• Title/Summary/Keyword: Defect

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Surgical Treatment of Arrhythmias Associated with Congenital Heart Disease (선천성 심장 기형에 동반된 부정맥에 대한 수술적 치료)

  • Hwang, Ui-Dong;Im, Yu-Mi;Park, Jeong-Jin;Seo, Dong-Man;Lee, Jae-Won;Yun, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.12
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    • pp.811-816
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    • 2007
  • Background: We analyzed our experience of arrhythmia surgery in patients with congenital heart disease. Material and Method: A retrospective review was performed on 43 consecutive patients with congenital heart disease, who underwent arrhythmia surgery between June 1998 and June 2006. Result: The median age at surgery was 52 years ($4{\sim}75$ years). The most frequent cardiac anomaly was an atrial septal defect (23/43, 53.5%). The types of arrhythmias were atrial flutter-fibrillation, intermittent non-sustainable ventricular tachycardia and others in 37, 2 and 4, respectively. Arrhythmia surgery consisted of a bi-atrial maze operation in 18 patients (modified cox maze III procedure in 5 patients, and a right side maze plus pulmonary vein cryo-isolation in 13), right side maze operation in 18 patients, cavo-tricuspid isthmus cryoablation for benign atrial flutter in 4 patients, right ventricular endocardial cryoablation in 2 patients and extranodal cryoablation for atrioventricular node re-entry tachycardia in 1 patient. The median follow-up was 23.8 months ($1{\sim}95.2$ months). There was no early mortality, and one late non-cardiac related death. The overall rates of restored sinus rhythm before discharge and $3{\sim}6$ months after surgery were 79% and 81%, respectively (bi-atrial maze group: 72% and 83%, right-side maze group: 77%, 77%). Conclusion: Arrhythmias associated with congenital heart disease can be safely treated surgically with an excellent intermediate-term outcome.

Clinical Study of the Treatment of Chronic Empyema with Open Window Thoracostomy: 10 Years Experience (개방식 배농술을 이용한 만성 농흉 치료의 임상적 고찰 - 10년 경험 -)

  • Kim, Young-Kyu;Kim, Yeong-Dae
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.765-769
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    • 2007
  • Background: The curative treatment of choice for empyema is decortication of the pleura. The risks of this treatment however are increased for the patient with reduced pulmonary function, complicated calcification or septic shock. In the past, open window thoracostomy was a final stage treatment for chronic empyema. Relatively safe treatment of empyema could be achieved in difficult cases with a closure of the open window after open drainage and use of a myocutaneous flap (one stage or staged). Material and Method: A retrospective study of the cause, progression and final outcome of empyema patients who received open window thoracostomy was performed. 21 patients were followed from 1995 to 2004 in the department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery in the College of Medicine, Pusan National University. Result: The average age of the patients was $57.5{\pm}15.5$ years (range $25{\sim}78$ years), of whom 16 (76.2%) were men and five (23.8%) were women. Pulmonary function test results showed an average FEV1 of $1.58{\pm}0.49 L$. The type of empyema was tuberculous empyema in 13 cases (61.9%), aspergillosis in three cases (14.3%), parapneumonic empyema in three cases (14.3%) and post-resectional empyema in two cases (10%). Bronchopulmonary fistula was seen in 14 cases. Eight cases were complicated by severe calcification of the pleura. For the four cases of bronchopulmonary fistula, the patients' serratus anterior muscle was covered in their first operation. The average number of ribs resected was $4{\pm}1$. Closure of the open window thoracostomy was performed in 12 cases. The average time to closure after open drainage was $10.22{\pm}3.11$ months and the average defect of the empyemal cavity before the final operation was $330{\pm}110 cc$. Among the 12 cases, there were two cases of spontaneous closure. In two cases closure was only achieved by using the reserved skin fold during the first surgery. Of the remaining eight cases, in seven we used the myocutaneous flap (four cases of lattisimus dorsi muscle and three cases of pectoralis major muscle), and in one case we used soft tissue. As regards complications of the closure, tissue necrosis occurred in one case, which led to failed closure, and there was one case of abdominal hernia in the rectus abdominis muscle flap. One patient died within 30 days of the surgery and one patient died of metastatic cancer. Conclusion: A staged operation with a final closure using open window thoracostomy, which consists of open drainage, transposition of the muscle and a myocutaneous flap, can be a safe and effective option for the chronic empyema patient who is difficult to cure with traditional surgical methods.

Prevalence of Intimal Defect in the Patients urith Surgically Treated Acute Type A Intramural Hematoma of the Aorta (외과적으로 치료한 급성 A형 대동맥벽내 혈종 환자에서 대동맥 내막 결손의 존재 빈도)

  • Park, Kay-Hyun
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.733-744
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    • 2007
  • Background: There is a controversy regarding the pathogenesis and management principle of an acute intramural hematoma (IMH) of the aorta, Recent studies have reported intimal defects in many patients diagnosed with IMH, and suggested that intimal defects play important roles in the pathogenesis, progression of the pathology, and prognosis. Material and Method: This study reviewed the preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan images of 36 patients who underwent surgical treatment for Stanford type A acute IMH of the aorta. The surgical findings were also reviewed retrospectively from the medical records. Result: In 15 patients (41.7%), the findings suggestive of the intimal defects were found in the preoperative CT. During the operation, 20 patients (72.2%) were found to have small intimal defects in the ascending aorta or the arch, of which 13 patients (50.5%) did not have the CT findings suggestive of intimal defects. In 17 patients, the intimal defects were located in the aortic arch or distal ascending aorta, where a gross examination would have been impossible without total circulatory arrest. In all patients, the intimal defects identified were included in the resected aortic segment, or locally closed. Follow-up CT at 4 months or longer after surgery showed that the IMH in the descending aorta had disappeared or was markedly improved. Conclusion: Most patients undergoing surgical treatment for acute type A IMH had intimal defects. This suggests that a large proportion of IMH might have a similar pathogenic mechanism as classic dissection. Consequently, it is believed that those two entities of acute aortic syndrome should be treat-ed using the same principles.

Clinical Value of a Desktop Spirometer (HI-801) for Spirometry Screening (선별 검사를 위한 탁상용 폐활량기 (HI-801)의 임상적 유용성에 관한 고찰)

  • Choi, Hye Sook;Choi, Cheon Woong;Park, Myung Jae;Kang, Hong Mo;Yoo, Hong Ji
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.62 no.4
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    • pp.276-283
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    • 2007
  • Background: A national health care initiative recommends routine spirometry screening of all smokers over age 45 or patients with respiratory symptoms. In response to the recommendation, new, simple, and inexpensive desktop spirometers for the purpose of promoting widespread spirometric screening were marketed. The performance of these spirometers was evaluated in vivo testing with healthy subjects. However, the clinical setting allows spirometric assessment of various pathologic combinations of flow and volume. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a desktop spirometer to a standard laboratory spirometer, in a clinical setting with pathologic pulmonary function. Method: In a health check-up center, where screening pulmonary funct test was performed using the HI-801 spirometer. Subjects who revealed the ventilation defect in screening spirometry, performed the spirometry again using the standard Vmax spectra 22d spirometer in a tertiary care hospital pulmonary function laboratory. Pulmonary function test with both spirometer was performed according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. Results: 109 patients were enrolled. Pulmonary function measurements (FVC, $FEV_1$, PEFR, FEF25%-75%) from the HI-801 correlated closely (r=0.94, 0.93, 0.81, 0.84, respectively) with those performed with the Vmax spectra 22d and showed the good limits of agreement and differences between the 2 devices; FVC +0.35 L, $FEV_1$ +0.16 L, PEFR +1.85 L/s, FEF25%-75%-0.13 L/s. With the exception of $FEV_1$, FEF25%-75%, these differences were significant(p<0.05) but small. Conclusion: The HI-801 spirometer is comparable to the standard laboratory spirometer, Vmax spectra 22d, with high accurary for $FEV_1$ and FVC and acceptable differences for clinical use.

The Effect of Surface Defects on the Cyclic Fatigue Fracture of HEROShaper Ni-Ti rotary files in a Dynamic Model: A Fractographic Analysis (Fractographic 분석을 통한 HEROShaper 니켈티타늄 전동 파일의 피로파절에 미치는 표면결함의 역할)

  • Lee, Jung-Kyu;Kim, Eui-Sung;Kang, Myoung-Whai;Kum, Kee-Yeon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 2007
  • This in vitro study examined the effect of surface defects on cutting blades on the extent of the cyclic fatigue fracture of HEROShaper Ni-Ti rotary files using fractographic analysis of the fractured surfaces. A total of 45 HEROShaper (MicroMega) Ni-Ti rotary flies with a #30/.04 taper were divided into three groups of 15 each. Group 1 contained new HEROShapers without any surface defects. Group 2 contained HEROShapers with manufacturing defects such as metal rollover and machining marks. Croup 3 contained HEROShapers that had been clinically used for the canal preparation of 4-6 molars A fatigue-testing device was designed to allow cyclic tension and compressive stress on the tip of the instrument whilst maintaining similar conditions to those experienced in a clinic. The level of fatigue fracture time was measured using a computer connected the system. Statistical analysis was performed using a Tukey's test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for fractographic analysis of the fractured surfaces. The fatigue fracture time between groups 1 and 2, and between groups 1 and 3 was significantly different (p<0.05) but there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 (p>0.05). A low magnification SEM views show brittle fracture as the main initial failure mode At higher magnification, the brittle fracture region showed clusters of fatigue striations and a large number of secondary cracks. These fractures typically led to a central region of catastrophic ductile failure. Qualitatively, the ductile fracture region was characterized by the formation of microvoids and dimpling. The fractured surfaces of the HEROShapers in groups 2 and 3 were always associated with pre-existing surface defects. Typically, the fractured surface in the brittle fracture region showed evidence of cleavage (transgranular) facets across the grains, as well as intergranular facets along the grain boundaries. These results show that surface defects on cutting blades of Ni-Ti rotary files might be the preferred sites for the origin of fatigue fracture under experimental conditions. Furthermore this work demonstrates the utility of fractography in evaluating the failure of Ni-Ti rotary flies.

아동의 잠재된 영재성 개발 프로그램

  • Lee, Sun-Ju
    • Journal of Gifted/Talented Education
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.71-86
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    • 2000
  • According to Torrance, it is said that about 30% of feeble-headed children are bearing potential brilliant quality. Such potential gifted children exist really much more than children who appear to show their own brilliant quality. Nevertheless, research activity to reveal children's potential giftedness has not been relatively actively progressed. Renzulli, Smith and so on progresses research activity to reveal children's potential giftedness and strategies developed by them are being used widely all over the world, but these strategies show the defect that children can not overcome by themselves the interfered factors influenced negatively on their gift revelation. Russian scholar Babaeva made the effective education program to develop children's potential giftedness. Her program includes various activity methods or mental correct activity and psychological training activity and such training activity is realized through some steps and each step has it's own purpose and realization method. With the result that children discriminated as common children by the experimental study which is progressed by the present program participate, their standard of intelligence and originality showed the improved effect of the similar standard to children factors not a little influencing on children's giftedness development process but she also developed the leading concrete study method for the children to overcome this by themselves. In this paper, the present writer will examine potential giftedness development program researched in Russia and discuss their theoretic background and concrete activity course, activity result. Through this, children's have the excellent abilities in various spheres, this writer will obtain significant suggestions to educate the potential gifted children who do not display their own potentialities and do not receive a favor from gifted children program.

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Clinical Aspects in Patients with Thyrotoxic Periodic Hypokalemic Paralysis (갑상선 중독성 주기성마비 환자의 임상적 고찰)

  • Narn, Sang-Yob;Kirn, Jae-Hong;Oh, Jung-Hyn;Park, Jin-Chul;Yoon, Hyun-Dae;Won, Kyu-Chang;Cho, Ihn-Ho;Sung, Cha-Kyung;Lee, Hyoung-Woo
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 1999
  • Background: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is an uncommon illness characterized by intermittent flaccid paralysis of skeletal muscle, usually accompanied by hypokalemia, in patient with hyperthyroidism. However, the pathophysiology of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis remains largely unexplained and controversial. This report describes the clinical and biochemical findings in 19 patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis who were examined at the Yeungnam University Medical Center(YUMC) during the past decade. Methods: The medical records of 997 YUMC patients, seen between 1986 and 1996, with diagnosis of hyperthyroidism were reviewed. Nineteen patients out of 997 hyperthyroidism patients were diagnosed, and examined by history, physical examination, serum electrolyte value, and thyroid function test during paralysis. On the basis of these results, comparisons were made on age, sex, precipitating factors, timing, affected limbs, prognosis, serum potassium and serum phosphate and thyroid hormone levels. Results: The prevalence of periodic paralysis in hyperthyroidism was 1.9 percent and the male to female prevalence ratio was 30:1 and in all patients, the development of perodic paralysis was correlated with hyperfunctional state of the thyroid gland. Eleven cases of periodic paralysis were associated with hypokalemia and their thyroid hormone levels were significantly more increased than those of the patients without hypokalemia. Interestingly, our study shows the recurrence of paralysis after treatment. Conclusion: Although the precise pathophysiology of the disease is as yet undefined and controversial, it occurs primarily in Asians with an overwhelming male preponderance and prevalence of 2 percent in hyperthyroidism. The interactive roles of thyroid hormone, Na-K pump, and genetically inherited defect in the cellular membrane potential of the skeletal muscle can be speculated. Further investigation will be needed to firmly establish the mechanism of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

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Fixed Dose Regimen of Heparin Administration with Activated Coagulation Time During Cardiopulmonary Bypass (심폐바이패스시 활성응고시간을 이용한 헤파린 고정용량법)

  • 김원곤;박성식
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.867-872
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    • 1998
  • Background: The fixed dose regimen with activated coagulation time(ACT) is the most commonly employed method for determining the required dosage of heparin and protamine during cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB). Material and Method: We performed a prospective study on a fixed dose regimen for analyzing adequate dosages of heparin and protamine, the incidence of heparin resistance and heparin-induced thrombocyt openia, factors affecting ACT during CPB, and changes of ACT during aprotinin usage. 300 units/kg of heparin were administered to patients, and ACTs were measured after 5 mins. ACTs were checked at 10 mins and 30 mins after the onset of CPB, and then at 30 min intervals thereafter. If the measured ACT was under 400 secs, we added 100 units/kg of heparin. The heparin was reversed with 1 mg of protamine for each 100 units administered. If the measured ACT was longer than 130 secs 30 mins after protamine administration or if there was definitive evidence of a coagulation defect, we administered a further 0.5 mg/kg of protamine. Result: We studied 80 patients(50 adults and 30 children) who underwent open heart surgery(OHS) at Seoul National University Hospital. Preoperative ACT was 114.3${\pm}$19.3 secs in adults, and 119.5${\pm}$18.2 secs in children. There were no differences in preoperative ACT due to age, body weight, body surface area, or sex. The preoperative ACT was not influenced by a positive past history of OHS. Ten adults(20%) and 3 pediatric patients(10%) needed additional doses of heparin to maintain the ACT above 400 secs. Additional protamine administration was needed in 9 adults(18%) and 10 children(33%). Heparin resistance was found in only two adults. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was detected in 2 adults and 1 child. During CPB, ACT was prolonged. 12 adult patients received a low dose of aprotinin and showed longer celite activated ACT compared to the control group.The kaolin activated ACT showed a lower tendency than the celite activated ACT in aprotinin users. Conclusion: In conclusion, fixed dose regimen of heparin and protamine can be used without significant problems, but the incidence of need of additional dosage remains unsatisfactory.

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Changes in midpalatal suture area and adjacent periodontal tissues of individual tooth following rapid palatal expansion in young adult dogs ; Histomorphologic and immunohistochemical study (유성견 급속 구개확장시 정중구개봉합부 및 치아주위 조직 변화에 관한 조직형태학적 및 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Lee, Ju-Young;Lee, Jin-Woo;Cha, Kyung-Suk
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.317-333
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the proliferative activity of the osteoblasts and fibroblasts in the midpalatal area and to investigate the adjacent periodontal tissues of individual tooth following rapid expansion of the palate. Ten young adult dogs, aged approximately ten months, were used in the experiment. The experimental design was consisted of 1 week expansion group(Group E1, 3 dogs), 2 week expansion group(Group E2, 3 dogs), 2 week expansion and 2 week retention group(Group E3, 3 dogs), and control group(Group C, 1 dog). For each group, expansion screw was activated one time per day(1/4 turn;$90^{\circ}$) following Hyrax-screw application. The experimental animals in each group were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 4 weeks following palatal expansion. Maxillary tissue blocks were obtained and prepared ior the histomorphologic and immunohistochemical studies. Light mcroscope, polarizing microscope, and soft X-ray apparatus were used in this study, and following results were obtained. 1. In polarizing microscopic study, the expansion groups(E1 & E2) showed blue color representing bone resorption and new bone formation in midpalatal suture area. E3 groups skewed less blue color compared to the E1 and E2 group. But yellow color increased by calcification in the E3 groups. 2. Immunohistochemical study revealed that positive responses of the osteoblasts to PCNA and undifferentiated fibroblasts to EGF in E1 group were somewhat increased. Positive response to PCNA and EGF were increased in fibroblasts and the osteoblasts forming new bone in E2 group. In E3 group, the positive response cell concentrated the periphery of edge of palatal process in both PCNA and EGF. 3. Throughout the expansion period(E1 & E2), light microscopic study showed the edges of the extensive resorption and new palatal processes, indicating bone remodeling within the suture. E3 group exhibited less remodeling of midpalatal suture area. E2 group and E3 group showed cementum formation and resorption at the apex of 3rd premolar and 1st molar E3 group exhibited extensive hyalinized zone on the cervical portion of buccal side of 1st molar. 4. Soft X-ray analysis of E1 group showed hypomineralized defect and microfractures in various parts of the suture areas when compared with control animals. There was no significant difference in the degree of mineralization in the midpalatal suture region between the C and E3 groups. Tooth axis showed tipping of 3rd premolar and 1st molar in the E2 group and E3 group. Based upon these experimental results, it is concluded that the undifferentiated mesenchymal cells always presented in midpalatal suture area following RPE. Differentiated osteoblasts and fibroblasts possess proliferating cellular activity until the 2 week retention period. The posterior teeth are tend to tip buccally as RPE force applied. Retention group exhibited irreversible response with severe hyalinized zone on the buccal surface of the first molar.

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Clinicopathological evaluation of Childhood Henoch-$Sch{\ddot{o}}nlein$ Purpura(HSP) Nephritis with Nephrotic Syndrome (신증후군을 동반한 Henoch-$Sch{\ddot{o}}nlein$ 신염 환아의 임상병리 적 고찰)

  • Kang Hyeon-Ho;Yoon Kyung-Leem;Cho Byoung-Soo
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : Henoch-$Sch{\ddot{o}}nlein$ purpura(HSP) is a common pediatric discase presenting most frequently with skin, gastrointestinal, joint and renal manifestations. The prognosis of HSP is mainly determined by the involvement of the kidney, but prognostic markers have not been established. We evaluated the patients who have HSP nephritis with nephrotic syndrome. Method : Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings were observed and analyzed in 34 cases with HSP which were manifested by nephrotic syndrome hospitalized at Kyung Hee university Hospital during the period from Jan. 1990 to Dec. 1998. Results : 1) Male to female ratio was 1.3:1, and mean age at onset was 8.3 year. 2) Mean duration from symptom onset to renal biopsy was 10.5 weeks. 3) Proportion of patients presenting with acute nephritis was 32.4$\%$, gross hematuria 17.6$\%$, microscopic hematuria 50$\%$. 4) The findings of renal biopsy were 20 cases of grade II, 11 cases of grade III, 2 cases of grade I, 1 case of grade IV according to classification by ISKDC. 5) Patients with grade I were recovered with no residual defect, but patients with grade IV shows active renal disease(states C). Conclusion : Among the 디le patients with Henoch-$Sch{\ddot{o}}nlein$ purpura accompanying nephrotic syndrome, more aggressive treatment might be needed in patients showing crescents formation on renal biopsy. A prospective study will be needed to explore the progression of this disease.

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