• Title, Summary, Keyword: Defect

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Clinical Studies on Congenital Atrial Septal Defects in Koreans (심방중격결손증에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • 이두연
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.230-240
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    • 1977
  • Atrial septal defect is one of the most frequently encountered congenital heart disease. Up to December 31, 1976, 1682 cardiac patients received cardiac catheterization in the cardiac department of Yonsei university medical college. Out of the 1682 cardiac patients 723 cases had congenital heart disease and only 116 cases had congetial atrial septal defect. This amounted to 16.04% of all those with congenital heart disease. 58 cases of congenital atrial septal defect operated in the chest surgery department were presented. Of these 58 cases of atrial septal defect, 27 cases were male and 31 cases were female. Their ages ranged from 5 years to 54 years. The systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery of 40 out of the 58 cases of atrial septal defect was below 40% of that of the systemic blood pressure: in 6 cases, the range of the systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery was 50-90mmHg; in 12 cases, the range of the systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery was 40-50mmHg. Average age of these was 30. 1 years. This study tends to show that Korean patients with atrial septal defect even though younger have a slight higher systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery than Western patients have. The pulmonary blood is 1.5-2.5 times of systemic blood flow in 52 cases out of 58 cases of atrial septal defect.In only one of the 58 cases of atrial septal defect, the Rp was found to be as high as 45% of Rs. All other cases were below this level.51 cases had ostium secundum defect, 4 out of these cases had ostium secundum defect combined with mitral incompetence and 6 out of them had double ostium secundum defect. The remaining 7 cases had ostium primum defect. Their atrial defects were repaired under direct vision utilizing extracorporeal circulation, by hemodilution technic combined with moderate hypothermia. 44 cases [2nd atrial septal defect] were repaired by direct sutures while 14 cases, including the 7 cases ostium primum defects needed patches [1 pericardium and 13 teflon patch]. In 4 cases there were single defects while showed two defects. However the associated septal defect was so small that it could be closed by direct sutures. The size of the defect ranged between 6.0cm2and 10.0cm2 in 19 cases[33.7%]: the smallest being 0. 5cm2 and the largest 24cm2. The surgical mortality was 2 cases [3.4%]. These one case with ostium primum defect, could not be resuscitated on operation table. The cause of death in this case was myocardial failure and MI. The other, a case of ostium primum defect had a second operation on the first operative day due to massive bleeding from LV vent-line insertion site.The patient died on 26th post-operative day due to sepsis.

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A Defect Management Process based on Open Source Software for Small Organizations (소규모 조직을 위한 오픈 소스 소프트웨어 기반의 결함 관리 프로세스)

  • Han, Hyuksoo;Oh, Seungwon
    • Journal of KIISE
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.242-250
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    • 2018
  • For high-quality software development, it is necessary to detect and fix the defects inserted. If defect management activities are not properly performed, it will lead to the project delay and project failure due to rework. Therefore, organizations need to establish defect management process and institutionalize it. Process standard models handle defect management in the area of project monitoring and control. However, small organizations experience difficulties in implementing and applying defect management process in a real situation. In this paper, we propose a defect management process for small organization which is designed in accordance with the characteristics of a small projects such as few participants and short development period. The proposed defect management process will be based on a tool chain with open source software such as Redmine, Subversion, Maven, Jenkins that support a defect management process and SW Visualization in systematic way. We also proposed a way of constructing defect database and various methods of analyzing and controlling defect data based on it. In an effort to prove the effectiveness of the proposed process, we applied the process and tool chain to a small organization.

Development of a defect analysis and control system based on CMMI (CMMI 기반의 결함 분석 및 통제 시스템 개발)

  • Cho, Sung-Min;Han, Hyuk-Soo
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2007
  • As we detect defects and eliminate them in early stages, we can make better quality software. For doing this task, we need to use a defect tracking system which con effectively track and manage defects that give severe effects on software quality. Those existing defect tracking systems have some weaknesses as we apply them to organizations that use CMMI for process improvements. Major problems of those systems are that they require the organizations to collect many types of defect data at a time without providing the proper explanation and even without the support of defect management process. The organizations at CMMI maturity level 2 and 3 have problems for analyzing those defects because there is no specific process area at CMMI maturity level 2 and 3 which directly handles defect managing activites. This paper resolves those problems by developing a defect tracking system which offers methods of managing defects. And the system provides guidelines of which defects should be gathered for each CMMI mathurity levels. The system also has functions to generate various status and statistic information on defects, and to assign defect data to the person in charge so that he or she track the defect to the closure

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Radiographic evaluation of infra-bony defects treated by bone graft procedures (골 이식술에 의해 치료된 골연하 결손부의 방사선학적 변화 양상의 관찰)

  • Ryu, Sang-Ho;Park, Jin-Woo;Suh, Jo-Young;Lee, Jae-Mok
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.437-444
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: A number of techniques and materials have been used for periodontal regeneration and bone graft procedures with guided tissue regeneration(GTR) have been suggested as alternatives to osseous surgery in the management of local infra-bony defects. However, the long-term stability and treatment outcome following bone graft procedure of infra-bony defects is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to assess radiographic change in infra-bony defects over 2 years after bone graft procedures with various graft materials. Material and Methods: Patients attending the department of periodontics of Kyungpook National University Hospital were studied. Patients showed clinical and radiographic evidence of infra-bony defect(s). 44 sites of 34 patients aged 31 to 69 (mean age 48.3) were treated by bone graft procedure with a bone graft material. Baseline and 2-year follow-up radiographs were collected and evaluated for this study. Radiographic assessment includes a bone fill, bone crest change, defect resolution, and % of defect resolution. Pre- and post-treatment differences between variables (maxilla and mandible, defect depth, defect angle, bone graft materials) using the paired t-test were examined. Result: We observed $1.15{\pm}1.95\;mm$ of bone fill, $0.40{\pm}1.19\;mm$ of crestal resorption, $1.55{\pm}1.77\;mm$ of defect resolution, and $40{\pm}44%$ of percentage of defect resolution. Deeper initial defect depth, narrower initial defect angle showed significantly greater bone fill, defect resolution, and % of defect resolution. But no significant difference was observed in graft sites and graft materials. Conclusion: If good oral hygiene maintenance and periodic recall check of patients is assured, bone graft procedure using various graft materials is one of the appropriate treatment modality for regenerative therapy of infra-bony defects.

Regression Analysis on the Dispute Cost Property in Apartment Housing Claims (비용항목의 희귀분석을 통한 공동주택 하자분쟁의 비용특성연구)

  • Kang, Yu-Mi;Kim, Beop-Su;Park, Jun-Mo;Choi, Jeong-Hyun;Seo, Deuk-Seok;Kim, Ok-Kyue
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.225-228
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    • 2010
  • It is an social issue that is various claim related on the defect of apartment house. The cost of defect repair is the most important matter that residents dispute constructers with the huge time wasting and cost loss. For resolve the matter of defect claim, it must to be analyze to the cost property that study and find to pending issue about the cost of defect repair. Therefore this study is investigated the cost property of defect repair relation on correlation analysis and regression analysis around the judgement cost. Consequently, cost of the judgment is associated with cost of the accusation and cost of the defect repair, is recognizable as them that is closely connected. Meanwhile, the more time of take effect and time of lawsuit increase, the more cost of the judgment decrease by draw the regression equation. On the contrary, there are same aspects in the case on the cost of the accusation and cost of the defect repair.

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Imaging of a Defect in Thin Plates Using the Time Reversal of Single Mode Lamb Wave: Simulation

  • Jeong, Hyun-Jo;Lee, Jung-Sik;Bae, Sung-Min;Lee, Hyun-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.261-270
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    • 2010
  • This paper presents an analytical investigation for a baseline-free imaging of a defect in plate-like structures using the time-reversal of Lamb waves. We first consider the flexural wave (A0 mode) propagation in a plate containing a defect, and reception and time reversal process of the output signal at the receiver. The received output signal is then composed of two parts: a directly propagated wave and a scattered wave from the defect. The time reversal of these waves recovers the original input signal, and produces two additional side bands that contain the time-of-flight information on the defect location. One of the side band signals is then extracted as a pure defect signal. A defect localization image is then constructed from a beamforming technique based on the time-frequency analysis of the side band signal for each transducer pair in a network of sensors. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables the accurate, baseline-free detection of a defect, so that experimental studies are needed to verify the proposed method and to be applied to real structure.

The Detection of the Internal Defect in the Glass Using Auto Focusing Method (자동 초점 기법을 이용한 유리 내부 결함 검출)

  • Jy, Yong-Woo;Jhang, Kyung-Young;Jung, Ji-Hwa;Kim, Suk-Jun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.1047-1054
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    • 2004
  • Internal defects in the glass, like-as micro-voids, micro-cracks, or inclusions, easily cause the failure when the glass is exposed to the shock or the thermal variation. In order to produce the highly reliable glass product, the precision inspection of the defect in the glass is required. For this purpose, this paper proposes a machine vision technique based on the auto-focusing method, which searches the defect and measures the location under the fact that the edge image of defect must be the most clear when the focal plane of CCD camera is coincided with the defect. As for the search index, the gradient indicator is presented. The basic principles are verified through the simulations for the computer-generated defect images, where the affects of defect shape, gray level of background, and the brightness of the defect image are also analyzed. Finally, experimental results for actual glass specimens are shown to confirm the applicability of this method to the actual field.

2M Class CCM(Compact Camera Module) Defect Inspection (2M급 CCM(Compact Camera Module) 불량 검사)

  • Cho S.Y.;Ko K.W.;Lee Y.J.;Lee J.H.;Kang C.G.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.1079-1082
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    • 2005
  • This paper deals with the algorithm development that inspects defects such as Lens Focus, Focus check, Black Defect, Dark Defect, Dim Defect, Color Defect, and Line Defect, Angle Defect, IrisAgc Defect caused by the process of 2M Class Compact Camera Module (CCM). Domestic market was majorly comprised of VGA(0.3 million pixel) market. But in the middle of year 2004, camera phone with Mega Pixel has appeared, and it is estimated that the camera phone with Mega Pixel will take up to 28% of total phone sales if it is released in the end of year 2004. Since the inspection of finished products is done manually, it is major obstacle in production increment In this paper, to solve these problems, we developed the imaging processing algorithm to inspect the defects in captured image of assembled CCM. The performances of the developed inspection system and we can recognize various types of defect of CCM modules with good accuracy and high speed

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DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF DEFECTS ON APPLE USING MACHINE VISION

  • Suh, Sang-Ryong;Sung, Je-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.852-862
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to develop tools to detect defects of apple using machine vision. For the purpose, 6 kinds of frame for color images, R, G, B, h, S, and I frame, and a frame for near infra-red images (NIR frame) were tested first to select one which is useful to segment defect areas from apple images. After then, several methods to classify kind of defect for the segmented defect areas were developed and tested. Five kinds of apple defect -bruise , decay ,fleck worm hole and scar were investigated . The results are as follows: NIR frame was selected as the best one among the 7 kinds of image frame, and R, G and I frames showed favourable result to segment areas of apple defect. Various features of the segmented defect areas were measured to classify the defect areas. Eight kids of feature of the areas-size, roundness, axes length ratio, mean and variance of pixel values, variance of real part of spectrum, mean and variance of power spectrum resulted from spacial ourier transform were observed for the segmented defect areas in the selected 4 frames. then procedures to classify defects using the features were developed for the 4 frames and tested with 75-113 defects on apples. The test resulted that NIR and I frames showed high accuracies to classify the kind of defect as 77% and 76% , respectively.

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A Study on the Governing Factor of Fatigue Limit in Austempered Ductile Iron (오스템퍼링 구상흑연주철의 피로한도 지배인자에 관한 연구)

  • 정회원;김진학
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.221-229
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    • 1999
  • We examined the governing factors of fatigue limit in annealed and austempered ductile iron specimens machined micro hole(dia.<0.4mm) in rotary bending fatigue test. Also, the quantitative relationship between fatigue limit and maximum defect size in specimens was investigated. Artificial defect(micro-pit type, dia.<0.4mm) on specimen surface did not bring about an obvious reduction of fatigue limit in austempered ductile iton(ADI) as compared with annealed ductile iron. According to the investigation of ${\sqrt{area}}_c$ which is the critical defect size to crack initiation at artificial defect, ${\sqrt{area}}_c$ of ADI was larger than that of annealed ductile iron. This shows that the situation of crack initiation at artificial defect in ADI is more difficult in comparison with annealed ductile iron. Maximum defect size is one of the important parameters to predict fatigue limit. And, the quantitative relationship, between the fatigue limit ${\sigma}_{\omega}$ and the maximum defect size ${\sqrt{area}}_{max}$ can be expressed to ${\sigma}_{\omega}^n{\cdot}{\sqrt{area}}_{max}=C_2$ where, $C_2$ are constant. Moreover, it is possible to explain the difference in fatigue limit between, austempered and annealed ductile iron by introducing the parameter ${\delta}(=N_{sg}/N_{total})$in a plain spectimen.

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