• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Damage tolerance

검색결과 281건 처리시간 0.052초

Chronological Switch from Translesion Synthesis to Homology-Dependent Gap Repair In Vivo

  • Fujii, Shingo;Isogawa, Asako;Fuchs, Robert P.
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 2018
  • Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous chemical and physical agents that damage their genome by forming DNA lesions. These lesions interfere with the normal functions of DNA such as transcription and replication, and need to be either repaired or tolerated. DNA lesions are accurately removed via various repair pathways. In contrast, tolerance mechanisms do not remove lesions but only allow replication to proceed despite the presence of unrepaired lesions. Cells possess two major tolerance strategies, namely translesion synthesis (TLS), which is an error-prone strategy and an accurate strategy based on homologous recombination (homology-dependent gap repair [HDGR]). Thus, the mutation frequency reflects the relative extent to which the two tolerance pathways operate in vivo. In the present paper, we review the present understanding of the mechanisms of TLS and HDGR and propose a novel and comprehensive view of the way both strategies interact and are regulated in vivo.

근사모델을 사용한 손상허용해석 (Damage Tolerance Analysis Using Surrogate Model)

  • 장병욱;임재혁;박정선
    • 한국항공우주학회지
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.306-313
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    • 2011
  • 항공기 부품에 대한 손상허용해석은 구조적 안전성 및 신뢰성 보장을 위해 면밀히 평가되어야한다. 손상허용기법은 항공기 주구조의 피로 설계기법으로 초기균열의 존재를 고려하여 피로수명을 산정한다. 따라서 손상허용해석에서는 피로 균열성장 수명의 계산이 요구되며, 이를 바탕으로 부품의 점검시간 및 교체주기를 결정한다. 본 논문에서는 형상이 복잡한 터빈 휠에 대하여 손상허용해석을 수행하였다. 형상이 복잡한 구조의 균열성장수명평가 시에는 주요 변수인 응력확대계수의 식을 알기 어려워, 이를 유한요소해석으로 계산하므로 많은 시간이 요구된다. 이러한 문제를 해결하고자 특정 균열길이에 대한 응력확대계수를 유한요소해석으로 계산하고, 생성된 데이터의 회귀분석을 통해 응력확대계수의 근사모델을 생성하였다. 균열성장 수명은 근사모델의 적분으로 계산하였으며, 근사모델을 사용하여 균열성장 수명평가와 손상허용해석의 효율을 높일 수 있었다.

항공기 복합재 구조에 적용된 두꺼운 적층판의 손상 허용 기준 평가 (Investigation on Damage Tolerance of Thick Laminate for Aircraft Composite Structure)

  • 박현범;공창덕;신철진
    • Composites Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.105-109
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    • 2012
  • 최근 국내에서 미국과 상호항공안전협정 체결을 위한 소형 항공기가 연구 개발 중이다. 연구 대상 항공기는 경량화 하여 연료 절감을 위해 전기체 복합재료가 적용되었다. 그러나 복합재 구조는 외부의 충격 손상에 취약한 구조이다. 따라서 항공기 구조물은 충격 손상에 대한 압축 파손 강도를 고려하여 손상 허용 설계가 반드시 수행되어야 한다. 이는 복합재 구조 항공기 인증에 매우 중요한 요소이다. 본 연구에서는 항공기 복합재 구조에 적용된 두꺼운 적층판에 대한 손상 허용 연구를 수행하였다. 두꺼운 적층판의 세 가지 형태인 손상이 없는 시편, 구멍 손상 및 충격 손상이 적용된 시편의 압축 하중 하에서 손상 허용 기준이 평가되었다.

Hertzian Crack Suppression and Damage Tolerance of Silicon Nitride Bilayer

  • Lee, Kee-Sung;Kim, Do-Kyung;Lee, Seung-Kun;Lawn, Brian R.
    • The Korean Journal of Ceramics
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 1998
  • Hertzian crack suppression phenomena and relatively high damage tolerance were investigated in hard/soft silicon nitride ($Si_3N_4$) bilayers. Coarse $\alpha}-Si_3N_4$ powder was wsed for the hard coating layer and fine $\alpha}-Si_3N_4$ powder was used for the soft substrate layer. The two layers were designed with a strong interface. Hertzian indentation was used to investigate contact fracture and damage tolerance property. Hertzian crack suppression has occurred with increasing applied load and decreasing coating thickness. The crack suppression contributed strength improvement, especially in the bilayers with thinner coatings. Ultimately, the combination of hard coating with soft but tough underlayer improved the damage tolerance of brittle $Si_3N_4$ ceramics.

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복합재 항공구조물의 손상허용평가를 위한 운항수명의 확률적 모델 (Probabilistic Model of Service Life to Evaluate Damage Tolerance of Composite Structure)

  • A.스튜어트;A.우샤코프;심재열;황인희
    • 한국복합재료학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.245-248
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    • 2000
  • Modern aircraft composite structures are designed using a damage tolerance philosophy. This design philosophy envisions sufficient strength and structural integrity of the aircraft to sustain major damage and to avoid catastrophic failure. The only reasonable way to treat on the same basis all the conditions and uncertainties participating in the design of damage tolerant composite aircraft structures is to use the probability-based approach. Therefore, the model has been developed to assess the probability of structural failure (POSF) and associated risk taking into account the random mechanical loads, random temperature-humidity conditions, conditions causing damages, as well as structural strength variations due to intrinsic strength scatter, manufacturing defects, operational damages, temperature-humidity conditions. The model enables engineers to establish the relationship between static/residual strength safety margins, production quality control requirements, in-service inspection resolution and criteria, and POSF. This make possible to estimate the cost associated with the mentioned factors and to use this cost as overall criterion. The methodology has been programmed into software.

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복합재 헬리콥터 로터 블레이드의 피로 및 손상허용 평가 방안 (Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Evaluation of Composite Helicopter Rotor Blades)

  • 기영중;백승길
    • 항공우주시스템공학회지
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2014
  • Fatigue evaluations for the rotor blades of commercial or military rotorcraft have been carried out using the safe life concept since 1950s. Particularly, in the case of a rotor blade made of a composite material, a highly reliable fatigue life could be predicted by evaluation the cumulative damage using combination of fatigue life curve and load spectrum. However, there is a limit in adequately evaluating the strength reducing phenomena caused by damages or defects generated during the manufacturing process or impact damage induced by operational usages, using only the safe life concept. In this study, the fatigue evaluation process based on the damage tolerance concept is described and illustrated by means of successful application to substantiate the retirement time of composite rotor blades.

회전익 항공기용 주 로터 작동기에 대한 손상허용 평가 연구 (A Study on Flaw Tolerance Evaluation of a Main Rotor Actuator for Rotorcraft)

  • 박주원;정정래
    • 항공우주시스템공학회지
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    • v.14 no.spc
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2020
  • 미국 연방항공규정(FAR) §29.571 Amendment 55에서 다루고 있는 손상허용 평가 내용은 2012년에 개념 정립이 되었다. 최근 정립된 개념임에 따라 손상허용 평가 개념을 도입하여 입증 절차를 수행한 이력이 많지 않다. 본 논문은 회전익 항공기에서 주요 구조 요소(PSE; Principal Structure Element)로 분류된 주 로터 작동기 개발품을 FAR §29.571 요건의 손상허용 평가를 바탕으로 인증을 위해 수행한 일련의 과정 및 평가 방법들을 소개하고자 한다. 주 로터 작동기는 초기결함을 생성한 후 설계 목표수명의 2배수에 해당하는 손상허용 시험을 수행하였다. 이를 바탕으로 회전익 항공기 주 로터 작동기는 충분한 손상허용능력을 확보하고 있음을 입증하였다.

충격후 잔류압축강도시험에 의한 복합재료 적층판의 설계 (A Design Guide for Composite Laminates by the Compressive after Impact Tests)

  • 정태은;박경하;류정주
    • 대한기계학회논문집
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.2105-2113
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    • 1995
  • The compressive tests under impact conditions were performed to establish a design guide for impact damage tolerance. The composition of layup was selected for the real cases of composite aircraft structure. The energy level of visible of visible damage threshold was determined as 7 Joules. It was found that the normalized bending stiffnesses in the direction of closely fixed boundary affected the area of damage. Graphite/epoxy used in the tests exhibited 60% reduction in compression strength at the energy level of visible damage threshold. Wet-conditioned specimens represented 9% reduction in residual compressive strength in comparison with room temperature ambient specimens. In this study, a design factor of 2.1 was proposed for the low velocity impact damage.

Damage Tolerance in Hardly Coated Layer Structure with Modest Elastic Modulus Mismatch

  • Lee, Kee-Sung
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1638-1649
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    • 2003
  • A study is made on the characterization of damage tolerance by spherical indentation in hardly coated layer structure with modest elastic modulus mismatch. A hard silicon nitride is prepared for the coating material and silicon nitride with 5wt% of boron nitride composites for underlayer. Hot pressing to eliminate the effect of interface delamination during the fracture makes strong interfacial bonding. The elastic modulus mismatch between the layers is not only large enough to suppress the surface crack initiation from the coating layer but sufficiently small to prevent the initiation of radial crack from the interface. The strength degradation of the layer structure after sphere contact indentation does not significantly occur, while the degradation of silicon nitride-boron nitride composite is critical at a high load and high number of contacts.

손상허용해석을 위한 균열성장모델 교정 (Calibration of crack growth model for damage tolerance analysis)

  • 주영식;김재훈
    • 한국군사과학기술학회지
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2002
  • This paper introduces the calibration results of the fatigue crack growth models for damage tolerance analysis of the aircraft structures. Generalized Willenborg model and Wheeler model are calibrated with experimental data tested under the load spectrum of a trainer. The retardation factors such as, shut-off ratio in Generalized Willenborg model and shaping exponent in Wheeler model, are evaluated for aluminum alloys AL2024-T3511, AL7050-T7451 and AL7075-T73511. It is shown that the retardation effect of the crack growth rate depends on the yield strength of material and the maximum stress in the load spectrum. Generalized Willenborg model and Wheeler model give satisfactory prediction of crack growth life but the calibration of the experimental parameters with test is required.