interactions (DDI) has been recognized as a major part of ADRs and, therefore, healthcare professionals should prevent possible DDIs to minimize preventable ADRs. This study aimed to examine DDI information in drug information references and Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) drug labeling information. Drug ingredients from the formulary of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea (HIRA) were included for the study. DDI information source used for the study were Micromedex Drugdex and Drug Information Facts (DIF) with the DDI severity level of "moderate" or more. The DDI information in KFDA drug labeling were collected and compared. Drug ingredients were classified with KFDA Drug Classification and ATC Classification of WHO for the analysis. Among the total 1,355 drug ingredients satisfying inclusion criteria, 738 ingredients involved at least one DDI, which was described in Micromedex and/or DIF. Drug Ingredients of 176 involved DDI only described in KFDA drug labeling, but not Micromedex nor DIF. Drug ingredients of 35 which DDIs were described in Micromedex or DIF did not have DDI based on KFDA drug labeling. Micromedex and DIF retrieved 7,582 and 3,071 DDIs, respectively 57.6% and 58.5% of DDIs were also described in KFDA drug labeling. Central nervous system (CNS) drugs, cardiovascular system (CVS) drugs and the antiinfectives appeared to have higher frequency of DDIs among all drug classes. The highest number of DDIs with high severity level ("contraindicated" or "major") were the DDIs of CNS drugs. The antiinfectives are the second drug group having serious DDIs. The DDI pairs of the CNS drug and the antiinfective had the highest contraindication risk (13.6%). DDI information from Micromedex and DIF were not consistent with the result that only 465 ingredients' DDIs are common in both literature (total DDI numbers were 715 vs 488, respectively). And 1,652 DDI information are common in both references among 7,582 vs 3,071 DDIs, respectively. Only 55.2% of DDI information in the database contained in the KFDA drug labeling. Prescribers and pharmacists should pay attention to the drugs for CV system, CNS and infections because of higher risk of possible DDIs compared to other drug classes. KFDA drug labeling is not likely to be recommended as a good information source for DDI due to significant inconsistency of information. Drug information providers should be aware that DDI information from different sources are not consistent and therefore multiple references should be used.

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Design and Implementation of Digital Door Lock by IoT (사물인터넷을 이용한 디지털 도어락, DDiT의 설계 및 구현)

  • Seo, Dae Gyu;Ko, Han Shin;Noh, Yong Deok
    • KIISE Transactions on Computing Practices
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, the Digital DoorLock by Internet of Things (DDiT) is introduced. In order to implement DDiT, an integrated micro-controller platform, Arduino is used to control an existing digital doorlock and an android type smart phone is adopted as a mobile platform. One of the advantages of DDiT is that it can be added to an existing digital doorlock and a smart phone application is used as a digital key. Owing to the smart phone application, several other types of applications could also be made. Therefore, DDiT could be used effectively and conveniently in ordinary homes as well as in high security applications such as in hotels, institutes, and companies.

DNA-Damage Inducible 1 is a Property of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Lee, Ji-Yeon;Kang, Eun-Sil;Lim, Beom-Jin;Chang, Yoon-Soo;Kim, Se-Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.72 no.2
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    • pp.124-131
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    • 2012
  • Background: DNA damage-inducible 1 (Ddi1), one of the ubiquitin-like and ubiquitin-associated family of proteins, may function in the regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which has been validated as a target for antineoplastic therapy. We investigated Ddi1 expression in human lung cancer tissues and evaluated the relationship of this expression pattern with clinicopathological factors in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Ddi1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissues from 97 patients with stage I NSCLC, who had undergone curative surgical resection at two tertiary referral hospitals from 1993~2004. None of the patients received preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Results: Thirty-nine (40.2%) of the 97 cases were positive for Ddi1. Ddi1 expression was dominantly seen in cytoplasm rather than in the nuclei of cancer cells in all histological types, whereas adjacent nontumoral lung tissue showed negative Ddi1 staining in most cases. Ddi1 expression tended to increase in well-differentiated tumors but without statistical significance. Positive Ddi1 expression was associated with a tendency for better disease-free survival and disease-specific survival, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Ddi1 expression is a property of NSCLC. Because Ddi1 could be a potential target for cancer therapy, more research is needed to evaluate its role in NSCLC.

Effects of Nutritional Education Practice Program for Cardiocerebrovascular High-risk Group at the Education Information Center (심뇌혈관질환 고위험군의 교육정보센터 영양실습 교육프로그램 효과)

  • Nam, Hang-Me;Woo, Seung-Hee;Cho, Young-Ji;Choi, Yun-Jung;Back, Su-Yeon;Yoon, So-Yeon;Lee, Jin-Young;Lee, Jung-Jeung;Lee, Hye-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.580-591
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    • 2011
  • This research was performed to investigate the effects of NEP (Nutritional Education Practice) program developed by KHyDDI (Korea Hypertension Diabetes Daegu Initiative) for hypertension and diabetes patients. The subjects were 116 patients (hypertension 70, diabetes 46) who had completed basic education program at the education information center and four-session program was implemented for them. Nutrient intake was analyzed and compared before and after the program by 24-hr recall method and evaluate weight, waist circumference, body fat, blood pressure and eating habits in terms of nutrition knowledge, eating behavior, salty taste assessment. The improved results after the program were observed in weight, waist circumference, body fat ratio, blood pressure, slightly salty taste in salty taste assessment, nutrition knowledge, eating behavior, sodium, energy, carbohydrate and protein intake ratio to total energy (p < 0.001). Therefore, this program is effective in the improvement of weight, waist circumference and eating behavior, and the continued management would lead to the prevention of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in the community.

Analysis of effect of parasitic schottky diode on sense amplifier in DDI DRAM (DDI DRAM의 감지 증폭기에서 기생 쇼트키 다이오드 영향 분석)

  • Chang, Sung-Keun;Kim, Youn-Jang
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.485-490
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    • 2010
  • We propose the equivalent circuit model including all parasitic components in input gate of sense amplifier of DDI DRAM with butting contact structure. We analysed the effect of parasitic schottky diode by using the proposed model in the operation of sense amplifier. The cause of single side fail and the temperature dependence of fail rate in DDI DRAM are due to creation of the parasitic schottky diode in input gate of sense amplifier. The parasitic schottky diode cause the voltage drop in input gate, and result in decreasing noise margin of sense amplifier. therefore single side fail rate increase.

Retrospective Drug Utilization Review of Drug-Drug Interaction Criteria Based on Real World Data: Analysis in Terms of Dispensing Types (건강보험심사청구 자료에 근거한 병용금기 약물의 후향적 약물사용평가 : 처방전 조제 형태별 분석)

  • Lee, Young-Sook;Shin, Hyun-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2011
  • Objective: To examine the drug use (prescribing) pattern of serious drug-drug interactions (DDIs, contraindicated drug interactions) using real world data. Prescription patterns were examined in terms of dispensing types. Method: Retrospective drug utilization review (DUR) study was performed. One hundred and six datasets of serious DDIs (DDI pairs) were determined among DDI datasets that Ministry of Health & Welfare announced for the DUR system from 2004 to 2005. Electronically transacted ambulatory patients' prescription database to Health Insurance Assessment and Review Services (HIRA) from July, 2005 to June, 2006 was collected with personal information deidentified and analyzed in terms of types of dispensing as a contributing factor. Results: After prescription data analysis per each patient, total number of DDI cases using 95 DDI pairs was 5,511, which accounted for 2.6 cases per patients. DDI cases between two drugs from each of community pharmacy dispensing- type prescription were considerable (63% vs. 24% in those from each of in-institutional dispensing-type prescription and vs. 13% in those from a community pharmacy dispensing-type prescription and an in-institutional dispensingtype prescription). Conclusions: DDI cases from different prescribers were found to be significant. Thus, the concurrent DUR process between prescriptions from different physicians and institutions should be implemented for the safe drug use.

A Study on Characteristics of column fails in DDI DRAM (DDI DRAM에서의 Column 불량 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Sung-Keun;Kim, Youn-Jang
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.1581-1584
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    • 2008
  • In dual-polycide-gate structure with butting contact, net doping concentration of polysilicon was decreased due to overlap between $n^+$ and $p^+$ and lateral dopant diffusion in silicide/polysilicon layers. The generation of parasitic Schottky diode in butting contact region is attributed both to the $CoSi_2$-loss due to $CoSi_2$ agglomeration and to the decrease in net doping concentration of polysilicon layer. Parasitic Schottky diode reduces noise margin of sense amplifier in DDI DRAM, which causes column fail. The column fail could be reduced by physical isolation of $n^+/p^+$ polysilicon junction or suppressing $CoSi_2$ agglomeration by using nitrogen implantation into $p^+$ polysilicon before $CoSi_2$ formation.

An experience on the model-based evaluation of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction for a long half-life drug

  • Hong, Yunjung;Jeon, Sangil;Choi, Suein;Han, Sungpil;Park, Maria;Han, Seunghoon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.545-553
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    • 2021
  • Fixed-dose combinations development requires pharmacokinetic drugdrug interaction (DDI) studies between active ingredients. For some drugs, pharmacokinetic properties such as long half-life or delayed distribution, make it difficult to conduct such clinical trials and to estimate the exact magnitude of DDI. In this study, the conventional (non-compartmental analysis and bioequivalence [BE]) and model-based analyses were compared for their performance to evaluate DDI using amlodipine as an example. Raw data without DDI or simulated data using pharmacokinetic models were compared to the data obtained after concomitant administration. Regardless of the methodology, all the results fell within the classical BE limit. It was shown that the model-based approach may be valid as the conventional approach and reduce the possibility of DDI overestimation. Several advantages (i.e., quantitative changes in parameters and precision of confidence interval) of the model-based approach were demonstrated, and possible application methods were proposed. Therefore, it is expected that the model-based analysis is appropriately utilized according to the situation and purpose.